Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism by dietary carbohydrate levels and lipid sources in gilthead sea bream juveniles

  • Carolina Castro (a1) (a2), Geneviève Corraze (a3), Alexandre Firmino-Diógenes (a1) (a2), Laurence Larroquet (a3), Stéphane Panserat (a3) and Aires Oliva-Teles (a1) (a2)...

Abstract

The long-term effects on growth performance, body composition, plasma metabolites, liver and intestine glucose and lipid metabolism were assessed in gilthead sea bream juveniles fed diets without carbohydrates (CH–) or carbohydrate-enriched (20 % gelatinised starch, CH+) combined with two lipid sources (fish oil; or vegetable oil (VO)). No differences in growth performance among treatments were observed. Carbohydrate intake was associated with increased hepatic transcripts of glucokinase but not of 6-phosphofructokinase. Expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase was down-regulated by carbohydrate intake, whereas, unexpectedly, glucose 6-phosphatase was up-regulated. Lipogenic enzyme activities (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, fatty acid synthase) and ∆6 fatty acyl desaturase (FADS2) transcripts were increased in liver of fish fed CH+ diets, supporting an enhanced potential for lipogenesis and long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis. Despite the lower hepatic cholesterol content in CH+ groups, no influence on the expression of genes related to cholesterol efflux (ATP-binding cassette G5) and biosynthesis (lanosterol 14 α-demethylase, cytochrome P450 51 cytochrome P450 51 (CYP51A1); 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase) was recorded at the hepatic level. At the intestinal level, however, induction of CYP51A1 transcripts by carbohydrate intake was recorded. Dietary VO led to decreased plasma phospholipid and cholesterol concentrations but not on the transcripts of proteins involved in phospholipid biosynthesis (glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase) and cholesterol metabolism at intestinal and hepatic levels. Hepatic and muscular fatty acid profiles reflected that of diets, despite the up-regulation of FADS2 transcripts. Overall, this study demonstrated that dietary carbohydrates mainly affected carbohydrate metabolism, lipogenesis and LC-PUFA biosynthesis, whereas effects of dietary lipid source were mostly related with tissue fatty acid composition, plasma phospholipid and cholesterol concentrations, and LC-PUFA biosynthesis regulation. Interactions between dietary macronutrients induced modifications in tissue lipid and glycogen content.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism by dietary carbohydrate levels and lipid sources in gilthead sea bream juveniles
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism by dietary carbohydrate levels and lipid sources in gilthead sea bream juveniles
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism by dietary carbohydrate levels and lipid sources in gilthead sea bream juveniles
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: C. Castro, email carolinacastro23@gmail.com

References

Hide All
1. Tocher, DR (2015) Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and aquaculture in perspective. Aquaculture 449, 94107.
2. Food and Agriculture Organization (2014) The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2014. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
3. Enes, P, Panserat, S, Kaushik, S, et al. (2009) Nutritional regulation of hepatic glucose metabolism in fish. Fish Physiol Biochem 35, 519539.
4. Gatlin, DM, Barrows, FT, Brown, P, et al. (2007) Expanding the utilization of sustainable plant products in aquafeeds: a review. Aquacult Res 38, 551579.
5. Stone, DAJ (2003) Dietary carbohydrate utilization by fish. Rev Fish Sci 11, 337369.
6. Betancor, M, Sprague, M, Usher, S, et al. (2015) A nutritionally-enhanced oil from transgenic Camelina sativa effectively replaces fish oil as a source of eicosapentaenoic acid for fish. Sci Rep 5, 8104.
7. Castro, C, Corraze, G, Pérez-Jiménez, A, et al. (2015) Dietary carbohydrate and lipid source affect cholesterol metabolism of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles. Br J Nutr 114, 11431156.
8. Jordal, AEO, Lie, O & Torstensen, BE (2007) Complete replacement of dietary fish oil with a vegetable oil blend affect liver lipid and plasma lipoprotein levels in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquacult Nutr 13, 114130.
9. Kjaer, MA, Vegusdal, A, Gjoen, T, et al. (2008) Effect of rapeseed oil and dietary n-3 fatty acids on triacylglycerol synthesis and secretion in Atlantic salmon hepatocytes. Biochim Biophys Acta 1781, 112122.
10. Leaver, MJ, Villeneuve, LA, Obach, A, et al. (2008) Functional genomics reveals increases in cholesterol biosynthetic genes and highly unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis after dietary substitution of fish oil with vegetable oils in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). BMC Genomics 9, 299.
11. Morais, S, Edvardsen, RB, Tocher, DR, et al. (2012) Transcriptomic analyses of intestinal gene expression of juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) fed diets with Camelina oil as replacement for fish oil. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 161, 283293.
12. Brauge, C, Medale, F & Corraze, G (1994) Effect of dietary carbohydrate levels on growth, body composition and glycaemia in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, reared in seawater. Aquaculture 123, 109120.
13. Sheridan, MA (1988) Lipid dynamics in fish: aspects of absorption, transportation and mobilization. Comp Biochem Physiol B 90, 679690.
14. Tocher, DR (2003) Metabolism and functions of lipids and fatty acids in teleost fish. Rev Fish Sci 11, 107184.
15. Menoyo, D, Izquierdo, MS, Robaina, L, et al. (2004) Adaptation of lipid metabolism, tissue composition and flesh quality in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) to the replacement of dietary fish oil by linseed and soyabean oils. Br J Nutr 92, 4152.
16. Panserat, S, Kolditz, C, Richard, N, et al. (2008) Hepatic gene expression profiles in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed fishmeal or fish oil-free diets. Br J Nutr 100, 953967.
17. Morais, S, Pratoomyot, J, Taggart, JB, et al. (2011) Genotype-specific responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) subject to dietary fish oil replacement by vegetable oil: a liver transcriptomic analysis. BMC Genomics 12, 255.
18. Morais, S, Silva, T, Cordeiro, O, et al. (2012) Effects of genotype and dietary fish oil replacement with vegetable oil on the intestinal transcriptome and proteome of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). BMC Genomics 13, 448.
19. Peng, M, Xu, W, Mai, K, et al. (2014) Growth performance, lipid deposition and hepatic lipid metabolism related gene expression in juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) fed diets with various fish oil substitution levels by soybean oil. Aquaculture 433, 442449.
20. Liang, XF, Ogata, HY & Oku, H (2002) Effect of dietary fatty acids on lipoprotein lipase gene expression in the liver and visceral adipose tissue of fed and starved red sea bream Pagrus major . Comp Biochem Physiol A 132, 913919.
21. Stubhaug, I, Froyland, L & Torstensen, BE (2005) Beta-oxidation capacity of red and white muscle and liver in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) – effects of increasing dietary rapeseed oil and olive oil to replace capelin oil. Lipids 40, 3947.
22. Jordal, AEO, Torstensen, BE, Tsoi, S, et al. (2005) Dietary rapeseed oil affects the expression of genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). J Nutr 135, 23552361.
23. Turchini, GM, Mentasti, T, Froyland, L, et al. (2003) Effects of alternative dietary lipid sources on performance, tissue chemical composition, mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation capabilities and sensory characteristics in brown trout (Salmo trutta L.). Aquaculture 225, 251267.
24. Kamalam, BS, Médale, F, Kaushik, S, et al. (2012) Regulation of metabolism by dietary carbohydrates in two lines of rainbow trout divergently selected for muscle fat content. J Exp Biol 215, 25672578.
25. Kamalam, BS, Médale, F, Larroquet, L, et al. (2013) Metabolism and fatty acid profile in fat and lean rainbow trout lines fed with vegetable oil: effect of carbohydrates. PLOS ONE 8, e76570.
26. Jin, J, Médale, F, Kamalam, BS, et al. (2014) Comparison of glucose and lipid metabolic gene expressions between fat and lean lines of rainbow trout after a glucose load. PLOS ONE 9, e105548.
27. Seiliez, I, Panserat, S, Kaushik, S, et al. (2001) Cloning, tissue distribution and nutritional regulation of a Delta 6-desaturase-like enzyme in rainbow trout. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 130, 8393.
28. González-Rovira, A, Mourente, G, Zheng, XZ, et al. (2009) Molecular and functional characterization and expression analysis of a Delta 6 fatty acyl desaturase cDNA of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.). Aquaculture 298, 90100.
29. Tocher, DR, Zheng, X, Schlechtriem, C, et al. (2006) Highly unsaturated fatty acid synthesis in marine fish: cloning, functional characterization, and nutritional regulation of fatty acyl ∆6 desaturase of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.). Lipids 41, 10031016.
30. Vagner, M & Santigosa, E (2011) Characterization and modulation of gene expression and enzymatic activity of delta-6 desaturase in teleosts: a review. Aquaculture 315, 131143.
31. Montero, D & Izquierdo, M (2010) Welfare and health of fish fed vegetable oils as alternative lipid sources to fish oil. In Fish Oil Replacement and Alternative Lipid Sources in Aquaculture Feeds, pp. 439485 [GM Turchini, WK Ng and DR Tocher, editors]. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
32. Torstensen, B & Tocher, D (2010) The effects of fish oil replacement on lipid metabolism of fish. In Fish Oil Replacement and Alternative Lipid Sources in Aquaculture Feeds, pp. 405437 [GM Turchini, WK Ng and DR Tocher, editors]. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
33. NRC (2011) Nutrient Requirements of Fish and Shrimp. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
34. Tocher, DR, Bendiksen, EA, Campbell, PJ, et al. (2008) The role of phospholipids in nutrition and metabolism of teleost fish. Aquaculture 280, 2134.
35. Richard, N, Kaushik, S, Larroquet, L, et al. (2006) Replacing dietary fish oil by vegetable oils has little effect on lipogenesis, lipid transport and tissue lipid uptake in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Br J Nutr 96, 299309.
36. Richard, N, Mourente, G, Kaushik, S, et al. (2006) Replacement of a large portion of fish oil by vegetable oils does not affect lipogenesis, lipid transport and tissue lipid uptake in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.). Aquaculture 261, 10771087.
37. Morais, S, Pratoomyot, J, Torstensen, BE, et al. (2011) Diet x genotype interactions in hepatic cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in response to replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oil. Br J Nutr 106, 14571469.
38. Caballero, MJ, Gallardo, G, Robaina, L, et al. (2006) Vegetable lipid sources affect in vitro biosynthesis of triacylglycerols and phospholipids in the intestine of sea bream (Sparus aurata). Br J Nutr 95, 448454.
39. Liland, NS, Espe, M, Rosenlund, G, et al. (2013) High levels of dietary phytosterols affect lipid metabolism and increase liver and plasma TAG in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Br J Nutr 110, 19581967.
40. Agaba, MK, Tocher, DR, Zheng, X, et al. (2005) Cloning and functional characterisation of polyunsaturated fatty acid elongases of marine and freshwater teleost fish. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 142, 342352.
41. Benedito-Palos, L, Ballester-Lozano, G & Perez-Sanchez, J (2014) Wide-gene expression analysis of lipid-relevant genes in nutritionally challenged gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Gene 547, 3442.
42. Benedito-Palos, L, Calduch-Giner, JA, Ballester-Lozano, GF, et al. (2013) Effect of ration size on fillet fatty acid composition, phospholipid allostasis and mRNA expression patterns of lipid regulatory genes in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Br J Nutr 109, 11751187.
43. Calduch-Giner, JA, Davey, G, Saera-Vila, A, et al. (2010) Use of microarray technology to assess the time course of liver stress response after confinement exposure in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.). BMC Genomics 11, 193.
44. Mininni, AN, Milan, M, Ferraresso, S, et al. (2014) Liver transcriptome analysis in gilthead sea bream upon exposure to low temperature. BMC Genomics 15, 112.
