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Predictors of decline in vitamin D status in middle-aged and elderly individuals: a 5-year follow-up study

  • Kazutoshi Nakamura (a1), Kaori Kitamura (a1), Yumi Watanabe (a1), Toshiko Saito (a2), Akemi Takahashi (a3), Ryosaku Kobayashi (a3), Rieko Oshiki (a3), Keiko Kabasawa (a4), Ribeka Takachi (a5), Shoichiro Tsugane (a6), Masayuki Iki (a7), Ayako Sasaki (a8) and Kei Watanabe (a9)...

Abstract

Little is known about predictors of decline in vitamin D status (vitamin D decline) over time. We aimed to determine demographic and lifestyle variables associated with vitamin D decline by sufficiently controlling for seasonal effects of vitamin D uptake in a middle-aged to elderly population. Using a longitudinal study design within the larger framework of the Murakami Cohort Study, we examined 1044 individuals aged between 40 and 74 years, who provided blood samples at baseline and at 5-year follow-up, the latter of which were taken on a date near the baseline examination (±14 d). Blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were determined with the Liaison® 25OH Vitamin D Total Assay. A self-administered questionnaire collected demographic, body size and lifestyle information. Vitamin D decline was defined as the lowest tertile of 5-year changes in blood 25(OH)D (Δ25(OH)D) concentration (<6·7 nmol/l). Proportions of those with vitamin D decline were 182/438 (41·6 %) in men and 166/606 (27·4 %) in women (P < 0·0001). In men, risk of vitamin D decline was significantly lower in those with an outdoor occupation (P = 0·0099) and those with the highest quartile of metabolic equivalent score (OR 0·34; 95 % CI 0·14, 0·83), and higher in those with ‘university or higher’ levels of education (OR 2·92; 95 % CI 1·04, 8·19). In women, risk of vitamin D decline tended to be lower with higher levels of vitamin D intake (Pfor trend = 0·0651) and green tea consumption (Pfor trend = 0·0025). Predictors of vitamin D decline differ by sex, suggesting that a sex-dependent intervention may help to maintain long-term vitamin D levels.

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Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Kazutoshi Nakamura, fax +81 25-227-0764, email kazun@med.niigata-u.ac.jp

References

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Predictors of decline in vitamin D status in middle-aged and elderly individuals: a 5-year follow-up study

  • Kazutoshi Nakamura (a1), Kaori Kitamura (a1), Yumi Watanabe (a1), Toshiko Saito (a2), Akemi Takahashi (a3), Ryosaku Kobayashi (a3), Rieko Oshiki (a3), Keiko Kabasawa (a4), Ribeka Takachi (a5), Shoichiro Tsugane (a6), Masayuki Iki (a7), Ayako Sasaki (a8) and Kei Watanabe (a9)...

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