Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Predictors and correlates of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in young women: results from the Safe-D study

  • Emma T. Callegari (a1), Suzanne M. Garland (a2) (a3) (a4), Alexandra Gorelik (a5), Nicola J. Reavley (a6) and John D. Wark (a1) (a7)...

Abstract

Vitamin D deficiency is a global public health concern. Studies of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) determinants in young women are limited and few include objective covariates. Our aims were to define the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and examine serum 25(OH)D correlates in an exploratory study of women aged 16–25 years. We studied 348 healthy females living in Victoria, Australia, recruited through Facebook. Data collected included serum 25(OH)D assayed by liquid chromatography-tandem MS, relevant serum biochemistry, soft tissue composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, skin melanin density, Fitzpatrick skin type, sun exposure using UV dosimeters and lifestyle factors. Mean serum 25(OH)D was 68 (sd 27) nmol/l and 26 % were vitamin D deficient (25(OH)D <50 nmol/l). The final model explained 56 % of 25(OH)D variance. Serum sex hormone-binding globulin levels, creatinine levels, sun exposure measured by UV dosimeters, a positive attitude towards sun tanning, typically spending >2 h in the sun in summer daily, holidaying in the most recent summer period, serum Fe levels, height and multivitamin use were positively associated with 25(OH)D. Fat mass and a blood draw in any season except summer was inversely associated with 25(OH)D. Vitamin D deficiency is common in young women. Factors such as hormonal contraception, sun exposure and sun-related attitudes, as well as dietary supplement use are essential to consider when assessing vitamin D status. Further investigation into methods to safely optimise vitamin D status and to improve understanding of the impact of vitamin D status on long-term health outcomes is required.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Predictors and correlates of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in young women: results from the Safe-D study
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Predictors and correlates of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in young women: results from the Safe-D study
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Predictors and correlates of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in young women: results from the Safe-D study
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: Professor J. D. Wark, fax +61 3 9347 1863, email jdwark@unimelb.edu.au

References

Hide All
1. Holick, M (2015) Vitamin D and brain health: the need for vitamin D supplementation and sensible sun exposure. J Intern Med 277, 9093.
2. Feldman, D, Pike, JW & Adams, JS (2011) Vitamin D: Two-Volume Set. New York: Elsevier Academic Press.
3. Sawyer, SM, Afifi, RA, Bearinger, LH, et al. (2012) Adolescence: a foundation for future health. Lancet 379, 16301640.
4. Patton, GC, Sawyer, SM, Santelli, JS, et al. (2016) Our future: a Lancet commission on adolescent health and wellbeing. Lancet 387, 24232478.
5. Daly, RM, Gagnon, C, Lu, ZX, et al. (2012) Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its determinants in Australian adults aged 25 years and older: a national, population-based study. Clin Endocrinol 77, 2635.
6. Mousa, A, Misso, M, Teede, H, et al. (2016) Effect of vitamin D supplementation on inflammation: protocol for a systematic review. BMJ Open 6, e010804.
7. Kimlin, MG, Lucas, RM, Harrison, SL, et al. (2014) The contributions of solar ultraviolet radiation exposure and other determinants to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in Australian adults: the AusD Study. Am J Epidemiol 179, 864874.
8. Black, D & Rosen, C (2016) Clinical practice. Postmenopausal osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 374, 254262.
9. Vieth, R, Ladak, Y & Walfish, PG (2003) Age-related changes in the 25-hydroxyvitamin D versus parathyroid hormone relationship suggest a different reason why older adults require more vitamin D. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88, 185191.
10. Harmon, QE, Umbach, DM & Baird, DD (2016) Use of estrogen-containing contraception is associated with increased concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 101, 33703377.
11. Pasco, JA, Henry, MJ, Nicholson, GC, et al. (2009) Behavioural and physical characteristics associated with vitamin D status in women. Bone 44, 10851091.
12. van der Mei, IA, Ponsonby, A-L, Engelsen, O, et al. (2007) The high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency across Australian populations is only partly explained by season and latitude. Environ Health Perspect 115, 1132.
13. Pasco, JA, Henry, MJ, Nicholson, GC, et al. (2001) Vitamin D status of women in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study: association with diet and casual exposure to sunlight. Med J Aust 175, 401405.
14. Callegari, ET, Reavley, N, Garland, SM, et al. (2015) Vitamin D status, bone mineral density and mental health in young Australian women: the Safe-D study. J Public Health Res 4, 152156.
15. Fitzpatrick, TB (1988) The validity and practicality of sun-reactive skin types I through VI. Arch Dermatol 124, 869.
16. Brown, WJ, Burton, NW, Marshall, AL, et al. (2008) Reliability and validity of a modified self‐administered version of the Active Australia physical activity survey in a sample of mid‐age women. Aust N Z J Public Health 32, 535541.
17. Giles, G & Ireland, P (1996) Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies (Version 2). Melbourne: Cancer Council Victoria.
18. Hill, D, White, V, Marks, R, et al. (1992) Melanoma prevention: behavioral and nonbehavioral factors in sunburn among an Australian urban population. Prev Med 21, 654669.
19. Cancer Council Australia (2007) Slip Slop Slap Seek Slide. http://www.cancer.org.au/preventing-cancer/sun-protection/campaigns-and-events/slip-slop-slap-seek-slide.html (accessed January 2017).
20. Dwyer, T, Blizzard, L, Ashbolt, R, et al. (2002) Cutaneous melanin density of Caucasians measured by spectrophotometry and risk of malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. Am J Epidemiol 155, 614621.
21. Diamond, TH, Eisman, JA, Mason, RS, et al. (2005) Vitamin D and adult bone health in Australia and New Zealand: a position statement. Med J Aust 182, 281285.
22. Nowson, CA, McGrath, JJ, Ebeling, PR, et al. (2012) Vitamin D and health in adults in Australia and New Zealand: a position statement. Med J Aust 196, 686687.
23. Pink, B (2011) Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA) technical paper. Catalogue no. 2033.0. 55.001. Canberra, Australia: ABS.
24. Tabesh, M, Garland, S, Gorelik, A, et al. (2016) Improving vitamin D status and related health in young women: the Safe-D study – part B. JMIR Res Protoc 5, e80.
25. Gill, TK, Hill, CL, Shanahan, EM, et al. (2014) Vitamin D levels in an Australian population. BMC Public Health 14, 1.
26. Schleicher, RL, Sternberg, MR, Looker, AC, et al. (2016) National estimates of serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D and metabolite concentrations measured by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry in the US population during 2007–2010. J Nutr 146, 10511061.
27. Australian Bureau of Statistics (2014) Australian Health Survey: Biomedical Results for Nutrients, 2011-12. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics.
28. Shirazi, L, Almquist, M, Malm, J, et al. (2013) Determinants of serum levels of vitamin D: a study of life-style, menopausal status, dietary intake, serum calcium, and PTH. BMC Womens Health 13, 33.
29. Andreev, E, Koopman, M & Arisz, L (1999) A rise in plasma creatinine that is not a sign of renal failure: which drugs can be responsible? J Intern Med 246, 247252.
30. Webb, AR, Kline, L & Holick, MF (1988) Influence of season and latitude on the cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D3: exposure to winter sunlight in Boston and Edmonton will not promote vitamin D3 synthesis in human skin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 67, 373378.
31. Mithal, A, Wahl, D, Bonjour, J-P, et al. (2009) Global vitamin D status and determinants of hypovitaminosis D. Osteoporos Int 20, 18071820.
32. Looker, AC, Dawson-Hughes, B, Calvo, M, et al. (2002) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status of adolescents and adults in two seasonal subpopulations from NHANES III. Bone 30, 771777.
33. Gies, P (2003) Australia has more than enough solar UV radiation. Clin Exp Optom 86, 7173.
34. Kremer, R, Campbell, PP, Reinhardt, T, et al. (2009) Vitamin D status and its relationship to body fat, final height, and peak bone mass in young women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94, 6773.
35. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare & Australasian Association of Cancer Registries (2008) Cancer in Australia: An Overview, 2008, Cancer Series no 46, Cat no CAN 42. Canberra: AIHW.
36. Armstrong, B & Kricker, A (1993) How much melanoma is caused by sun exposure? Melanoma Res 3, 395402.
37. Australian Bureau of Statistics (2014) Australian Health Survey: Nutrition First Results – Food and Nutrients, 2011–12. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics.
38. Huang, H-Y, Caballero, B, Chang, S, et al. (2006) Multivitamin/mineral supplements and prevention of chronic disease. Evid Rep Technol Assess (Full Rep) 139, 1117.
39. Macpherson, H, Pipingas, A & Pase, MP (2013) Multivitamin-multimineral supplementation and mortality: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 97, 437444.
40. Monlezun, DJ, Camargo, CA Jr, Mullen, JT, et al. (2015) Vitamin D status and the risk of Anemia in community-dwelling adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2006. Medicine 94, e1799.
41. Blanco-Rojo, R, Pérez-Granados, AM, Toxqui, L, et al. (2013) Relationship between vitamin D deficiency, bone remodelling and iron status in iron-deficient young women consuming an iron-fortified food. Eur J Nutr 52, 695703.
42. Jones, G, Prosser, DE & Kaufmann, M (2014) Cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of vitamin D. J Lipid Res 55, 1331.
43. Smith, EM & Tangpricha, V (2015) Vitamin D and anemia: insights into an emerging association. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 22, 432438.
44. Smith, EM, Alvarez, JA, Kearns, MD, et al. (2017) High-dose vitamin D3 reduces circulating hepcidin concentrations: a pilot, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in healthy adults. Clin Nutr 36, 980985.
45. Blum, M, Dolnikowski, G, Seyoum, E, et al. (2008) Vitamin D3 in fat tissue. Endocrine 33, 9094.
46. Wortsman, J, Matsuoka, LY, Chen, TC, et al. (2000) Decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 690693.
47. Moodie, AR (2008) Australia: the healthiest country by 2020. Med J Aust 189, 588590.
48. Zimmerman, Y, Eijkemans, M, Bennink, HC, et al. (2014) The effect of combined oral contraception on testosterone levels in healthy women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update 20, 76105.
49. Møller, UK, Jensen, LT, Mosekilde, L, et al. (2013) Increased plasma concentrations of vitamin D metabolites and vitamin D binding protein in women using hormonal contraceptives: a cross-sectional study. Nutrients 5, 34703480.
50. Bouillon, R, Baelen, HV & Moor, PD (1977) The measurement of the vitamin D-binding protein in human serum. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 45, 225231.
51. Fenner, Y, Garland, SM, Moore, EE, et al. (2012) Web-based recruiting for health research using a social networking site: an exploratory study. J Med Intern Res 14, e20.
52. Fraser, WD & Milan, AM (2013) Vitamin D assays: past and present debates, difficulties, and developments. Calcif Tissue Int 92, 118127.
53. El-Khoury, JM, Reineks, EZ & Wang, S (2011) Progress of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in measurement of vitamin D metabolites and analogues. Clin Biochem 44, 6676.
54. Ashwell, M, Stone, EM, Stolte, H, et al. (2010) UK Food Standards Agency Workshop Report: an investigation of the relative contributions of diet and sunlight to vitamin D status. Br J Nutr 104, 603611.
55. Køster, B, Søndergaard, J, Nielsen, JB, et al. (2015) Feasibility of smartphone diaries and personal dosimeters to quantitatively study exposure to ultraviolet radiation in a small national sample. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 31, 252260.
56. Department of Health (2014) Victorian Population Health Survey 2011–12, Survey Findings. Melbourne: State Government of Victoria.

Keywords

Type Description Title
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Callegari et al supplementary material 1
Supplementary Figure

 Unknown (39 KB)
39 KB

Predictors and correlates of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in young women: results from the Safe-D study

  • Emma T. Callegari (a1), Suzanne M. Garland (a2) (a3) (a4), Alexandra Gorelik (a5), Nicola J. Reavley (a6) and John D. Wark (a1) (a7)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed