Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Impacts of livestock on crop production

  • J. M. Powell (a1), R. A. Pearson (a2) and J. C. Hopkins (a3)

Abstract

In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the association of crops and livestock in mixed farming systems generally benefits both enterprises. This paper focuses on the main contributions of livestock to crop production: the use of manure and animal draught power to produce crops and the investment of income from livestock into technologies that benefit crop production. In low-input, grazing-based feeding operations, manure is a vital soil fertility amendment. In these systems, penning livestock overnight on fields, fallow between cropping periods, returns both manure and urine to the soil and results in much higher crop yields than if manure only is gathered from stalls and spread onto fields. However, most farmers have insufficient manure to sustain food production. Nutrient harvests often exceed nutrient inputs, requiring a much greater use of fertilizers to arrest soil nutrient depletion. The opposite may be true for mixed farming where livestock are given food in confinement. In these emerging systems, the continuous importation of food (and fertilizer) can result in nutrient surpluses with subsequent soil nutrient build-up and loss. The contribution of animal power to crop production is relatively new in Africa. Animal power affects the amount of land cultivated by farmers, crop selection, the yield per farm and per ha, and on the participation and work load of people (family members and outside labour) involved in crop production and its associated activities. In addition to the impacts of manure and draught power on crop production, income derived from livestock is often invested in inputs that enhance crop production. At the ‘micro’ level, livestock income influences crop production (1) directly by allowing households to invest in productive inputs such as fertilizer, hired labour, and carts and (2) indirectly by allowing poor households to improve their nutritional status and, therefore, the productivity of their most important resource, their own labour. At the ‘macro’ level, increased livestock exports have a large stimulating effect on the demand for locally produced goods and services, particularly basic food crops. Thus, increasing the productivity of the livestock sector, including an emphasis on the policy and institutional environment influencing marketing and trade, is an important element of a development strategy focused on stimulating economic growth and alleviating poverty.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Anderson, J. and Ingram, J. 1993. Tropical soil biology and fertility: a handbook of methods, second edition. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux International, Wallingford.
Anderson, M. and Dennis, R. 1994. Improving animal-based transport: options, approaches, issues and impact. In: Improving animal traction technology (ed. Starkey, P., Mwenya, E. and Stares, J.), proceedings of the first workshop of ATNESA, 18-23 January 1992, Lusaka, Zambia, pp. 378395. Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Co-operation, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Barrett, V., Lassiter, G., Wilcock, D., Baker, D. and Crawford, E. 1982. Animal traction in eastern Upper Volta: a technical, economic and institutional analysis. International development paper no. 4. Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI.
Bationo, A. and Mokwunye, A. U. 1991. Role of manures and crop residues in alleviating soil fertility constraints to crop production: with special reference to the Sahelian and Sudanian zones of West Africa. Fertilizer Research 29: 117125.
Bationo, A., Buerkert, A., Sedogo, M. P., Christianson, B. C. and Mokwunye, A. U. 1995. A critical review of crop residue use as soil amendment in the West African semi-arid tropics. In Livestock and sustainable nutrient cycles in mixed-farming systems of sub-Sahara Africa, volume II: technical papers (ed. Powell, J. M., Fernandez-Rivera, S., Williams, T. O. and Renard, C.), proceeding of an international conference held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 22–26 November, 1993, pp. 305322. International Livestock Centre for Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Braun, J. von, and Pandya-Lorch, R. 1991. Income sources of malnourished people in rural areas: microlevel information and policy implications. IFPRI working papers on commercialization of agriculture and nutrition, no. 5 International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC.
Breman, H. 1990. No sustainability without external inputs. In Beyond adjustment: sub-Saharan Africa. Africa seminar, Maastricht, The Netherlands, pp. 124134
Brouwer, J. and Powell, J. M. 1998. Micro-topography and leaching: possibilities for making more efficient use of agricultural nutrients. Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment In press.
Combs, S. M. 1991. Effects of herd management and manure handling on nutrient content: a lab summary. Fertilizer dealer, no. 5, Madison, WI.
Dawson, J. and Barwell, I. 1993. Roads are not enough: new perspectives on rural transport planning in developing countries. International Forum for Rural Transport and Development occasional paper IT Transport, Ardington, Oxford, UK.
Delgado, C, Hazell, P., Hopkins, J. and Kelly, V. 1994. Promoting intersectoral growth linkages in rural Africa through agricultural technology and policy reform. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 76: 11661171.
Delgado, C. L. and Mclntire, J. 1982. Constraints on oxen cultivation in the Sahel. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 64: 188196.
Delgado, C. and Siamwalla, A. 1997. Rural economy and farm income diversification in developing countries. IFPRI Markets and Structural Studies Division discussion paper no. 20. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC.
Diarra, L., Hiernaux, P. and Leeuw, P. N. de, . 1995. Preferential grazing of herded cattle in a semi-arid rangeland in central Mali at three spatial levels: vegetation type, biomass on offer and species composition. In Livestock and sustainable nutrient cycles in mixed-farming systems ofsub-Sahara Africa, volume II: technical papers (ed. Powell, J. M., Fernandez-Rivera, S., Williams, T. O. and Renard, C.), proceeding of an international conference held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 22–26 November 1993, pp. 99114. International Livestock Centre for Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Drechsel, H. and Loffler, C. 1994. Experience with the introduction of animal-power systems in Zambia. In: Improving animal traction technology (ed. Starkey, P., Mwenya, E. and Stares, J.), proceedings of the first workshop of ATNESA, 18-23 January 1992, Lusaka, Zambia, pp. 440444. Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Co-operation, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Fernández-Rivera, S., Williams, T. O., Hiernaux, P. and Powell, J. M. 1995. Livestock, feed, and manure availability for crop production in semi-arid West Africa. In Livestock and sustainable nutrient cycles in mixed-farming systems ofsub-Sahara Africa, volume II: technical papers (ed. Powell, J. M., Fernandez-Rivera, S., Williams, T. O. and Renard, C.), proceeding of an international conference held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 22-26 November 1993, pp. 149170. International Livestock Centre for Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Francis, P. A. 1988. Ox draught power and agricultural formation in Northern Zambia. Agricultural Systems 27: 1528.
Gryseels, G., Astatke, A., Anderson, F. M. and Assemenew, G. 1984. The use of single oxen for crop cultivation in Ethiopia. ILCA Bulletin 18: 2025
Harmsen, K. and Moraghan, J. T. 1988. A comparison of the isotope recovery and difference method for determining nitrogen fertilizer efficiency. Plant and Soil 105: 5567.
Hopkins, J., Kelly, V. and Delgado, C. 1994. Farm-non-farm linkages in the west African semi-arid tropics: new evidence from Niger and Senegal. Annual meeting of the American Agricultural Economics Association, 7–10 August, 1994, San Diego, CA.
Hopkins, J. and Reardon, T. 1993. Agricultural price policy reform intpacts andfod aid targetting in Niger. An International Food Policy Research Institute report to US AID/ Niger; grant no. 683-0263-G-IN-9022-00; NEPRP 683-0263. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC.
Ikombo, B. M. 1989. Effects of manure and fertilizers on maize in semi-arid areas of Kenya. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal 44: 266274.
Keulen, H. van, and Breman, H. 1990. Agricultural development in the West African Sahelian region: a cure against hunger? Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 32: 177197.
Keyserlingk, A. von, . 1997. Donkeys and their users, a study of the donkey and its use in the Central Highlands of Mexico from a gender perspective. M.Sc. thesis, Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh.
Klausner, S. D., Rao Kanneganti, V. and Bouldin, D. R. 1994. An approach for estimating a decay series for organic nitrogen in animal manure. Agronomy Journal 86: 897903.
Kruit, F. 1994. Animal traction technology in Niger and some implications for Zambia. In Improving animal traction technology (ed. Starkey, P., Mwenya, E. and Stares, J.), proceedings of the first workshop of ATNESA, 18-23 January 1992, Lusaka, Zambia, pp. 474480. Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Co-operation, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Kwiligwa, E. M., Shetto, R. M. and Rees, D. J. 1994. The use of animal-drawn cultivators for maize production in the southern highlands of Tanzania. In Improving animal traction technology (ed. Starkey, P., Mwenya, E. and Stares, J.), proceedings of the first workshop of ATNESA, 18-23 January 1992, pp. 182190. Lusaka, Zambia, Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Co-operation, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Landais, E. and Lhoste, P .G. H. 1993. Systèmes d'élevage et transfers de fertilité dans la zone des savannes africaines. II. Les systèmes de gestion de la fumure animale et leur insertion dans les relations entre l'élevage et 1'agriculture. Cahiers Agricultures 2: 925.
Lawrence, P. R., Dijkman, J. T. and Jansen, H. G. P. 1997. The introduction of animal traction into inland valley regions. Manual labour and animal traction in the cultivation of rice and maize: a comparison. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 129: 6570.
Leeuw, P. N. de, , Reynolds, L. and Rey, B. 1995. Nutrient transfers from livestock in West African agricultural systems. In Livestock and sustainable nutrient cycles in mixed-farming systems of sub-Sahara Africa, volume II: technical papers (ed. Powell, J. M., Fernández-Rivera, S., Williams, T. O. and Renard, C.), proceeding of an international conference held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 22-26 November 1993, pp. 371392. International Livestock Centre for Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Mclntire, J., Bourzat, D. and Pingali, P. 1992. Crop-livestock interactions in sub-Saharan Africa. World Bank, Washington, DC.
Mclntire, J. and Powell, J. M. 1995. Africian semi-arid agriculture cannot produce sustainable growth without external inputs. In Livestock and sustainable nutrient cycles in mixed-farming systems ofsub-Sahara Africa, volume II: technical papers (ed. Powell, J. M., Fernández-Rivera, S., Williams, T. O. and Renard, C.), proceeding of an international conference held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 22-26 November 1993, pp. 539554. International Livestock Centre for Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Mahdavi, G. 1992. Development of animal traction in cotton areas of French speaking African countries. In The role of draught animal technology in rural development (ed. den Hertog, G and van Huis, J. A.), proceedings of an international seminar, 2-12 April, 1990, Edinburgh, pp. 8387. Pudoc Scientific Publishers, Wageningen, The Netherlands
Moorman, F. R. and Kang, B. T. 1978. Microvariability of soils in the tropics and its implications, with special reference to West Africa. In Diversity of soils of the tropics (ed. Drosdoff, M.), pp. 2944. ASA special publication no. 34. Madison WI.
Motavalli, P. P., Kelling, K. A. and Converse, J. C. 1989. First-year nutrients available from injected dairy manure. Journal of Environmental Quality 18: 180185.
Mugwira, L. M. 1984. Relative effectiveness of fertiliser and communal area manures as plant nutrient sources. Zimbabwe Agricultural Journal 81: 8589.
Mugwira, L. M. and Mukurumbira, L. M. 1986. Nutrient supplying power of different groups of manure from communal areas and commercial feedlots. Zimbabwe Agricultural Journal 83: 2529.
Olukosi, J. O. and Ogungbile, A. O. 1994. Improving profitability of weeding technology in maize and sorghum production in Northern Nigeria, In Improving animal traction technology (ed. Starkey, P., Mwenya, E. and Stares, J.), proceedings of the first workshop of ATNESA, 18-23 January 1992, pp. 112115. Lusaka, Zambia, Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Co-operation, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Panin, A. 1986. A comparative socio-economic analysis of hoe and bullock farming systems in Northern Ghana. Ph.D. thesis, University of Goettingen, Germany.
Panin, A. 1987. The use of bullock traction for crop cultivation in Northern Ghana. An empirical economic analysis. ILCA Bulletin 29: 28.
Panin, A. 1994. Animal traction and sustainability of dryland farming systems in Africa. Agricultural Mechanisation in Asia, Africa and Latin America 25: 6773.
Panin, A. and Haen, H. de, . 1989. Economic evaluation of animal traction: a comparative analysis of hoe and bullock farming systems in Northern Ghana. Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture 28: 620.
Pearson, R. A. 1996. Feeding strategies for cattle and buffalo used for work. World Animal Review 87: 4555.
Pearson, R. A., Lawrence, P. R. and Jansen, H. G. P. 1990. Animal traction in Niger, prospects for the future. International Livestock Centre for Africa report, 1990, ILCA, ICRISAT Sahelian Centre, Sadore, Niger.
Pearson, R. A., Nengomasha, E. M. and Krecek, R. C. 1998. The challenges in using donkeys for work in Africa. In Meeting the challenges of animal traction. Proceedings of the ATNESA workshop, 4-8 December 1995, Ngong Hills, Kenya In press.
Penning de Vries, F. W. T. and Djiteye, M. A. 1982. La productivité des pâturages sahéliens, une étude des sols, des végétations et de l'exploitation de cette ressource naturelle. Agricultural Research Reports, 918. Pudoc, Wageningen.
Powell, J. M. 1986. Manure for cropping: a case study from Central Nigeria. Experimental Agriculture 22: 1524.
Powell, J. M., Fernández-Rivera, S., Hiernaux, P. and Turner, M. D. 1996. Nutrient cycling in integrated rangeland/cropland systems of the Sahel. Agricultural Systems 52: 143170.
Powell, J. M., Fernández-Rivera, S. and Hofs, S. 1994. Sheep diet effects on nutrient cycling in semi-arid mixed farming systems of West Africa. Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment 48: 263271.
Powell, J. M., Ikpe, F. N., Somda, Z. C. and Fernández-Rivera, S. 1998. Urine effects on soil chemical properties and the impact of urine and dung on pearl millet yield. Experimental Agriculture In press.
Powell, J. M. and Mohamed-Saleem, M. A. 1987. Nitrogen and phosphorus transfers in a crop-livestock system in the savanna zone of West Africa. Agricultural Systems 25: 261277.
Powell, J. M. and Williams, T. O. 1993. Livestock, nutrient cycling and sustainable agriculture in the west African Sahel. Gatekeeper series no. 37, Sustainable Agriculture Programme, International Institute for Environment and Development, London.
Reardon, T., Fall, A. A., Kelly, V., Delgado, C, Matlon, P., Hopkins, J. and Badiane, O. 1994. Agricultural-led income diversification in the West African semi-arid tropics: nature, distribution, and importance of production linkage activities. In African economic issues (ed. Atsain, A., Wangwe, S., and Drabek, A.), African Economic Research Consortium, Nairobi, Kenya
Reddy, S. K. 1988. Use of animal power in West African farming systems: farm level problems and applications of research perspectives from Mali. In Animal power in farming systems, (ed. Starkey, P. and Ndiame, F.), proceedings of the second west African animal traction networkshop, 17-26 September 1986, Freetown Sierra Leone, pp. 182190. Vieweg, German Appropriate Technology Exchange, GTZ, Eschborn, Germany.
Ridder, N. de, and Keulen, H. van, . 1990. Some aspects of the role of organic matter in sustainable intensified arable farming systems in the west African semi-arid tropics. Fertilizer Research 26: 299310.
Scheinman, D. 1986. Animal draught use in Tonga region: a descriptive and analytical study assessing the implications of past, present and future Kilimo and TIRDEP involvement. Tanga Integrated Rural Development Programme, Tanga, Tanzania.
Schleich, K. 1986. Le fumier peut-il remplacer la jachère? Possibilié d'utilisation du fumier: exemple de la savane d'Afrique occidentale. Revued’ Étlevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux 39: 97102.
Shumba, E. M. 1984. Animals and the cropping system in the communal areas of Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe Science News 18: 99102.
Smaling, E. M. A., Nandwa, S. M., Prestele, H., Roetter, R. and Muchena, F. N. 1992. Yield response of maize to fertilizers and manure under various argo-ecological conditions in Kenya. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 41: 241252.
Starkey, P. and Grimm, J. 1994. The introduction of animal traction into Tanga region, Tanzania: experiences, impact and lessons. Tanga Draught Animal Project report, GTZ.
Starkey, P. H. 1989. Harnesses and implements for animal traction. Vieweg for German Appropriate Technology Exchange, Eschborn, Germany.
Stocking, M. 1988. Socio-economics of soil conservation in developing countries. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, September-October 1988, pp. 381385.
Stoorvogel, J. J. and Smaling, E. M. A. 1990. Assessment of soil nutrient depletion in sub-Saharan Africa: 1983-2000. The Winand Staring Centre, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Sumberg, J. and Gilbert, E. 1992 Agricultural mechanisation in the Gambia: drought, donkeys and minimum tillage. African Livestock Research 1: 110.
Sylwander, L. and Simalenga, T. E. 1997. Gender issues in animal traction: a handbook, revised edition. ATNESA/ Farmesa.
Turner, M. D. 1995. The sustainability of rangeland to cropland nutrient transfer in semi-arid West Africa: ecological and social dimensions neglected in the debate. In Livestock and sustainable nutrient cycles in mixed-farming systems of sub-Sahara Africa, volume II: technical papers (ed. Powell, J. M., Fernández-Rivera, S., Williams, T. O. and Renard, C.), proceeding of an international conference held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 22-26 November 1993, pp. 435452. International Livestock Centre for Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Wanders, A. 1994. Supply and distribution of implements for animal traction: an overview with region-specific scenarios. In: Improving animal traction technology (eds Starkey, P., Mwenya, E. and Stares, J.). Proceedings of the 1st workshop of ATNESA, January 18-23 1992, Lusaka, Zambia, pp. 226243. Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Co-operation (CTA), Wageningen, The Netherlands.
White, W. C. and Collins, D. N. 1982. The fertilizer handbook. The Fertilizer Institute, Washington, DC.
Williams, T. O., Powell, J. M. and Fernandez-Rivera, S. 1995. Manure utilization, drought cycles and herd dynamics in the Sahel: implications for cropland productivity. In Livestock and sustainable nutrient cycles in mixed-farming systems of sub-Sahara Africa, volume II: technical papers (ed. Powell, J. M., Fernández-Rivera, S., Williams, T. O. and Renard, C.), proceeding of an international conference held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 22-26 November 1993, pp. 393410. International Livestock Centre for Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Winrock International. 1992. Assessment of animal agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa. Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development, Morrilton AK.
Wolf, J., Witt, C. T. de, and Keulen, H. van, . 1989. Modelling long-term crop response to fertilizer and soil nitrogen. I. Model description and application. Plant and Soil 120: 1122.
Zenebe, S. and Fekade, T. 1998. The role of pack donkeys in the major grain market (Yehil Berenda) of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In Improving donkey utilisation and management, Proceedings of an ATNESA workshop, 5-7 May 1997, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia In press.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed