Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Food intake regulation in late pregnancy and early lactation

  • K. L. Ingvartsen (a1), N. C. Friggens (a1) and P. Faverdin (a2)

Abstract

The dip in food intake, which starts in late pregnancy and continues into early lactation, has traditionally been interpreted as a depression in intake due to physical constraints. However, the rôle of physical constraints on intake has been overemphasized, particularly in early lactation. There is mounting evidence that the presence and mobilization of body reserves in early lactation play an important rôle in regulating intake at this time.

Conceptually, the dip in intake in early lactation observed when cows have access to non-limiting foods can be accounted for by assuming that the cow has a desired level of body reserves. When the cow is not compromised, the changes with time in body reserves and the dip in intake represent the normal case and provide the basis against which to assess true depressions in intake which may occur when the cow is compromised by limiting nutrition or environment.

The regulation of body reserves and intake in the periparturient cow is orchestrated through nervous and hormonal signals. Likely factors that are involved in intake regulation are reproductive hormones, neuropeptides, adrenergic signals, insulin and insulin resistance and leptin. Furthermore, oxidation of NEFA in the liver may result in feedback signals that reduce intake. The relative importance of these is discussed. A better understanding of the physiological signals involved in intake regulation and their interrelations with body weight regulation may provide important indicators of the degree of compromise that periparturient cows may experience.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Allen, M. S. 1996. Physical constraints on voluntary intake of forages by ruminants. Journal of Animal Science 74: 30633075.
Anil, M. H. and Forbes, J. M. 1980. Feeding in sheep during intraportal infusions of short-chain fatty acids and the effect of liver denervation. Journal of Physiology 298: 407414.
Anil, M. H. and Forbes, J. M. 1987. Neural control and sensory functions of the liver. Proceedings of the Nutition. Society 46: 125133.
Arase, K., York, D. A., Shimizu, H., Shargill, N. and Bray, G. 1988. Effect of corticotropin releasing factor on food intake and brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in rats. American Journal of Physiology 255: E255E259.
Baile, C. A. and Martin, H. F. 1971. Hormones and amino acids as possible factors in the control of hunger and satiety in sheep. Journal of Dairy Science 54:897905.
Balch, C. C. and Campling, R. C. 1962. Regulation of voluntary food intake in ruminants. Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews 32:669682.
Bareille, N. and Faverdin, P. 1996a. Lipid metabolism and intake behavior of dairy cows: effects of intravenous lipid and beta-adrenergic supplementation. Journal of Dairy Science 79:12091220.
Bareille, N. and Faverdin, P. 1996b. Modulation of the feeding response of lactating dairy cows to peripheral insulin administration with or without a glucose supply. Reproduction, Nutrition, Development 36: 8393.
Bareille, N., Faverdin, P. and Hay, M. 1997. Modification of feed intake response to a beta(2)-agonist by bovine somatotropin in lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 80:5266.
Bauman, D. E. and Currie, W. B. 1980. Partitioning of nutrients during pregnancy and lactation: a review of mechanisms involving homeostasis and homeorhesis. Journal of Dairy Science 63:15141525.
Bauman, D. E. and Vernon, R. G. 1993. Effect of exogenous bovine somatotropin on lactation. Annual Review of Nutrition 13:437461.
Beede, D. K., Sanchez, W. K. and Wang, C. 1992. Macrominerals. In Large dairy herd management (ed. Van Horn, H. H. and Wilcox, C. J.), pp. 272286. American Dairy Sciences Association, Champaign, IL, USA.
Bell, A. W. 1995. Regulation of organic nutrient metabolism during transition from late pregnancy to early lactation. Journal of Animal Science 73:28042819.
Bertalanffy, L. von. 1968. General system theory, revised edition. George Braziller, New York.
Bines, J. A. 1979. Voluntary food intake. In Feeding strategy for the high yielding dairy cow (ed. Broster, W. H. and Swan, H.), pp. 2348. Wageningen.
Bines, J. A. and Morant, S. V. 1983. The effect of body condition on metabolic changes associated with intake of food by the cow. British Journal of Nutrition 50:8189.
Bines, J. A., Suzuki, S. and Balch, C. C. 1969. The quantitative significance of long-term regulation of food intake in the cow. British Journal of Nutrition 23:695704.
