Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Pro-inflammatory dietary intake as a risk factor for CVD in men: a 5-year longitudinal study

  • Adrienne O’Neil (a1) (a2) (a3), Nitin Shivappa (a4) (a5), Felice N. Jacka (a1) (a6) (a7), Mark A. Kotowicz (a1) (a8) (a9), Katherine Kibbey (a9) (a10), James R. Hebert (a4) (a5) and Julie A. Pasco (a1) (a8) (a11)...

Abstract

Convincing evidence has identified inflammation as an initiator of atherosclerosis, underpinning CVD. We investigated (i) whether dietary inflammation, as measured by the ‘dietary inflammatory index (DII)’, was predictive of 5-year CVD in men and (ii) its predictive ability compared with that of SFA intake alone. The sample consisted of 1363 men enrolled in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study who completed an FFQ at baseline (2001–2006) (excluding participants who were identified as having previous CVD). DII scores were computed from participants’ reported intakes of carbohydrate, micronutrients and glycaemic load. DII scores were dichotomised into a pro-inflammatory diet (positive values) or an anti-inflammatory diet (negative values). The primary outcome was a formal diagnosis of CVD resulting in hospitalisation over the 5-year study period. In total, seventy-six events were observed during the 5-year follow-up period. Men with a pro-inflammatory diet at baseline were twice as likely to experience a CVD event over the study period (OR 2·07; 95 % CI 1·20, 3·55). This association held following adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors and total energy intake (adjusted OR 2·00; 95 % CI 1·03, 3·96). This effect appeared to be stronger with the inclusion of an age-by-DII score interaction. In contrast, SFA intake alone did not predict 5-year CVD events after adjustment for covariates (adjusted OR 1·40; 95 % CI 0·73, 2·70). We conclude that an association exists between a pro-inflammatory diet and CVD in Australian men. CVD clinical guidelines and public health recommendations may have to expand to include dietary patterns in the context of vascular inflammation.

Copyright

Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: Dr A. O’Neil, email adrienne.oneil@unimelb.edu.au

Footnotes

Hide All

Disclaimer: A. O’N. and F. N. J. have received funding from the Meat and Livestock Board of Australia. The subject matter of this paper will not have any direct bearing on that work, nor has that activity exerted any influence on this project. J. R. H. owns controlling interest in Connecting Health Innovations LLC (CHI), a company planning to license the right to his invention of the DII from the University of South Carolina in order to develop computer and smart phone applications for patient counselling and dietary intervention in clinical settings. N. S. is an employee of CHI. The subject matter of this paper will not have any direct bearing on that work, nor has that activity exerted any influence on this project.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
1. Kochanek, KD, Xu, JQ, Murphy, SL, et al. (2011) Deaths: final data for 2009. Natl Vital Stat Rep 60, 1117.
2. England and Wales Office for National Statistics (2010) Deaths Registered by Cause, Sex and Age. http://www.ons.gov.uk (accessed February 2015).
3. Australian Institute of Health & Welfare (2009) Impact of Falling Cardiovascular Disease Death Rates: Deaths Delayed and Years of Life Extended. Canberra: AIHW.
4. Australian Institute of Health & Welfare (2011) Cardiovascular Disease: Australian Facts 2011. Cardiovascular Disease Series, no. 35. Cat. no. CVD 53. Canberra: AIHW.
5. Deloitte Access Economics (2011) ACS (Acute Coronary Syndrome) in Perspective: The Importance of Secondary Prevention. www.accesseconomics.com.au/publicationsreports.php (accessed January 2015).
6. World Health Organization (2002) The World Health Report 2002 – Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life. Geneva: WHO.
7. World Health Organization (2004) The World Health Report – Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity, and Health. Geneva: WHO.
8. Keys, A, Menotti, A, Karvonen, MJ, et al. (1986) The diet and 15-year death rate in the seven countries study. Am J Epidemiol 124, 903915.
9. Hu, FB, Stampfer, MJ, Manson, JE, et al. (1997) Dietary fat intake and the risk of coronary heart disease in women. N Engl J Med 337, 14911499.
10. Dauchet, L, Amouyel, P, Hercberg, S, et al. (2006) Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. J Nutr 136, 25882593.
11. Wallace, SK & Mozaffarian, D (2009) Trans-fatty acids and nonlipid risk factors. Curr Atheroscler Rep 11, 423433.
12. Jakobsen, MU, Dethlefsen, C, Joensen, AM, et al. (2010) Intake of carbohydrates compared with intake of saturated fatty acids and risk of myocardial infarction: importance of the glycemic index. Am J Clin Nutr 91, 17641768.
13. Maes, M, Ruckoanich, P, Chang, YS, et al. (2011) Multiple aberrations in shared inflammatory and oxidative & nitrosative stress (IO&NS) pathways explain the co-association of depression and cardiovascular disorder (CVD), and the increased risk for CVD and due mortality in depressed patients. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 35, 769783.
14. Stanton, R (2013) Fat facts. MJA: Insight, November edition. https://www.mja.com.au/insight/2013/42/rosemary-stanton-fat-facts (accessed December 2013).
15. Jacobs, D, Tapsell, LC & Temple, N (2012) Food synergy: the key to balancing the nutrition research effort. Public Health Rev 33, 507529.
16. Collins, L & Lanza, S (2010) Latent Class and Latent Transition Analysis for the Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences. New York: Wiley.
17. Lucas, M, Chocano-Bedoya, P, Schulze, MB, et al. (2013) Inflammatory dietary pattern and risk of depression among women. Brain Behav Immun 36, 4653.
18. Ruiz-Canela, M, Zazpe, I, Shivappa, N, et al. (2015) Dietary inflammatory index and anthropometric measures of obesity in a population sample at high cardiovascular risk from the PREDIMED (PREvencion con DIeta MEDiterranea) trial. Br J Nutr 113, 984995.
19. Pasco, JA, Nicholson, GC & Kotowicz, MA (2012) Cohort profile: Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Int J Epidemiol 41, 15651575.
20. Shivappa, N, Steck, SE, Hurley, TG, et al. (2014) Designing and developing a literature-derived population-based dietary inflammatory index. Public Health Nutr 17, 16891696.
21. Hodge, AM, English, DR, Itsiopoulos, C, et al. (2011) Does a Mediterranean diet reduce the mortality risk associated with diabetes: evidence from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 21, 733739.
22. Hosmer, DW & Lemeshow, S (2000) Applied Logistic Regression, 2nd ed. New York: Wiley.
23. Commonwealth of Australia (2013) Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code. www.comlaw.gov.au (accessed January 2013).
24. Meyer, J, Döring, A, Herder, C, et al. (2011) Dietary patterns, subclinical inflammation, incident coronary heart disease and mortality in middle-aged men from the MONICA/KORA Augsburg cohort study. Eur J Clin Nutr 65, 800807.
25. Estruch, R, Ros, E, Salas-Salvadó, J, et al. (2013) Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with a Mediterranean diet. N Engl J Med 368, 12791290.
26. Esposito, K & Giugliano, D (2006) Diet and inflammation: a link to metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Eur Heart J 27, 1520.
27. Lopez-Garcia, E, Schulze, MB, Fung, TT, et al. (2004) Major dietary patterns are related to plasma concentrations of markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Am J Clin Nutr 80, 10291035.
28. Jenkins, DJ, Kendall, CW, Marchie, A, et al. (2003) Effects of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods vs lovastatin on serum lipids and C-reactive protein. JAMA 290, 502510.
29. Moreira, AP, Texeira, TF, Ferreira, AB, et al. (2012) Influence of a high-fat diet on gut microbiota, intestinal permeability and metabolic endotoxaemia. Br J Nutr 108, 801809.
30. Shivappa, N, Steck, SE, Hurley, TG, et al. (2014) A population-based dietary inflammatory index predicts levels of C-reactive protein in the Seasonal Variation of Blood Cholesterol Study (SEASONS). Public Health Nutr 17, 18251833.
31. Wood, L, Shivappa, N, Berthon, BS, et al. (2014) Dietary inflammatory index is related to asthma risk, lung function, and systemic inflammation in asthma. Respirology 19, 37.
32. Wirth, MD, Burch, J, Shivappa, N, et al. (2014) Dietary inflammatory index scores differ by shift work status: NHANES 2005 to 2010. J Occup Environ Med 56, 145148.
33. Shivappa, N, Prizment, A, Blair, CK, et al. (2014) Dietary inflammatory index and risk of colorectal cancer in the Iowa Women’s Health Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 23, 23832392.
34. Shivappa, N, Bosetti, C, Zucchetto, A, et al. (2014) Association between dietary inflammatory index and prostate cancer among Italian men. Br J Nutr 17, 16.
35. Shivappa, N, Bosetti, C, Zucchetto, A, et al. (2015) Dietary inflammatory index and risk of pancreatic cancer in an Italian case-control study. Br J Nutr 113, 292298.
36. Hoebeeck, LI, Rietzschel, ER, Langlois, M, et al. (2011) The relationship between diet and subclinical atherosclerosis: results from the Asklepios Study. Eur J Clin Nutr 65, 606613.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed