1. Black, RE, Victora, CG, Walker, SP, et al. (2013) Maternal and child undernutrition and overweight in low-income and middle-income countries. Lancet 382, 427–451.
2. Bhutta, ZA, Das, JK, Rizvi, A, et al. (2013) Evidence-based interventions for improvement of maternal and child nutrition: what can be done and at what cost? Lancet 382, 452–477.
3. Andersen, GS, Girma, T, Wells, JCK, et al. (2011) Fat and fat-free mass at birth: air displacement plethysmography measurements on 350 Ethiopian newborns. Pediatr Res 70, 501–506.
4. Andersen, GS, Girma, T, Wells, JCK, et al. (2013) Body composition from birth to 6 mo of age in Ethiopian infants: reference data obtained by air-displacement plethysmography. Am J Clin Nutr 98, 885–894.
5. Admassu, B, Wells, JCK, Girma, T, et al. (2017) Body composition at birth and height at 2 years: a prospective cohort study among children in Jimma, Ethiopia. Pediatr Res 82, 209–214.
6. Abera, M, Tesfaye, M, Girma, T, et al. (2017) Relation between body composition at birth and child development at 2 years of age: a prospective cohort study among Ethiopian children. Eur J Clin Nutr 71, 1411–1417.
7. Wells, JCK, Chomtho, S & Fewtrell, MS (2007) Programming of body composition by early growth and nutrition. Proc Nutr Soc 66, 423–434.
8. Kuzawa, CW, Hallal, PC, Adair, L, et al. (2012) Birth weight, postnatal weight gain, and adult body composition in five low and middle income countries. Am J Hum Biol Off J Hum Biol Counc 24, 5–13.
9. Briend, A, Garenne, M, Maire, B, et al. (1989) Nutritional status, age and survival: the muscle mass hypothesis. Eur J Clin Nutr 43, 715–726.
11. Wells, JCK, Hawton, K, Darch, T, et al. (2009) Body composition by 2H dilution in Gambian infants: comparison with UK infants and evaluation of simple prediction methods. Br J Nutr 102, 1776–1782.
12. Bartz, S, Mody, A, Hornik, C, et al. (2014) Severe acute malnutrition in childhood: hormonal and metabolic status at presentation, response to treatment, and predictors of mortality. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 99, 2128–2137.
13. Gale, C, Logan, KM, Santhakumaran, S, et al. (2012) Effect of breastfeeding compared with formula feeding on infant body composition: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 95, 656–669.
14. Eriksen, KG, Christensen, SH, Lind, MV, et al. (2018) Human milk composition and infant growth. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 21, 200–206.
15. Koletzko, B, Kirchberg, FF, Hellmuth, C, et al. (2018) Metabolic regulation of pre- and postnatal growth. Nestle Nutr Inst Workshop Ser 89, 79–91.
16. National Institute of Statistics, Directorate General for Health, ICF International (2015) Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey 2014. Phnom Penh and Rockville, MD: National Institute of Statistics, Directorate General for Health and ICF International.
17. Skau, JKH, Touch, B, Chhoun, C, et al. (2015) Effects of animal source food and micronutrient fortification in complementary food products on body composition, iron status, and linear growth: a randomized trial in Cambodia. Am J Clin Nutr 101, 742–751.
19. Fomon, SJ, Haschke, F, Ziegler, EE, et al. (1982) Body composition of reference children from birth to age 10 years. Am J Clin Nutr 35, Suppl. 5, 1169–1175.
20. World Health Organization (2008) Training Course on Child Growth Assessment. Geneva: WHO.
21. World Health Organization (2006) Child Growth Standards Length/Height-for-age, Weight-for-age, Weight-for-length, Weight-for-height and Body Mass Index-for-age Methods and Development. Geneva: WHO.
23. Ritz, C, Laursen, RP & Damsgaard, CT (2017) Simultaneous inference for multilevel linear mixed models—with an application to a large‐scale school meal study. J R Stat Soc C 66, 295–311.
24. Victora, CG, de Onis, M, Hallal, PC, et al. (2010) Worldwide timing of growth faltering: revisiting implications for interventions. Pediatrics 125, 473–480.
25. Crane, RJ, Jones, KD & Berkley, JA (2015) Environmental enteric dysfunction: an overview. Food Nutr Bull 36, Suppl. 1, 76S–87S.
26. Butte, NF, Hopkinson, JM, Wong, WW, et al. (2000) Body composition during the first 2 years of life: an updated reference. Pediatr Res 47, 578–585.
27. Bandara, T, Hettiarachchi, M, Liyanage, C, et al. (2015) Body composition among Sri Lankan infants by 18O dilution method and the validity of anthropometric equations to predict body fat against 18O dilution. BMC Pediatr 15, 52.
28. Park, H, Park, K, Kim, MH, et al. (2011) Gender differences in relationship between fat-free mass index and fat mass index among Korean children using body composition chart. Yonsei Med J
29. Lelijveld, N, Seal, A, Wells, JC, et al. (2016) Chronic disease outcomes after severe acute malnutrition in Malawian children (ChroSAM): a cohort study. Lancet Glob Health 4, 654–662.
30. Bahwere, P, Balaluka, B, Wells, JCK, et al. (2016) Cereals and pulse-based ready-to-use therapeutic food as an alternative to the standard milk- and peanut paste-based formulation for treating severe acute malnutrition: a noninferiority, individually randomized controlled efficacy clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr 103, 1145–1161.
31. Golden, BE & Golden, MH (1992) Effect of zinc on lean tissue synthesis during recovery from malnutrition. Eur J Clin Nutr 46, 697–706.
32. Owino, VO, Kasonka, LM, Sinkala, MM, et al. (2007) Fortified complementary foods with or without alpha-amylase treatment increase hemoglobin but do not reduce breast milk intake of 9-mo-old Zambian infants. Am J Clin Nutr 86, 1094–1103.
33. Wells, JCK, Nesse, RM, Sear, R, et al. (2017) Evolutionary public health: introducing the concept. Lancet 390, 500–509.
34. Fabiansen, C, Yaméogo, CW, Iuel-Brockdorf, A-S, et al. (2017) Effectiveness of food supplements in increasing fat-free tissue accretion in children with moderate acute malnutrition: a randomised 2×2×3 factorial trial in Burkina Faso. PLoS Med 14, e1002387.
35. Sawaya, AL, Dallal, G, Solymos, G, et al. (1995) Obesity and malnutrition in a Shantytown population in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Obes Res 3, Suppl. 2, 107s–115s.
36. Martins, PA, Hoffman, DJ, Fernandes, MTB, et al. (2004) Stunted children gain less lean body mass and more fat mass than their non-stunted counterparts: a prospective study. Br J Nutr 92, 819–825.
37. Hoffman, DJ, Sawaya, AL, Verreschi, I, et al. (2000) Why are nutritionally stunted children at increased risk of obesity? Studies of metabolic rate and fat oxidation in shantytown children from São Paulo, Brazil. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 702–707.
38. Gigante, DP, Victora, CG, Horta, BL, et al. (2007) Undernutrition in early life and body composition of adolescent males from a birth cohort study. Br J Nutr 97, 949–954.
39. Cameron, N, Wright, MM, Griffiths, PL, et al. (2005) Stunting at 2 years in relation to body composition at 9 years in African urban children. Obes Res 13, 131–136.
40. Hanson, SK, Munthali, RJ, Lundeen, EA, et al. (2018) Stunting at 24 months is not related to incidence of overweight through young adulthood in an urban South African Birth Cohort. J Nutr 148, 967–973.
41. Prioreschi, A, Munthali, RJ, Kagura, J, et al. (2018) The associations between adult body composition and abdominal adiposity outcomes, and relative weight gain and linear growth from birth to age 22 in the Birth to Twenty Plus cohort. PLOS ONE 13, e0190483.
42. Wells, JCK, Jonsdottir, OH, Hibberd, PL, et al. (2012) Randomized controlled trial of 4 compared with 6 mo of exclusive breastfeeding in Iceland: differences in breast-milk intake by stable-isotope probe. Am J Clin Nutr 96, 73–79.
43. Victora, CG, Bahl, R, Barros, AJD, et al. (2016) Breastfeeding in the 21st century: epidemiology, mechanisms, and lifelong effect. Lancet Lond Engl 387, 475–490.
44. Horta, BL, Loret de Mola, C & Victora, CG (2015) Long-term consequences of breastfeeding on cholesterol, obesity, systolic blood pressure and type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Paediatr Oslo Nor 104, 30–37.
45. Fields, DA, George, B, Williams, M, et al. (2017) Associations between human breast milk hormones and adipocytokines and infant growth and body composition in the first 6 months of life. Pediatr Obes 12, Suppl. 1, 78–85.
46. Alderete, TL, Autran, C, Brekke, BE, et al. (2015) Associations between human milk oligosaccharides and infant body composition in the first 6 mo of life. Am J Clin Nutr 102, 1381–1388.
47. Brunner, S, Schmid, D, Zang, K, et al. (2015) Breast milk leptin and adiponectin in relation to infant body composition up to 2 years. Pediatr Obes 10, 67–73.
48. Wells, JCK & Fewtrell, MS (2006) Measuring body composition. Arch Dis Child 91, 612–617.
49. Jensen, SM, Mølgaard, C, Ejlerskov, KT, et al. (2015) Validity of anthropometric measurements to assess body composition, including muscle mass, in 3-year-old children from the SKOT cohort. Matern Child Nutr 11, 398–408.
50. Chomtho, S, Fewtrell, MS, Jaffe, A, et al. (2006) Evaluation of arm anthropometry for assessing pediatric body composition: evidence from healthy and sick children. Pediatr Res 59, 860–865.