Blaxter, K. L., Wainman, F. W. and Wilson, R. S. 1961. Regulation of food intake by sheep. Animal Production 3: 5161.
Boden, G., Chen, G., Mozzoli, M. and Rayan, I. 1996. Effect of fasting on serum leptin in normal human subjects. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 81: 34193423.
Broster, W. H. and Broster, V. A. 1998. Body score of dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Research 65:155173.
Butera, P. C. and Beikirch, R. J. 1989. Central implants of diluted estradiol: independent effects on ingestive and reproductive behaviours of ovariectomized rats. Brain Research 491: 266273.
Campfield, L. A., Smith, F. J., Guisez, Y., Devos, R. and Burn, P. 1995. Recombinant mouse OB protein: evidence for a peripheral signal linking adiposity and central neural networks. Science 269: 546549.
Carpenter, R. G. and Grossman, S. P. 1983. Plasma fat metabolites and hunger. Physiology and Behavior 30:5763.
Castonguay, T. W. 1991. Glucocorticoids as modulators in the control of feeding. Brain Research Bulletin 27:423428.
Chen, G., Koyama, K., Yuan, X., Lee, Y., Zhou, Y.-T., O’Doherty, R., Newgard, C. B. and Unger, R. H. 1996. Disappearance of body fat in normal rats induced by adenovirus-mediated leptin gene therapy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 93: 1479514799.
Chen, H., Charlat, O., Tartaglia, L. A., Woolf, E. A., Weng, X., Ellis, S. J., Lakey, N. D., Culpepper, J., Moore, K. J., Breitbart, R. E., Duyk, G. M., Tepper, R. I. and Morgensten, J. P. 1996. Evidence that the diabetis gene encodes the leptin receptor: identification of a mutation in the leptin receptor gene in db/db mice. Cell 84:491495.
Chien, E. K., Hara, M., Rouard, M., Yano, H., Philippe, M., Polonsky, K. S. and Bell, G. I. 1997. Increase in serum leptin and uterine leptin receptor messenger RNA levels during pregnancy in rats. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 2237: 476480.
Chilliard, Y., Bocquier, F., Delavaud, C., Guerre-Millo, M., Bonnet, M., Martin, P., Faulconnier, Y. and Ferlay, A. 1998. Leptin in ruminants: effects of species, breed, adiposity, photopheriod, beta-agonists and nutritional status. Nutrition conference for feed manufacturers, 1998, pp. 110.
Coffey, K. P., Paterson, J. A., Saul, C. S., Coffey, L. S., Turner, K. E. and Bowman, J. G. 1989. The influence of pregnancy and source of supplemental protein on intake, digestive kinetics and amino acid absorption by ewes. Journal of Animal Science 67:18051814.
Coleman, D. L. 1973. Effects of parabiosis of obese with diabetes and normal mice. Diabetologia 9:294298.
Coleman, D. L. and Hummel, K. P. 1969. Effects of parabiosis of normal with genetically diabetic mice. American Journal of Physiology 217: 12981304.
Conrad, H. R., Pratt, A. D. and Hibbs, J. W. 1964. Regulation of feed intake in dairy cows. 1. Change in importance of physical and physiological factors with increasing digestibility. Journal of Dairy Science 47:5462.
Considine, R. V. and Caro, J. F. 1997. Leptin and the regulation of body weight. International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology 29:12551272.
Considine, R. V., Sinha, M. K., Heiman, M. L., Kriauciunas, A., Stephens, T. W., Nyce, M. R., Ohannesian, J. P., Arko, C. C., McKee, L. J., Bauer, T. L. and Caro, J. F. 1996. Serum immunoreactive-leptin concentrations in normal-weight and obese humans. New England Journal of Medicine 334: 292295.
Costa, A., Poma, A., Martignoni, E., Nappi, G., Ur, E. and Grossman, A. 1997. Stimulation of corticotrophin-releasing hormone release by the obese (ob) gene product, leptin, from hypothalamic explants. NeuroReport 8:11311134.
Dado, R. G. and Allen, M. S. 1995. Intake limitations, feeding behavior and rumen function of cows challenged with rumen fill from dietary fiber or inate bulk. Journal of Dairy Science 78:118133.
Deetz, L. E. and Wangsness, P. J. 1980. Effect of intrajugular administration of insulin on feed intake, plasma glucose and plasma insulin of sheep. Journal of Nutrition 110: 19761982.
Drackley, J. K. 1998. Transitional period nutrition management explored. Feedstuffs 70: 1216
Dubuc, G. R., Phinney, S. D., Stern, J. S. and Havel, P. J. 1998. Changes of serum leptin and endocrine and metabolic parameters after 7 days of energy restriction in men and women. Metabolism 47:429434.
Dyer, C. J., Simmons, J. M., Matteri, R. L. and Keisler, D. H. 1997. Leptin receptor RNA is expressed in ewe anterior pituitary and adipose tissue and is differentially expressed in hypothalamic regions of well-fed and restricted ewes. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 14: 119128.
Ellis, L. A., Mastro, A. M. and Picciano, M. F. 1997. Do milk-borne cytokines and hormones influence neonatal immune cell function? Journal of Nutrition 127: 985S988S.
Emery, R. S., Liesman, J. S. and Herdt, T. Н. 1992. Metabolism of long chain fatty acids by ruminant liver. Journal of Nutrition 122: 832837.
Faverdin, P., Baumont, R. and Ingvartsen, K. L. 1995. Control and prediction of feed intake in ruminants. In Recent developments in the nutrition of herbivores (ed. Journet, M., Grenet, E., Farce, M.-H., Theriez, M. and Demarquilly, C.), pp. 95120. INRA Editions, Paris.
Foot, J. Z. 1972. A note on the effect of body condition on the voluntary food intake of dried grass wafers by Scottish Blackface ewes. Animal Production 14:131134.
Forbes, J. M. 1968. The physical relationship of the abdominal organs in the pregnant ewe. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 70:171177.
Forbes, J. M. 1969. The effect of pregnancy and fatness on the volume of rumen content in the ewe. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 72: 119121.
Forbes, J. M. 1974. Feeding in sheep modified by intraventricular estradiol and progesterone. Physiology and Behavior 12: 741747.
Forbes, J. M. 1986. The effects of sex hormones, pregnancy and lactation on digestion, metabolism and voluntary food intake. In Control of digestion and metabolism in ruminants (ed. Milligan, L. P., Grovum, W. L. and Dobson, A.), pp. 420435. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs.
Forbes, J. M. 1988. Metabolic aspects of the regulation of voluntary food intake and appetite. Nutrition Research Reviews 1:145168.
Forbes, J. M. 1995a. Voluntary food intake and diet selection in farm animals. CAB International, Wallingford.
Forbes, J. M. 1995b. Voluntary intake: a limiting factor to production in high yielding dairy cows? In Breeding and feeding the high genetic merit dairy cow (ed. Lawrence, T. L. J., Gordon, F. J. and Carson, A.), pp. 1319. British Society of Animal Science occasional publication no. 19.
Forbes, J. M. 1996. Integration of regulatory signals controlling forage intake in ruminants. Journal of Animal Science 74:30293035.
Friggens, N. C., Emmans, G. C., Kyriazakis, I., Oldham, J. D. and Lewis, M. 1998. Feed intake relative to stage of lactation for dairy cows consuming total mixed diets with a high or low ratio of concentrate to forage. Journal of Dairy Science 81:22282239.
Garnsworthy, P. C. 1988. The effect of energy reserves at calving on performance of dairy cows. In Nutrition and lactation in the dairy cow (ed. Garnsworthy, P. C.), pp. 157170. Butterworths, London.
Garnsworthy, P. C. and Topps, J. H. 1982. The effect of body condition of dairy cows at calving on their food intake and performance when given complete diets. Animal Production 35:113119.
Gettys, T. W., Harkness, P. J. and Watson, P. M. 1996. The beta3-adrenergic receptor inhibits insulin-stimulated leptin secretion from isolated rat adipocytes. Endocrinology 137: 454457.
Griinari, J. M., McGuire, M. A., Dwyer, D. A., Bauman, D. E. and Palmquist, D. L. 1997. Role of insulin in the regulation of milk fat synthesis in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 80:10761084.
Grossman, S. P. 1986. The role of glucose, insulin and glucagon in the regulation of food intake and body weight. Neuroscience and Biobehavior Reviews 10:295315.
Grovum, W. L. 1995. Mechanisms explaining the effect of short chain fatty acids on feed intake in ruminants - osmotic pressure, insulin and glucagon. In Ruminant physiology: digestion, metabolism, growth and reproduction (ed. Engelhardt, W. v., Leonhard-Marek, S., Breves, G. and Giesecke, D.), pp. 173198. Ferdinand Enke Verlag, Stuttgart.
Grummer, R. R. 1993. Etiology of lipid-related metabolic disorders in periparturient dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 76:38823896.
Grummer, R. R. 1998. Transition cow energy, protein nutrition examined. Feedstuffs, September, pp. 1112.
Grummer, R. R., Bertics, S. J., Lacount, D. W., Snow, J. A., Dentine, M. R. and Stauffacher, R. H. 1990. Estrogen induction of fatty liver in dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 73:15371543.
Gunter, S. A., Judkins, M. B., Krysi, L. J., Broesder, J. T., Barton, R. K., Rueder, B. R., Hallford, D. M. and Holcombe, D. W. 1990. Digesta kinetics, ruminal fermentation characteristics and serum metabolites of pregnant and lactating ewes fed chopped alfalfa hay. Journal of Animal Science 68:38213831.
Halaas, J. L., Gajiwala, K. S., Maffei, M., Cohen, S. L., Chait, B. T., Rabinowitz, D., Lallone, R. L., Burley, S. K. and Friedman, J. M. 1995. Weight-reducing effects of the plasma protein encoded by the obese gene. Science 269: 543546.
Hamann, A. and Matthaei, S. 1996. Regulation of energy balance by leptin. Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology of Diabetes 104: 293300.
Harris, R. B. S. and Martin, R. J. 1984. Specific depletion of body fat in parabiotic partners of tube-fed obese rats. American Journal of Physiology 247: R380R386.
Harris, R. B. S. and Martin, R. J. 1990. Site of action of putative lipostatic factor: food intake and peripheral pentose shunt activity. American Journal of Physiology 259: R45R52.
Head, H. H., Thatcher, W. W., Wilcox, C. J. and Bachmann, K. C. 1976. Effect of a synthetic corticoid on milk yield and composition and on blood metabolites and hormones in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 59: 880888.
Hervey, G. R. 1959. The effects of lesions in the hypothalamus in parabiotic rats. Journal of Physiology 145: 336352.
Hotta, M., Shibasaki, T., Yamauchi, N., Ohno, H., Benoit, R., Ling, N. and Demura, H. 1991. The effects of chronic central administration of corticotropin-pituitary-adrenocortical hormones. Life Sciences 48:1491.
Houpt, T. R. 1974. Stimulation of food intake in ruminants by 2-deoxy-D-glucose and insulin. American Journal of Physiology 227: 167.
Houseknecht, K. L., Dwyer, D. A., Lanna, D. P. D. and Bauman, D. E. 1995. Effect of somatotropin on adipose tissue metabolism: ontogeny of the enhanced response to adrenergic challenge in the lactating cow. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 12: 105113.
Houseknecht, K. L., Mantzoros, C. S., Kuliawat, R., Hadro, E., Flier, J. S. and Kahn, B. B. 1996. Evidence for leptin binding to proteins in serum of rodents and humans: modulation with obesity. Diabetes 45:16381643.
Illius, A. W. and Jessop, N. S. 1996. Metabolic constraints on voluntary intake in ruminants. Journal of Animal Science 74:30523062.
Ingvartsen, K. L. 1994. Models of voluntary food intake. Livestock Production Science 39: 1938.
Ingvartsen, K. L., Andersen, H. R. and Foldager, J. 1992. Effect of sex and pregnancy on feed intake capacity of growing cattle. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A, Animal Science 42: 4046.
Ingvartsen, K. L., Danfær, A. Andersen, P. H. and Foldager, J. 1995a. Prepartum feeding of dairy cattle: a review of the effect on periparturient metabolism, feed intake, production and health. In Proceedings of the 46th annual meeting of the European Association for Animal Production, pp. 118.
Ingvartsen, K. L., Foldager, J., Aaes, O. and Andersen, P. H. 1995b. [Effect of feeding level in the last 24 weeks prepartum on intake, production and metabolism in heifers and cows.] In Transition to lactation: feeding and physiology of the dairy cow during pregnancy and around parturition, pp. 3848. Danish Institute of Animal Science.
Janowitz, H. D. and Ivy, A. C. 1948. Role of blood sugar levels in spontaneous and insulin-induced hunger in man. Journal of Applied Physiology 1:643645.
Kaske, M. and Groth, A. 1997. Changes in factors affecting the rate of digesta passage during pregnancy and lactation in sheep fed on hay. Reproduction, Nutrition, Development 37: 573588.
Kennedy, G. C. 1953. The role of depot fat in the hypothalamic control of food intake in the rat. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences 139: 578592.
Kennedy, G. C. 1967. Ontogeny of mechanisms controlling food and water intake. In Alimentary canal, volume 1. Control of food and water intake (ed. Code, C. F.), pp. 337352. American Society, Washington.
Kolaczynski, J. W., Nyce, M. R., Considine, R. V., Boden, G., Nolan, J. J., Henry, R., Mudaliar, S. R., Olefskiy, J. and Caro, J. F. 1996a. Acute and chronic effects of insulin on leptin production in humans. Diabetes 45: 701.
Kolaczynski, J. W., Ohannesian, J. P., Considine, R. V., Marco, C. C. and Caro, J. F. 1996b. Response of leptin to short-term and prolonged overfeeding in humans. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 81:41624165.
Krahn, D. D., Gosnell, B. A., Levine, A. S. and Morley, J. E. 1984. Localization of the effects of corticotropin releasing factor on feeding. Proceedings of the Socety for Neurescience 10:302 (abstr.).
Kronfeld, D. 1976. The potential importance of the proportions of glucogenic, lipogenic and aminogenic nutrients in regard to the health and productivity of dairy cows. Advances in Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 7: 526.
Lagerlof, N. 1929. Investigations of the topography of the abdominal organs in cattle and some clinical observations and remarks in connection with the subject. Skandinavisk Veterinærtidsskrift 19:253265.
Langhans, W., Egli, G. and Scharrer, E. 1985a. Regulation of food intake by hepatic oxidative metabolism. Brain Research Bulletin 15:425428.
Langhans, W., Egli, G. and Scharrer, E. 1985b. Selective hepatic vagotomy eliminates the hypophagic effect of different metabolites. Journal of the Autonomie Nervous System 13:255262.
Langhans, W., Pantel, K. and Scharrer, E. 1985c. Ketone kinetics and D-(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate induced inhibition of feeding in rats. Physiology and Behavior 34:579582.
Langhans, W. and Scharrer, E. 1987. Evidence for a vagally mediated satiety signal derived from hepatic fatty acid oxidation. Journal of the Autonomie Nervous System 18:1318.
Lehman, F. 1941. Die Lehre von Ballast. Zeitschrift für Tierernahrung und Futtermittelkunde 5:155173.
Leitch, J. 1987. Don’t skate on thin ice. Dairy Farmer, November, pp. 5556.
Leng, R. A. 1989. Some factors influencing the efficiency of feed utilization by ruminants with special reference to the tropics. In Recent advances in animal nutrition in Australia (ed. Farell, D. J.), pp. 7585. University of New England, Annidale, Australia.
Levine, A. S., Rogers, B., Kneip, J., Grace, M. and Morley, J. E. 1983. Effect of centrally administered corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) on multiple feeding paradigms. Neuropharmacology 22: 337339.
McCann, J. P., Bergman, E. N. and Beermann, D. H. 1992. Dynamic and static phases of severe dietary obesity in sheep: food intakes, endocrinology and carcass and organ chemical composition. Journal of Nutrition 122: 496505.
McGowan, M. K., Andrews, K. M. and Grossman, S. P. 1992. Chronic intrahypothalamic infusions of insulin or insulin antibodies alter body weight and food intake in the rat. Physiology and Behavior 51: 753766.
McGuire, M. A., Dwyer, D. A., Harrel, R. J. and Bauman, D. E. 1995a. Insulin regulates circulating insulin-like growth factor and some of their binding proteins in lactating cows. American Journal of Physiology 269: E723E730.
McGuire, M. A., Griinari, J. M., Dwyer, D. A. and Bauman, D. E. 1995b. Role of insulin in the regulation of mammary synthesis of fat and protein. Journal of Dairy Science 78:816824.
McNamara, J. 1995. Role and regulation of metabolism in adipose tissue during lactation. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 6:120129.
Maffei, M., Fei, H., Lee, G. H., Dani, C., Leroy, P., Zhang, Y., Proenca, R., Negrel, R., Ailhaud, G. and Friedman, J. M. 1995a. Increased expression in adipocytes of ob RNA in mice lesions of the hypothalamus and with mutations at the db locus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 92: 69576960.
Maffei, M., Halaas, J., Ravussin, E., Pratley, R. E., Lee, G. H., Zhang, Y., Fei, H., Kim, S., Lallone, R., Ranganathan, S., Kern, P. A. and Friedman, J. M. 1995b. Leptin levels in human and rodent: measurement of plasma leptin and ob RNA in obese and weight-reduced subjects. Nature Medicine 1:11551161.
Mantzoros, C. S., Qu, D., Frederich, R. C., Susulic, V. S., Lowell, B. B., Maratos-Flier, E. and Flier, J. S. 1996. Activation of ß3 adrenergic receptors suppresses leptin expression and mediates a leptin-independent inhibition of food intake in mice. Diabetes 45:909914.
Masuzaki, H., Ogawa, Y., Isse, N., Satoh, N., Okazaki, T., Shigemoto, M., Mori, K., Tamura, N., Hosoda, K., Yoshimasa, Y., Jingami, H., Kawada, T. and Nakao, K. 1995. Adipocyte-specific expression and regional differences in the adipose tissue. Diabetes 44:855858.
Mäkelä, A. 1956. Studies on the question of bulk in the nutrition of farm animals with animals with special reference to cattle. Acta Agralia Fennica 85: 130
Mertens, D. R. 1994. Regulation of forage intake. In Forage quality, evaluation and utilization (ed. Fahey, G. C.), pp. 450493. American Society of Agronomists, Madison.
Miner, J. L. 1992. Recent advances in the central control of intake in ruminants. Journal of Animal Science 70:12831289.
Mistry, A. M., Swick, A. G. and Romsos, D. R. 1997. Leptin rapidly lowers food intake and elevates metabolic rates in lean and ob/ob mice. Journal of Nutrition 127: 20652072.
Mook, D. G., Kenny, N. J., Roberts, S., Nussbaum, A. I. and Rodier, W. I. 1972. Ovarian-adrenal interaction in regulation of body weight by female rats. Journal of Comparative Physiology and Psychology 81:198211.
Muir, L. A., Hibbs, J. W., Conrad, H. R. and Smith, K. L. 1972. Effect of estrogen and progesterone on feed intake and hydroxyproline excretion following induced hypocalcemia in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 31: 145148.
Nielsen, B. L. 1998. Perceived welfare issues in dairy cows, with special emphasis on metabolic stress. In Metabolic stress in dairy cows (ed. Oldham, J. D., Simm, G., Groen, A. F., Nielsen, B. L., Pryce, J. E. and Lawrence, T. L. J.), pp. 17. British Society of Animal Science occasional publication no. 24.
Nishizawa, Y. and Bray, G. A. 1980. Evidence for a circulating ergostatic factor: studies on parabiotic rats. American Journal of Physiology 239: R344R351.
Oldham, J. D. and Emmans, G. C. 1989. Prediction of responses to required nutrients in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 72:32123229.
Parameswaran, S. V., Steffens, A. B., Hervey, G. R. and De Ruiter, L. 1977. The involvement of a humoral factor in the regulation of body weight in parabiotic rats. American Journal of Physiology 232: R150R157.
Pedron, O, Cheli, F., Senatore, E., Baroli, D. and Rizzi, R. 1993. Effect of body condition score at calving on performance, some blood parameters and milk fat composition in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 76: 25282535.
Pelleymounter, M. A., Cullen, M. J., Baker, M. B., Hecht, R., Winters, D., Boone, T. and Collins, F. 1995. Effects of the obese gene product on body weight regulation in oblob mice. Science 269:540543.
Peterson, A. D. and Baumgardt, B. R. 1976. Influence of level of energy demand on the ability of rats to compensate for diet dilution. Journal of Nutrition 101: 10691074.
Plata-Salaman, C. R. and Oomura, Y. 1986. Effect of intra-third ventricular administration of insulin on food intake after food deprivation. Physiology and Behavior 37: 735739.
Pond, C. M. 1984. Physiological and ecological importance of energy storage in the evolution of lactation: evidence for a common pattern of anatomical organization of adipose tissue in mammals. In Physiological strategies in lactation (ed. Peaker, M., Vernon, R. G. and Knight, C. H.), pp. 129. Zoological Society of London, London, UK.
Ponsky, K. S., Given, B. D., Hirsch, L., Shapiro, E. T., Tillil, H., Beebe, C., Galloway, J. A., Frank, B. H., Karrison, T. and Cauter, E. van. 1988. Quantitative study of insulin secretion and clearance in normal and obese subjects. Journal of Clinical Investigation 81: 435441.
Richard, D. 1998. Involvement of corticotropin-releasing factor in the control of food intake and energy expenditure. Annals of the New York Academy of Science 697: 155172.
Roseler, D. K., Fox, D. G., Chase, L. E. P., Pell, A. N. and Stone, W. C. 1997. Development and evaluation of equations for prediction of feed intake for lactating Holstein dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 80: 878893.
Rowland, N. E., Morien, A. and Li, B.-H. 1996. The physiology and brain mechanisms of feeding. Nutrition 12: 626639.
Ruckebusch, Y. and Malbert, C. H. 1986. Stimulation and inhibition of food intake in sheep by centrally-administered hypothalamic releasing factors. Life Sciences 38: 929934.
Ruegg, P. L. and Milton, R. L. 1995. Body condition scores of Holstein cows on Prince Edward Island, Canada: relationships with yield, reproductive performance and disease. Journal of Dairy Science 78: 552564.
Sahu, A. 1998. Evidence suggesting that galanin (GAL), melanin-concentrating hormone (MHC), neurotensin (NT), proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) are targets of leptin signaling in the hypothalamus. Endocrinology 139: 795798.
Satoh, N., Ogawa, Y., Katsuura, G., Tsuji, T., Masuzaki, H., Hiraoka, J., Okazaki, T., Tamaki, M., Hayase, M., Yoshimasa, Y., Nishi, S., Hosoda, K. and Nakao, K. 1997. Pathophysiological significance of the obese gene product, leptin, in ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH)-lesioned rats: evidence for loss of its satiety effect in VMH-lesioned rats. Endocrinology 138: 947954.
Sauvant, D. 1992. La modélisation systémique nutrition. Reproduction, Nutrition, Development 32: 217230.
Sauvant, D. 1994. Modelling homeostatic and homeorhetic regulations in lactating animals. Livestock Production Science 39:105113.
Scharrer, E. and Langhans, W. 1986. Control of food intake by fatty acid oxidation. American Journal of Physiology 250: R1003R1006.
Scharrer, E. and Langhans, W. 1988. Matabolic and hormonal factors controlling food intake. International Journal of Vitamin and Nutrient Research 58: 249261.
Scharrer, E. and Langhans, W. 1990. Mechanisms for the effect of body fat on food intake. In The control of body fat content (ed. Forbes, J. M. and Hervey, G. R.), pp. 6386. Smith-Gordon, London.
Schwartz, M. W., Baskin, D. G., Bukowski, T. R., Kuijper, J. L., Foster, D., Lasser, G., Prunkard, D. E., Porte, D., Woods, S. C., Seeley, R. J. and Weigle, D. S. 1996a. Specificity of leptin action on elevated blood glucose levels and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y gene expression in ob/ ob mice. Diabetes 45:531535.
Schwartz, M. W., Seeley, R. J., Campfield, L. A., Burn, P. and Baskin, D. G. 1996b. Identification of targets of leptin action in rat hypothalamus. Journal of Clinical Investigation 98:11011106.
Schwartz, M. W., Sipol, A. J., Kahn, S. E. and et al. 1990. Kinetics and specificity of insulin uptake from plasma into cerebrospinal fluid. American Journal of Physiology 259: E378E383.
Sinha, M. K. and Caro, J. F. 1998. Clinical aspects of leptin. Vitamins and Hormones 54:130.
Sinha, M. K., Ohannesian, J. P., Heiman, M. L., Kriauciunas, A., Stephens, T. W., Magosin, S., Marco, C. and Caro, J. F. 1996a. Nocturnal rise of leptin in lean, obese and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus subjects. Journal of Clinical Investigation 97: 13441347.
Sinha, M. K., Opentanova, I., Ohannesian, J. P., Kolaczynski, J. W., Heiman, M., Hale, J., Becker, G. W., Bowsher, R. R., Stephens, T. W. and Caro, J. F. 1996b. Evidence of free and bound leptin in human circulation. Journal of Clinical Investigation 98: 12771282.
Sinha, M. K., Sturis, J., Ohannesian, J. P., Magosin, S., Stephens, T. W., Heiman, M. L., Polonsky, K. S. and Caro, J. F. 1996c. Ultradian oscillations of leptin secretion in humans. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 228: 733738.
Slonaker, J. R. 1924. The effect of copulation, pregnancy, pseudopregnancy and lactation on the voluntary activity and food consumption of the albino rat. American Journal of Physiology 71:362394.
Stephens, T. W., Basinski, M., Bristow, P. K., Bue-Valleskey, J., Burgett, S. G., Craft, L., Hale, J., Hoffmann, J., Hsiung, H. M., Kriauciunas, A., MacKellar, W., Rosteck, P. R. Jr, Schoner, B., Smith, D., Tinsley, F. C., Zhang, X.-Y. and Heiman, M. 1995. The role of neuropeptide Y in the antiobesity action of the obese gene product. Nature 377: 530532.
Tartaglia, L. A., Dembski, M., Weng, X., Deng, N., Culpepper, J., Devos, R., Richards, G. J., Campfield, L. A., Clark, F. T., Deeds, J., Muir, C, Sanker, S., Moriarty, A., Moore, K. J., Smutko, J. S., Mays, G. G., Woolf, E. A., Monroe, C. A. and Tepper, R. I. 1995. Identification and expression cloning of a leptin receptor, OB-R. Cell 83: 12631271.
Tarttelin, M. F. and Gorski, R. A. 1973. The effect of ovarian steroids on food and water intake and body weight in the female rat. Acta Endocrinologica 73:551568.
Thompson, J. M. and Parks, J. R. 1983. Food intake, growth and mature size in Australian Merino and Dorset Horn sheep. Animal Production 36: 471479.
Tucker, H. A. 1985. Endocrine and neural control of the mammary gland. In Lactation (ed. Larson, B.L.), pp. 3979. Iowa State University Press,
Vandermeerschen-Doizé, F., Bouchat, J.-C., Bouckoms-Vandermeir, M.-A. and Paquay, R. 1983. Effects of long-term ad libitum feeding on plasma lipid components and blood glucose, ß-hydroxybutyrate and insulin concentrations in lean adult sheep. Reproduction, Nutrition, Développement 23:5163.
Vandermeerschen-Doizé, F., Bouckoms-Vandermeir, M.-A. and Paquay, R. 1982. Effects of long-term ad libitum feeding on the voluntary food intake, body weight, body composition and adipose tissue morphology of lean adult sheep. Reproduction, Nutrition, Développement 22:10491060.
Vandermeerschen-Doizé, F. and Paquay, R. 1984. Effects of continuous long-term intravenous infusion of long-chain fatty acids on feeding behaviour and blood components of adult sheep Appetite 5:137146.
Vanderweele, D. A., Xavier, P. F., Novin, D. and Bush, M. J. 1980. Chronic insulin infusion suppresses food ingestion and body weight gain in rats. Brain Research Bulletin 5:511.
Vernon, R. G. and Pond, C. M. 1997. Adaptations of maternal adipose tissue to lactation. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 2:231241.
Wade, G. N. 1975. Some effects of ovarian hormones on food intake and body weight in female rats. Journal of Comparative Physiology and Psychology 88:183193.
Wade, G. N. and Gray, J. M. 1972. Gonadal effects on food intake and adiposity: a metabolic hypothesis. Physiology and Behavior 22:583593.
Webster, A. J. F. 1995. Cattle and other ruminants. In Animal welfare: a cool eye towards Eden, p. 167. Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford, UK.
Woods, S. C., Porte, D. Jr, Bobbioni, E., Ionescu, E., Sauter, J.-F., Rohner-Jeanrenaud, F. and Jeanrenaud, B. 1985. Insulin: its relationship to the central nervous system and to the control of food intake and body weight. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 42:10631071.
Zhang, Y., Proenca, R., Maffei, M., Barone, M., Leopold, L. and Friedman, J. M. 1994. Positional cloning of the mouse obese gene and its human homologue. Nature 372:425432.

Food intake regulation in late pregnancy and early lactation

  • K. L. Ingvartsen (a1), N. C. Friggens (a1) and P. Faverdin (a2)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed