Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Serum response to supplemental macular carotenoids in subjects with and without age-related macular degeneration

  • Katherine A. Meagher (a1), David I. Thurnham (a2), Stephen Beatty (a1) (a3), Alan N. Howard (a4) (a5), Eithne Connolly (a1), Wayne Cummins (a6) and John M. Nolan (a1) (a3)...

Abstract

Macular pigment (MP) is composed of lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z) and meso-zeaxanthin (MZ). The present study reports on serum response to three different MP supplements in normal subjects (n 27) and in subjects with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) (n 27). Subjects were randomly assigned to: Group 1 (20 mg L and 2 mg Z), Group 2 (10 mg L, 2 mg Z and 10 mg MZ) or Group 3 (3 mg L, 2 mg Z and 17 mg MZ). Serum carotenoids were quantified at baseline, and at 4 and 8 weeks using HPLC. Response data for normal and AMD subjects were comparable and therefore combined for analysis. We report response as the average of the 4- and 8-week concentrations (saturation plateau). Serum L increased significantly in Group 1 (0·036 μmol/l per mg (269 %); P< 0·001) and Group 2 (0·079 μmol/l per mg (340 %); P< 0·001), with no significant change in Group 3 (0·006 μmol/l per mg (7 %); P= 0·466). Serum Z increased significantly in Group 1 (0·037 μmol/l per mg (69 %); P= 0·001) and Group 2 (0·015 μmol/l per mg (75 %); P< 0·001), with no significant change in Group 3 ( − 0·0002 μmol/l per mg ( − 6 %); P= 0·384). Serum MZ increased significantly in Group 1 (0·0094 μmol/l (absolute value); P= 0·015), Group 2 (0·005 μmol/l per mg; P< 0·001) and Group 3 (0·004 μmol/l per mg; P< 0·001). The formulation containing all three macular carotenoids (Group 2 supplement) was the most efficacious in terms of achieving the highest combined concentration of the three MP constituent carotenoids in serum, thereby potentially optimising the bioavailability of these compounds for capture by the target tissue (retina).

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Serum response to supplemental macular carotenoids in subjects with and without age-related macular degeneration
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Serum response to supplemental macular carotenoids in subjects with and without age-related macular degeneration
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Serum response to supplemental macular carotenoids in subjects with and without age-related macular degeneration
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: K. A. Meagher, email kmeagher@wit.ie

References

Hide All
1Britton, G (1995) Structure and properties of carotenoids in relation to function. FASEB J 9, 15511558.
2Young, AJ & Frank, HA (1996) Energy transfer reactions involving carotenoids: quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence. J Photochem Photobiol B 36, 315.
3Harrison, EH (2012) Mechanisms involved in the intestinal absorption of dietary vitamin A and provitamin A carotenoids. Biochim Biophys Acta 1821, 7077.
4Bone, RA, Landrum, JT, Hime, GW, et al. (1993) Stereochemistry of the human macular carotenoids. Inves Ophthalmol Visual Sci 34, 20332040.
5Hirsch, J & Curcio, CA (1989) The spatial resolution capacity of human foveal retina. Vision Res 29, 10951101.
6Khachik, F, Spangler, CJ, Smith, JC, et al. (1997) Identification, quantification, and relative concentrations of carotenoids and their metabolites in human milk and serum. Anal Chem 69, 18731881.
7Bone, RA, Landrum, JT & Tarsis, SL (1985) Preliminary identification of the human macular pigment. Vision Res 25, 15311535.
8Beatty, S, Koh, HH, Henson, D, et al. (2000) The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration. Surv Ophthalmol 45, 115134.
9Snodderly, DM & Hammond, BR (1999) Nutritional and Environmental Influences on Vision. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
10Trevithick-Sutton, CC, Foote, CS, Collins, M, et al. (2006) The retinal carotenoids zeaxanthin and lutein scavenge superoxide and hydroxyl radicals: a chemiluminescence and ESR study. Mol Vis 12, 11271135.
11Pintea, A, Socaciu, C, Rugina, DO, et al. (2011) Xanthophylls protect against induced oxidation in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cells. J Food Compos Anal 26, 830836.
12Junghans, A, Sies, H & Stahl, W (2001) Macular pigments lutein and zeaxanthin as blue light filters studied in liposomes. Arch Biochem Biophys 391, 160164.
13Bone, RA, Landrum, JT, Friedes, LM, et al. (1997) Distribution of lutein and zeaxanthin stereoisomers in the human retina. Exp Eye Res 64, 211218.
14Li, B, Ahmed, F & Bernstein, PS (2010) Studies on the singlet oxygen scavenging mechanism of human macular pigment. Arch Biochem Biophys 504, 5660.
15Bressler, NM (2004) Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of blindness. JAMA 291, 19001901.
16Loane, E, Kelliher, C, Beatty, S, et al. (2008) The rationale and evidence base for a protective role of macular pigment in age-related maculopathy. Br J Ophthalmol 92, 11631168.
17Loughman, J, Davison, PA, Nolan, JM, et al. (2010) Macular pigment and its contribution to visual performance and experience. J Optomet 3, 7490.
18Nolan, JM, Loughman, J, Akkali, MC, et al. (2011) The impact of macular pigment augmentation on visual performance in normal subjects: COMPASS. Vision Res 51, 459469.
19Stringham, JM, Garcia, PV, Smith, PA, et al. (2011) Macular pigment and visual performance in glare: benefits for photostress recovery, disability glare, and visual discomfort. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52, 74067415.
20Perry, A, Rasmussen, H & Johnson, EJ (2009) Xanthophyll (lutein, zeaxanthin) content in fruits, vegetables and corn and egg products. J Food Compos Anal 22, 915.
21Maoka, T, Arai, A, Shimizu, M, et al. (1986) The first isolation of enantiomeric and meso-zeaxanthin in nature. Comp Biochem Physiol B 83, 121124.
22Johnson, EJ, Neuringer, M, Russell, RM, et al. (2005) Nutritional manipulation of primate retinas, III: effects of lutein or zeaxanthin supplementation on adipose tissue and retina of xanthophyll-free monkeys. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46, 692702.
23Connolly, EE, Beatty, S, Thurnham, DI, et al. (2010) Augmentation of macular pigment following supplementation with all three macular carotenoids: an exploratory study. Curr Eye Res 35, 335351.
24Bone, RA, Landrum, JT, Cao, Y, et al. (2007) Macular pigment response to a supplement containing meso-zeaxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin. Nutr Metab (Lond) 4, 12.
25Thurnham, DI, Tremel, A & Howard, AN (2008) A supplementation study in human subjects with a combination of meso-zeaxanthin, (3R,3′R)-zeaxanthin and (3R,3′R,6′R)-lutein. Br J Nutr 100, 13071314.
26Connolly, EE, Beatty, S, Loughman, J, et al. (2011) Supplementation with all three macular carotenoids: response, stability, and safety. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52, 92079217.
27Neelam, K, Muldrew, A, Hogg, R, et al. (2009) Grading of age-related maculopathy: slit-lamp biomicroscopy versus an accredited grading center. Retina 29, 192198.
28Loughman, J, Nolan, J, Stack, J, et al. (2011) Online AMD research study for optometrists: current practice in the Republic of Ireland and UK. Optomet Pract 12, 135144.
29Bone, RA, Landrum, JT, Guerra, LH, et al. (2003) Lutein and zeaxanthin dietary supplements raise macular pigment density and serum concentrations of these carotenoids in humans. J Nutr 133, 992998.
30Kirby, ML, Beatty, S, Loane, E, et al. (2010) A central dip in the macular pigment spatial profile is associated with age and smoking. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 51, 67226728.
31Bone, RA, Landrum, JT, Mayne, ST, et al. (2001) Macular pigment in donor eyes with and without AMD: a case–control study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 42, 235240.
32Nolan, JM, Stack, J, O'Donovan, , et al. (2007) Risk factors for age-related aculopathy are associated with a relative lack of macular pigment. Exp Eye Res 84, 6174.
33Wang, W, Connor, SL, Johnson, EJ, et al. (2007) Effect of dietary lutein and zeaxanthin on plasma carotenoids and their transport in lipoproteins in age-related macular degeneration. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 762769.
34Hammond, BR, Wooten, BR & Snodderly, DM (1999) A practical method for measuring macular pigment optical density in diverse populations. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 40, 24812489.
35Johnson, EJ, Hammond, BR, Yeum, KJ, et al. (2000) Relation among serum and tissue concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin and macular pigment density. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 15551562.
36Thurmann, PA, Schalch, W, Aebischer, JC, et al. (2005) Plasma kinetics of lutein, zeaxanthin, and 3-dehydro-lutein after multiple oral doses of a lutein supplement. Am J Clin Nutr 82, 8897.
37Hartmann, D, Thurmann, PA, Spitzer, V, et al. (2004) Plasma kinetics of zeaxanthin and 3′-dehydro-lutein after multiple oral doses of synthetic zeaxanthin. Am J Clin Nutr 79, 410417.
38Johnson, EJ, Chung, HY, Caldarella, SM, et al. (2008) The influence of supplemental lutein and docosahexaenoic acid on serum, lipoproteins, and macular pigmentation. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 15211529.
39Schalch, W, Cohn, W, Barker, FM, et al. (2007) Xanthophyll accumulation in the human retina during supplementation with lutein or zeaxanthin – the LUXEA (LUtein Xanthophyll Eye Accumulation) study. Arch Biochem Biophys 458, 128135.
40Schiedt, K, Glintz, E, Vecchi, M, et al. (1985) Absorption, retention and metabolic transformation of carotenoids in rainbow trout, salmon and chicken. Pure Appl Chem 57, 685692.
41Khachik, F, de Moura, FF, Zhao, DY, et al. (2002) Transformations of selected carotenoids in plasma, liver, and ocular tissues of humans and in nonprimate animal models. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 43, 33833392.
42Bone, RA & Landrum, JT (2010) Dose-dependent response of serum lutein and macular pigment optical density to supplementation with lutein esters. Arch Biochem Biophys 504, 5055.
43Koh, HH, Murray, IJ, Nolan, D, et al. (2004) Plasma and macular responses to lutein supplement in subjects with and without age-related maculopathy: a pilot study. Exp Eye Res 79, 2127.
44Berendschot, TTJM, Goldbohm, RA, Klöpping, WAA, et al. (2000) Influence of lutein supplementation on macular pigment, assessed with two objective tecniques. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 41, 33223326.
45Zhao, X, Aldini, G, Johnson, EJ, et al. (2006) Modification of lymphocyte DNA damage by carotenoid supplementation in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 163169.
46Hughes, DA, Wright, AJ, Finglas, PM, et al. (2000) Effects of lycopene and lutein supplementation on the expression of functionally associated surface molecules on blood monocytes from healthy male nonsmokers. J Infect Dis 182, Suppl. 1, S11S15.
47Huang, LL, Coleman, HR, Kim, J, et al. (2008) Oral supplementation of lutein/Zeaxanthin and omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in persons aged 60 years or older, with or without AMD. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 49, 38643869.
48Khachik, F, de Moura, FF, Chew, EY, et al. (2006) The effect of lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation on metabolities of these carotenoids in the serum of persons aged 60 or older. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 47, 52345242.
49Trieschmann, M, Beatty, S, Nolan, M, et al. (2007) Changes in macular pigment optical density and serum concentrations of its constitutent carotenoids following supplemental lutein and zeaxanthin: the LUNA study. Exp Eye Res 84, 718728.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed