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Recombined milks manufactured from milk powders made from milk produced by b-lactoglobulin (b-LG) AA phenotype cows were not suitable for processing into ultra-heat-treated (UHT) milk products as these milks rapidly fouled heat exchanger surfaces when compared with standard mixed b-LG variant milk. Recombined milks manufactured from powders from b-LG BB phenotype milk generally gave low fouling rates upon UHT treatment and in some cases gave almost negligible fouling of UHT heat exchanger surfaces. Fresh milk from b-LG AA phenotype cows fouled evaporator preheaters more rapidly than standard milk, whereas fresh milk produced from b-LG BB phenotype cows fouled evaporator preheaters less rapidly than standard milk. Recombined milks manufactured from powders made with milk from k-casein (k-CN) BB phenotype cows fouled heat exchanger surfaces more rapidly than recombined milks manufactured from powders from milk from k-CN AA phenotype cows.