45. Pérez-Sánchez, J, Borrel, M, Bermejo-Nogales, A, et al. (2013) Dietary oils mediate cortisol kinetics and the hepatic mRNA expression profile of stress-responsive genes in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) exposed to crowding stress. Implications on energy homeostasis and stress susceptibility. Comp Biochem Physiol D 8, 123130.
46. Sánchez-Gurmaches, J, Cruz-Garcia, L, Ibarz, A, et al. (2013) Insulin, IGF-I, and muscle MAPK pathway responses after sustained exercise and their contribution to growth and lipid metabolism regulation in gilthead sea bream. Domest Anim Endocrinol 45, 145153.
47. Seiliez, I, Panserat, S, Corraze, G, et al. (2003) Cloning and nutritional regulation of a Delta 6-desaturase-like enzyme in the marine teleost gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 135, 449460.
48. Castro, C, Corraze, G, Panserat, S, et al. (2015) Effects of fish oil replacement by a vegetable oil blend on digestibility, postprandial serum metabolite profile, lipid and glucose metabolism of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles. Aquacult Nutr 21, 592603.
49. Librán-Pérez, M, Figueiredo-Silva, AC, Panserat, S, et al. (2013) Response of hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism to a mixture or single fatty acids: possible presence of fatty acid-sensing mechanisms. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr physiol 164, 241248.
50. Menoyo, D, Diez, A, Lopez-Bote, CJ, et al. (2006) Dietary fat type affects lipid metabolism in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and differentially regulates glucose transporter GLUT4 expression in muscle. Aquaculture 261, 294304.
51. Oliva-Teles, A (2000) Recent advances in European sea bass and gilthead sea bream nutrition. Aquacult Int 8, 477492.
52. AOAC (2012) Official Methods of Analysis of Association of Official Analytical Chemists International. Gaithersburg, MD: AOAC International.
53. Beutler, HO (1984) Starch. In Methods of Enzymatic Analysis, pp. 210 [HU Bergmeyer, editor]. Basel: Verlag Chemie Weinheim.
54. Roehrig, KL & Allred, JB (1974) Direct enzymatic procedure for the determination of liver glycogen. Anal Biochem 58, 414421.
55. Folch, J, Lees, M & Sloane Stanley, GH (1957) A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipides from animal tissues. J Biol Chem 226, 497509.
56. Shantha, N & Ackman, R (1990) Nervonic acid versus tricosanoic acid as internal standards in quantitative gas chromatographic analyses of fish oil longer-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl 533, 110.
57. Stadtman, TC (1957) Determination of cholesterol and ergosterol by Liebermann-Burchard reaction. Methods Enzymol 3, 362365.
58. Rozen, S & Skaletsky, HJ (2000) Primer3 on the WWW for general users and for biologist programmers. Methods Mol Biol 132, 365386.
59. Enes, P, Panserat, S, Kaushik, S, et al. (2008) Hepatic glucokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase responses to dietary glucose and starch in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) juveniles reared at two temperatures. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 149, 8086.
60. Pfaffl, MW (2001) A new mathematical model for relative quantification in real-time RT–PCR. Nucleic Acids Res 29, e45.
61. Couto, A, Enes, P, Peres, H, et al. (2008) Effect of water temperature and dietary starch on growth and metabolic utilization of diets in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) juveniles. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 151, 4550.
62. Enes, P, Panserat, S, Kaushik, S, et al. (2008) Growth performance and metabolic utilization of diets with native and waxy maize starch by gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) juveniles. Aquaculture 274, 101108.
63. Peres, H, Gonçalves, P & Oliva-Teles, A (1999) Glucose tolerance in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) and European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Aquaculture 179, 415423.
64. Engelking, L (2010) Overview of carbohydrate metabolism. In Textbook of Veterinary Physiological Chemistry, 2nd ed. pp. 120124 [L Engelking, editor]. Amsterdam: Academic Press.
65. Panserat, S, Medale, F, Blin, C, et al. (2000) Hepatic glucokinase is induced by dietary carbohydrates in rainbow trout, gilthead seabream, and common carp. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 278, R1164R1170.
66. Panserat, S, Plagnes-Juan, E & Kaushik, S (2002) Gluconeogenic enzyme gene expression is decreased by dietary carbohydrates in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). Biochim Biophys Acta 1579, 3542.
67. Fernández, F, Miquel, AG, Córdoba, M, et al. (2007) Effects of diets with distinct protein-to-carbohydrate ratios on nutrient digestibility, growth performance, body composition and liver intermediary enzyme activities in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, L.) fingerlings. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 343, 110.
68. Kamalam, BS, Panserat, S, Aguirre, P, et al. (2013) Selection for high muscle fat in rainbow trout induces potentially higher chylomicron synthesis and PUFA biosynthesis in the intestine. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 164, 417427.
69. Polakof, S, Álvarez, R & Soengas, JL (2010) Gut glucose metabolism in rainbow trout: implications in glucose homeostasis and glucosensing capacity. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 299, R19R32.
70. Kortner, TM, Björkhem, I, Krasnov, A, et al. (2014) Dietary cholesterol supplementation to a plant-based diet suppresses the complete pathway of cholesterol synthesis and induces bile acid production in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Br J Nutr 111, 20892103.
71. Álvarez, MJ, Lopez-Bote, CJ, Diez, A, et al. (1998) Dietary fish oil and digestible protein modify susceptibility to lipid peroxidation in the muscle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Br J Nutr 80, 281289.
72. Viana Abranches, M, Esteves de Oliveira, FC & Bressan, J (2011) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor: effects on nutritional homeostasis, obesity and diabetes mellitus. Nutr Hosp 26, 271279.
73. Leaver, MJ, Bautista, JM, Bjornsson, BT, et al. (2008) Towards fish lipid nutrigenomics: current state and prospects for fin-fish aquaculture. Rev Fish Sci 16, 7394.
74. Diez, A, Menoyo, D, Perez-Benavente, S, et al. (2007) Conjugated linoleic acid affects lipid composition, metabolism, and gene expression in Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L). J Nutr 137, 13631369.
75. Du, ZY, Demizieux, L, Degrace, P, et al. (2004) Alteration of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 fat contents and liver peroxisomal activities in fenofibrate-treated rainbow trout. Lipids 39, 849855.
76. Kennedy, SR, Leavera, MJ, Campbell, PJ, et al. (2006) Influence of dietary oil content and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on lipid metabolism enzyme activities and gene expression in tissues of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Lipids 41, 423436.
77. Bonacic, K, Estevez, A, Bellot, O, et al. (2016) Dietary fatty acid metabolism is affected more by lipid level than source in senegalese sole juveniles: interactions for optimal dietary formulation. Lipids 51, 105122.
78. Zheng, JL, Luo, Z, Zhuo, MQ, et al. (2014) Dietary L-carnitine supplementation increases lipid deposition in the liver and muscle of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) through changes in lipid metabolism. Br J Nutr 112, 698708.
79. Dai, W, Panserat, S, Plagnes-Juan, E, et al. (2015) Amino acids attenuate insulin action on gluconeogenesis and promote fatty acid biosynthesis via mTORC1 signaling pathway in trout hepatocytes. Cell Physiol Biochem 36, 10841100.
80. Ekmann, KS, Dalsgaard, J, Holm, J, et al. (2013) Effects of dietary energy density and digestible protein:energy ratio on de novo lipid synthesis from dietary protein in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) quantified with stable isotopes. Br J Nutr 110, 17711781.
81. Kirchner, S, Kaushik, S & Panserat, S (2003) Low protein intake is associated with reduced hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). J Nutr 133, 25612564.
82. Lansard, M, Panserat, S, Plagnes-Juan, E, et al. (2010) Integration of insulin and amino acid signals that regulate hepatic metabolism-related gene expression in rainbow trout: role of TOR. Amino Acids 39, 801810.
83. Izquierdo, MS, Montero, D, Robaina, L, et al. (2005) Alterations in fillet fatty acid profile and flesh quality in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) fed vegetable oils for a long terin period: recovery of fatty acid profiles by fish oil feeding. Aquaculture 250, 431444.
84. Montero, D, Mathlouthi, F, Tort, L, et al. (2010) Replacement of dietary fish oil by vegetable oils affects humoral immunity and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines genes in gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata . Fish Shellfish Immunol 29, 10731081.
85. Benedito-Palos, L, Saera-Vila, A, Calduch-Giner, JA, et al. (2007) Combined replacement of fish meal and oil in practical diets for fast growing juveniles of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.): networking of systemic and local components of GH/IGF axis. Aquaculture 267, 199212.
86. Fountoulaki, E, Vasilaki, A, Hurtado, R, et al. (2009) Fish oil substitution by vegetable oils in commercial diets for gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.); effects on growth performance, flesh quality and fillet fatty acid profile: recovery of fatty acid profiles by a fish oil finishing diet under fluctuating water temperatures. Aquaculture 289, 317326.
87. Brufau, G, Canela, MA & Rafecas, M (2008) Phytosterols: physiologic and metabolic aspects related to cholesterol-lowering properties. Nutr Res 28, 217225.
88. MacKay, DS & Jones, PJH (2011) Phytosterols in human nutrition: type, formulation, delivery, and physiological function. Eur J Lipid Sci Tech 113, 14271432.
89. Gilman, CI, Leusch, FD, Breckenridge, WC, et al. (2003) Effects of a phytosterol mixture on male fish plasma lipoprotein fractions and testis P450scc activity. Gen Comp Endocrinol 130, 172184.
90. Ostlund, RE Jr (2002) Phytosterols in human nutrition. Annu Rev Nutr 22, 533549.
91. Kortner, TM, Gu, J, Krogdahl, A, et al. (2013) Transcriptional regulation of cholesterol and bile acid metabolism after dietary soyabean meal treatment in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Br J Nutr 109, 593604.
92. Gu, M, Kortner, TM, Penn, M, et al. (2014) Effects of dietary plant meal and soya-saponin supplementation on intestinal and hepatic lipid droplet accumulation and lipoprotein and sterol metabolism in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Br J Nutr 111, 432444.
93. Geay, F, Ferraresso, S, Zambonino-Infante, JL, et al. (2011) Effects of the total replacement of fish-based diet with plant-based diet on the hepatic transcriptome of two European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) half-sibfamilies showing different growth rates with the plant-based diet. BMC Genomics 12, 522.
94. Caballero, MJ, Izquierdo, MS, Kjorsvik, E, et al. (2003) Morphological aspects of intestinal cells from gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) fed diets containing different lipid sources. Aquaculture 225, 325340.
95. Olsen, RE, Dragnes, BT, Myklebust, R, et al. (2003) Effect of soybean oil and soybean lecithin on intestinal lipid composition and lipid droplet accumulation of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss walbaum. Fish Physiol Biochem 29, 181192.
96. Torstensen, BE, Froyland, L & Lie, O (2004) Replacing dietary fish oil with increasing levels of rapeseed oil and olive oil – effects on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) tissue and lipoprotein lipid composition and lipogenic enzyme activities. Aquacult Nutr 10, 175192.
97. Benedito-Palos, L, Bermejo-Nogales, A, Karampatos, AI, et al. (2011) Modelling the predictable effects of dietary lipid sources on the fillet fatty acid composition of one-year-old gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.). Food Chem 124, 538544.
98. Benitez-Dorta, V, Caballero, MJ, Izquierdo, M, et al. (2013) Total substitution of fish oil by vegetable oils in senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) diets: effects on fish performance, biochemical composition, and expression of some glucocorticoid receptor-related genes. Fish Physiol Biochem 39, 335349.
99. Tocher, DR & Ghioni, C (1999) Fatty acid metabolism in marine fish: low activity of fatty acyl Delta 5 desaturation in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) cells. Lipids 34, 433440.

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Castro supplementary material
Table S1

 Word (28 KB)
28 KB

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed