1Lephart, ED, Porter, JP, Lund, TD, et al. (2004) Dietary isoflavones alter regulatory behaviors, metabolic hormones and neuroendocrine function in Long-Evans male rats. Nutr Metab (Lond) 1, 16.
2Cheim, LM, Oliveira, EA, Arantes, VC, et al. (2009) Effect of nutritional recovery with soybean flour diet on body composition, energy balance and serum leptin concentration in adult rats. Nutr Metab (Lond) 6, 34.
3Torre-Villalvazo, I, Tovar, AR, Ramos-Barragán, VE, et al. (2008) Soy protein ameliorates metabolic abnormalities in liver and adipose tissue of rats fed a high fat diet. J Nutr 138, 462–468.
4Takahashi, Y & Ide, T (2008) Effects of soy protein and isoflavone on hepatic fatty acid synthesis and oxidation and mRNA expression of uncoupling proteins and peroxisomeproliferator-activated receptor γ in adipose tissues of rats. J Nutr Biochem 19, 682–693.
5Cannon, B & Nedergaard, J (2004) Brown adipose tissue: function and physiological significance. Physiol Rev 84, 277–359.
6Rothwell, NJ, Stock, MJ & Tyzbir, RS (1982) Energy balance and mitochondrial function in liver and brown fat of rats fed ‘cafeteria’ diets of varying protein content. Nutrition 112, 1663–1672.
7Ribeiro, MO, Carvalho, SD, Schultz, JJ, et al. (2001) Thyroid hormone sympathetic interaction and adaptive thermogenesis are thyroid hormone receptor isoform-specific. J Clin Invest 108, 97–105.
8Himms, HJ (1989) Brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and obesity. Prog Lipid Res 28, 67–115.
9Shimazu, T & Takahashi, A (1980) Stimulation of hypothalamic nuclei has differential effects on lipid synthesis in brown and white adipose tissue. Nature 284, 62–63.
10Takahashi, A & Shimazu, T (1982) Hypothalamic regulation of lipid metabolism in the rat: effect of hypothalamic stimulation on lipogenesis. J Auton Nerv Syst 6, 225–235.
11Minokoshi, Y, Saito, M & Shimazu, T (1988) Sympathetic activation of lipid synthesis in brown adipose tissue in the rat. J Physiol 398, 361–370.
12McCormack, JG & Denton, RM (1977) Evidence that fatty acid synthesis in the interscapular brown adipose tissue of cold-adapted rats is increased in vivo by insulin by mechanisms involving parallel activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase. Biochem J 166, 627–630.
13McCormack, JG (1982) The regulation of fatty acid synthesis in brown adipose tissue by insulin. Prog Lipid Res 21, 195–223.
14Kawashita, NH, Moura, MA, Brito, MN, et al. (2002) Relative importance of sympathetic outflow and insulin in the reactivation of brown adipose tissue lipogenesis in rats adapted to a high-protein diet. Metabolism 51, 343–349.
15Pénicaud, L, Cousin, B, Leloup, C, et al. (2000) The autonomic nervous system, adipose tissue plasticity, and energy balance. Nutrition 16, 903–908.
16Lafontan, M, Berlan, M, Galitzky, J, et al. (1992) Alpha-2 adrenoceptors in lipolysis: alpha 2 antagonists and lipid-mobilizing strategies. Am J Clin Nutr 55, 219–227.
17Jaworski, K, Sarkadi-Nagy, E, Duncan, ER, et al. (2007) Regulation of triglyceride metabolism. IV. Hormonal regulation of lipolysis in adipose tissue. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 293, G1–G4.
18Comissão de Ensino do Colégio Brasileiro de Experimentação Animal (COBEA) (1996) 2nd ed.São Paulo, SP: Andrade A (Org.).
19Garofalo, MA, Kettelhut, IC, Roselino, JE, et al. (1996) Effect of acute cold exposure on norepinephrine turnover rates in rat white adipose tissue. J Auton Nerv Syst 60, 206–208.
20Trinder, P (1969) Determination of blood glucose using an oxidase-peroxidase system with a non-carcinogenic chromogen. J Clin Path 22, 158–161.
21Scott, AM, Atwater, I & Rojas, E (1981) A method for the simultaneous measurement of insulin release and B-cell membrane potential in single mouse islets of Langerhans. Diabetologia 21, 470–475.
22Bradford, MM (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 72, 248–254.
23Folch, J, Lees, M & Sloane Stanley, GH (1957) A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipides from animal tissues. J Biol Chem 226, 497–509.
24Windmueller, HG & Spaeth, AE (1966) Perfusion in vivo with tritium oxide to measure hepatic lipogenesis and lipid secretion. J Biol Chem 241, 2891–2899.
25Rodbell, M (1964) Metabolism of isolated fat cells. I. Effects of hormones on glucose metabolism and lipolysis. J Biol Chem 239, 375–380.
26Honnor, RC, Dhillon, GS & Londos, C (1985) cAMP-dependent protein kinase and lipolysis in rat adipocytes. I. Cell preparation, manipulation, and predictability in behavior. J Biol Chem 260, 15122–15129.
27Sokal, RR & Rohlf, FJ (1995) Assumptions of analysis of variance. In Biometry: The Principles and Practice of Statistics in Biological Research, pp. 392–450 [Soka, RR and Rohlf, FJ, editors]. New York, NY: WH Freeman and Company.
28Nicholls, DG & Locke, RM (1984) Thermogenic mechanisms in brown fat. Physiol Rev 64, 1–64.
29de Arruda Oliveira, E, Gomes Cheim, LM, Veloso, RV, et al. (2008) Nutritional recovery with a soybean flour diet improves the insulin response to a glucose load without modifying glucose homeostasis. Nutrition 24, 76–83.
30Valverde, AM & Benito, M (2005) The brown adipose cell: a unique model for understanding the molecular mechanism of insulin resistance. Med Chem 5, 269–278.
31Sundin, U & Nechad, M (1983) Trophic response of rat brown fat by glucose feeding: involvement of sympathetic nervous system. Am J Physiol 244, 142–149.
32Specter, SE, Hamilton, JS, Stern, JS, et al. (1995) Chronic protein restriction does not alter energetic efficiency or brown adipose tissue thermogenic capacity in genetically obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats. J Nutr 125, 2183–2193.
33Boll, M, Weber, LW & Stampfl, A (1996) Nutritional regulation of the activities of lipogenic enzymes of rat liver and brown adipose tissue. Z Naturforsch C 51, 859–869.
34Szkudelska, K, Nogowski, L & Szkudelski, T (2000) Genistein affects lipogenesis and lipolysis in isolated rat adipocytes. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 75, 265–271.
35Tovar, AR, Torre-Villalvazo, I, Ochoa, M, et al. (2005) Soy protein reduces hepatic lipotoxicity in hyperinsulinemic obese Zucker fa/fa rats. J Lipid Res 46, 1823–1832.
36Milanski, M, Souza, KL, Reis, SR, et al. (2009) Soybean diet modulates acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase expression in livers of rats recovering from early-life malnutrition. Nutrition 25, 774–781.
37Petry, CJ, Dorling, MW, Wang, CL, et al. (2000) Catecholamine levels and receptor expression in low protein rat offspring. Diabet Med 17, 848–853.
38Reeves, PG, Nielsen, FH & Fahey, GC Jr (1993) AIN-93 purified diets for laboratory rodents: final report of the American Institute of Nutrition ad hoc writing committee on the reformulation of the AIN-76A rodent diet. J Nutr 123, 1939–1951.