Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Use of the Dietary Guideline Index to assess cardiometabolic risk in adolescents

  • Wendy L. Chan She Ping-Delfos (a1) (a2), Lawrence J. Beilin (a1), Wendy H. Oddy (a2), Sally Burrows (a1) and Trevor A. Mori (a1)...

Abstract

The long-term adherence to the dietary guidelines has not been evaluated against emergence of cardiometabolic risks in adolescents with increasing rates of obesity. The present study aimed to (1) determine the level of adherence to the guidelines using the Australian Dietary Guideline Index for Children and Adolescents (DGI-CA) in adolescents of age 14 and 17 years and to (2) examine the relationship between their assessed diet quality and concurrently measured cardiometabolic risk factors over time. Data were analysed from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. The DGI-CA was determined from a FFQ. Anthropometry and fasting biochemical measures were taken using standard procedures. Hierarchical linear mixed models examined associations between cardiometabolic risk factors and DGI-CA, adjusting for socio-economic status, physical activity, BMI, and sex, and examining for interactions. The mean DGI-CA scores were 47·1 (sd 10·2) at 14 years (n 1419) and 47·7 (sd 11·0) at 17 years (n 843), and were not different between sex. There was a significant inverse association between DGI-CA and insulin, homeostasis model assessment score and heart rate. The DGI-CA was positively associated with BMI (P= 0·029) but negatively with waist:hip ratio (P= 0·026). It was not associated with lipids or blood pressure, with the exception of a negative association with TAG (P= 0·011). The degree of adherence in the Raine Study adolescents was suboptimal but similar to the Australian Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. The present study shows that, at any particular time, better diet quality was associated with better insulin sensitivity and TAG levels and decreased abdominal fatness.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Use of the Dietary Guideline Index to assess cardiometabolic risk in adolescents
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Use of the Dietary Guideline Index to assess cardiometabolic risk in adolescents
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Use of the Dietary Guideline Index to assess cardiometabolic risk in adolescents
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: Dr W. L. Chan She Ping-Delfos, fax: +61 8 9224 0246, email wendy.chansheping-delfos@uwa.edu.au

References

Hide All
1 Botton, J, Heude, B, Maccario, J, et al. (2008) Postnatal weight and height growth velocities at different ages between birth and 5 y and body composition in adolescent boys and girls. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 17601768.
2 Boney, CM, Verma, A, Tucker, R, et al. (2005) Metabolic syndrome in childhood: association with birth weight, maternal obesity, and gestational diabetes mellitus. Pediatrics 115, 290296.
3 Gunnarsdottir, I, Birgisdottir, BE, Benediktsson, R, et al. (2004) Association between size at birth, truncal fat and obesity in adult life and its contribution to blood pressure and coronary heart disease; study in a high birth weight population. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 812818.
4 Blake, KV, Gurrin, LC, Evans, SF, et al. (2000) Adjustment for current weight and the relationship between birth weight and blood pressure in childhood. J Hypertens 18, 10071012.
5 Huang, R-C, de Klerk, NH, Smith, A, et al. (2011) Lifecourse childhood adiposity trajectories associated with adolescent insulin resistance. Diabetes Care 34, 10191025.
6 Beilin, L & Huang, R-C (2007) Perinatal and childhood precursors of adult cardiovascular disease. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 34, S2S4.
7 Smith, KJ, Gall, SL, McNaughton, SA, et al. (2010) Skipping breakfast: longitudinal associations with cardiometabolic risk factors in the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr 92, 13161325.
8 Duffey, KJ, Gordon-Larsen, P, Steffen, LM, et al. (2010) Drinking caloric beverages increases the risk of adverse cardiometabolic outcomes in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. Am J Clin Nutr 92, 954959.
9 Olza, J, Gil-Campos, M, Leis, R, et al. (2011) Presence of the metabolic syndrome in obese children at prepubertal age. Ann Nutr Metab 58, 343350.
10 Ambrosini, GL, Huang, RC, Mori, TA, et al. (2010) Dietary patterns and markers for the metabolic syndrome in Australian adolescents. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 20, 274283.
11 O'Sullivan, TA, Bremner, AP, Beilin, LJ, et al. (2012) Polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and blood pressure in adolescents. J Hum Hypertens 26, 178187.
12 Ambrosini, GL, Emmett, PM, Northstone, K, et al. (2012) Identification of a dietary pattern prospectively associated with increased adiposity during childhood and adolescence. Int J Obes 36, 12991305.
13 Odegaard, AO, Koh, W-P, Butler, LM, et al. (2011) Dietary patterns and incident type 2 diabetes in Chinese men and women: the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Diabetes Care 34, 880885.
14 Robinson, S, Marriott, L, Poole, J, et al. (2007) Dietary patterns in infancy: the importance of maternal and family influences on feeding practice. Br J Nutr 98, 10291037.
15 McNaughton, SA, Ball, K, Crawford, D, et al. (2008) An index of diet and eating patterns is a valid measure of diet quality in an Australian population. J Nutr 138, 8693.
16 Golley, RK, Hendrie, GA & McNaughton, SA (2011) Scores on the dietary guideline index for children and adolescents are associated with nutrient intake and socio-economic position but not adiposity. J Nutr 141, 13401347.
17 Newnham, JP, Evans, SF, Michael, CA, et al. (1993) Effects of frequent ultrasound during pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 342, 887891.
18 Huang, R-C, Mori, TA, Burrows, S, et al. (2012) Sex dimorphism in the relation between early adiposity and cardiometabolic risk in adolescents. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 97, E1014E1E22.
19 Baghurst, KI & Record, SJ (1984) A computerised dietary analysis system for use with diet diaries or food frequency questionnaires. Community Health Stud 8, 1118.
20 Lassale, C, Guilbert, C, Keogh, J, et al. (2009) Estimating food intakes in Australia: validation of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) food frequency questionnaire against weighed dietary intakes. J Hum Nutr Diet 22, 559566.
21 Ambrosini, GL, de Klerk, NH, O'Sullivan, TA, et al. (2009) The reliability of a food frequency questionnaire for use among adolescents. Eur J Clin Nutr 63, 12511259.
22 National Health and Medical Research Council (2003) Dietary Guidelines for Children and Adolescents in Australia [Department of Health and Ageing, editor]. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.
23 Huang, R-C, Mori, TA, Burke, V, et al. (2009) Synergy between adiposity, insulin resistance, metabolic risk factors, and inflammation in adolescents. Diabetes Care 32, 695701.
24 Pink, B (2008) Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA) – Technical Paper 2006 [Australian Bureau of Statistics, editor]. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.
25 Ambrosini, GL, Oddy, WH, Robinson, M, et al. (2009) Adolescent dietary patterns are associated with lifestyle and family psycho-social factors. Public Health Nutr 12, 18071815.
26 Rothman, KJ (1990) No adjustments are needed for multiple comparisons. Epidemiology 1, 4346.
27 Mariscal-Arcas, M, Rivas, A, Velasco, J, et al. (2009) Evaluation of the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (KIDMED) in children and adolescents in Southern Spain. Public Health Nutr 12, 14081412.
28 Mikkila, V, Rasanen, L, Raitakari, OT, et al. (2004) Longitudinal changes in diet from childhood into adulthood with respect to risk of cardiovascular diseases: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 10381045.
29 Serra-Majem, L, Ribas, L, Ngo, J, et al. (2004) Food, youth and the Mediterranean diet in Spain. Development of KIDMED, Mediterranean Diet Quality Index in children and adolescents. Public Health Nutr 7, 931935.
30 Larson, NI, Neumark-Sztainer, D, Hannan, PJ, et al. (2007) Family meals during adolescence are associated with higher diet quality and healthful meal patterns during young adulthood. J Am Diet Assoc 107, 15021510.
31 Schmidt, M, Affenito, SG, Striegel-Moore, R, et al. (2005) Fast-food intake and diet quality in black and white girls: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 159, 626631.
32 Hammons, AJ & Fiese, BH (2011) Is frequency of shared family meals related to the nutritional health of children and adolescents? Pediatrics 127, e1565e1e74.
33 Arabshahi, S, van der Pols, JC, Williams, GM, et al. (2012) Diet quality and change in anthropometric measures: 15-year longitudinal study in Australian adults. Br J Nutr 107, 13761385.
34 González, AS, Guerrero, DB, Soto, MB, et al. (2006) Metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and the inflammation markers C-reactive protein and ferritin. Eur J Clin Nutr 60, 802809.
35 Nicklas, TA, von Duvillard, SP & Berenson, GS (2002) Tracking of serum lipids and lipoproteins from childhood to dyslipidemia in adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Int J Sports Med 23, Suppl. S1, S39S43.
36 Weiss, R, Dziura, J, Burgert, TS, et al. (2004) Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. N Engl J Med 350, 23622374.
37 Heyman, E, Berthon, P, Youssef, H, et al. (2012) Metabolic dysfunction in late-puberty adolescent girls with type 1 diabetes: relationship to physical activity and dietary intakes. Diabetes Metab 38, 337342.
38 Meyerkort, CE, Oddy, WH, O'Sullivan, TA, et al. (2012) Early diet quality in a longitudinal study of Australian children: associations with nutrition and body mass index later in childhood and adolescence. J Dev Orig Health Dis 3, 2131.
39 Taveras, EM, Berkey, CS, Rifas-Shiman, SL, et al. (2005) Association of consumption of fried food away from home with body mass index and diet quality in older children and adolescents. Pediatrics 116, e518e524.
40 Azadbakht, L, Haghighatdoost, F, Feizi, A, et al. (2013) Breakfast eating pattern and its association with dietary quality indices and anthropometric measurements in young women in Isfahan. Nutrition 29, 420425.
41 Sesé, MA, Jiménez-Pavón, D, Gilbert, CC, et al. (2012) Eating behaviour, insulin resistance and cluster of metabolic risk factors in European adolescents. The HELENA Study. Appetite 59, 140147.
42 Pereira, MA, Jacobs, DR, van Horn, L, et al. (2002) Dairy consumption, obesity, and the insulin resistance syndrome in young adults. The CARDIA study. JAMA 287, 20812089.
43 Pereira, MA, Kartashov, AI, Ebbeling, CB, et al. (2005) Fast-food habits, weight gain, and insulin resistance (the CARDIA study): 15-year prospective analysis. Lancet 365, 3642.
44 Moore, LL, Bradlee, ML, Singer, MR, et al. (2012) Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating pattern and risk of elevated blood pressure in adolescent girls. Br J Nutr 108, 16781685.
45 Le-Ha, C, Beilin, LJ, Burrows, S, et al. (2013) Gender difference in the relationship between passive smoking exposure and HDL-cholesterol levels in late adolescence. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 98, 21262135.

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Chan She Ping-Delfos supplementary material
Table S1

 Word (17 KB)
17 KB

Use of the Dietary Guideline Index to assess cardiometabolic risk in adolescents

  • Wendy L. Chan She Ping-Delfos (a1) (a2), Lawrence J. Beilin (a1), Wendy H. Oddy (a2), Sally Burrows (a1) and Trevor A. Mori (a1)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed