Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Polyphenols in human nutrition: from the in vitro antioxidant capacity to the beneficial effects on cardiometabolic health and related inter-individual variability – an overview and perspective

  • T. Ruskovska (a1), V. Maksimova (a1) and D. Milenkovic (a2) (a3)

Abstract

Oxidative damage of cells and tissues is broadly implicated in human pathophysiology, including cardiometabolic diseases. Polyphenols, as important constituents of the human diet and potent in vitro free radical scavengers, have been extensively studied for their beneficial effects on cardiometabolic health. However, it has been demonstrated that the in vivo antioxidant activity of polyphenols is distinct from their in vitro free radical-scavenging capacity. Indeed, bioavailability of nutritional polyphenols is low and conditioned by complex mechanisms of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. Nowadays, it is commonly accepted that the cellular antioxidant activity of polyphenols is mainly carried out via modification of transcription of genes involved in antioxidant defence. Importantly, polyphenols also contribute to cardiometabolic health by modulation of a plethora of cellular processes that are not directly associated with antioxidant enzymes, through nutri(epi)genomic mechanisms. Numerous human intervention studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of polyphenols on the key cardiometabolic risk factors. However, inconsistency of the results of some studies led to identification of the inter-individual variability in response to consumption of polyphenols. In perspective, a detailed investigation of the determinants of this inter-individual variability will potentially lead us towards personalised dietary recommendations. The phenomenon of inter-individual variability is also of relevance for supplementation with antioxidant (pro)vitamins.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: T. Ruskovska, email tatjana.ruskovska@ugd.edu.mk

References

Hide All
1. Anderson, AS (2007) Nutrition interventions in women in low-income groups in the UK. Proc Nutr Soc 66, 2532.
2. Dammann, KW & Smith, C (2009) Factors affecting low-income women’s food choices and the perceived impact of dietary intake and socioeconomic status on their health and weight. J Nutr Educ Behav 41, 242253.
3. Barker, M, Lawrence, W, Crozier, S, et al. (2009) Educational attainment, perceived control and the quality of women’s diets. Appetite 52, 631636.
4. Grosso, G, Stepaniak, U, Micek, A, et al. (2017) Dietary polyphenol intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in the Polish arm of the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study. Br J Nutr 118, 6068.
5. Medina-Remon, A, Casas, R, Tressserra-Rimbau, A, et al. (2017) Polyphenol intake from a Mediterranean diet decreases inflammatory biomarkers related to atherosclerosis: a sub study of the PREDIMED trial. Br J Clin Pharmacol 83, 114128.
6. Sawikr, Y, Yarla, NS, Peluso, I, et al. (2017) Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer’s disease: the preventive and therapeutic potential of polyphenolic nutraceuticals. Adv Protein Chem Struct Biol 108, 3357.
7. Costa, C, Tsatsakis, A, Mamoulakis, C, et al. (2017) Current evidence on the effect of dietary polyphenols intake on chronic diseases. Food Chem Toxicol 110, 286299.
8. Salah, N, Miller, NJ, Paganga, G, et al. (1995) Polyphenolic flavanols as scavengers of aqueous phase radicals and as chain-breaking antioxidants. Arch Biochem Biophys 322, 339346.
9. Visioli, F, Bellomo, G & Galli, C (1998) Free radical-scavenging properties of olive oil polyphenols. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 247, 6064.
10. Vinson, JA (1998) Flavonoids in foods as in vitro and in vivo antioxidants. Adv Exp Med Biol 439, 151164.
11. Miura, Y, Chiba, T, Miura, S, et al. (2000) Green tea polyphenols (flavan 3-ols) prevent oxidative modification of low density lipoproteins: an ex vivo study in humans. J Nutr Biochem 11, 216222.
12. Hernaez, A, Remaley, AT, Farras, M, et al. (2015) Olive oil polyphenols decrease LDL concentrations and LDL atherogenicity in men in a randomized controlled trial. J Nutr 145, 16921697.
13. Kehrer, JP & Klotz, LO (2015) Free radicals and related reactive species as mediators of tissue injury and disease: implications for health. Crit Rev Toxicol 45, 765798.
14. Harman, D (1956) Aging: a theory based on free radical and radiation chemistry. J Gerontol 11, 298300.
15. Paniker, NV, Srivastava, SK & Beutler, E (1970) Glutathione metabolism of the red cells. Effect of glutathione reductase deficiency on the stimulation of hexose monophosphate shunt under oxidative stress. Biochim Biophys Acta 215, 456460.
16. Sies, H (1985) Oxidative stress: introductory remarks. In Oxidative Stress, pp. 18 [Sies, H, editor]. London: Academic Press, Elsevier Ltd.
17. Sies, H & Cadenas, E (1985) Oxidative stress: damage to intact cells and organs. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 311, 617631.
18. Jones, DP (2006) Redefining oxidative stress. Antioxid Redox Signal 8, 18651879.
19. Jones, DP (2008) Radical-free biology of oxidative stress. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 295, C849C868.
20. Sies, H (2019) Oxidative stress: eustress and distress in redox homeostasis. In Stress: Physiology, Biochemistry, and Pathology, pp. 153163 [Fink, G, editor]. London: Academic Press, Elsevier Ltd.
21. Birben, E, Sahiner, UM, Sackesen, C, et al. (2012) Oxidative stress and antioxidant defense. World Allergy Organ J 5, 919.
22. Zimniak, P (2011) Relationship of electrophilic stress to aging. Free Radic Biol Med 51, 10871105.
23. Cipak Gasparovic, A, Zarkovic, N, Zarkovic, K, et al. (2017) Biomarkers of oxidative and nitro-oxidative stress: conventional and novel approaches. Br J Pharmacol 174, 17711783.
24. Ruskovska, T & Bernlohr, DA (2013) Oxidative stress and protein carbonylation in adipose tissue – implications for insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. J Proteomics 92, 323334.
25. Gueraud, F, Atalay, M, Bresgen, N, et al. (2010) Chemistry and biochemistry of lipid peroxidation products. Free Radic Res 44, 10981124.
26. Tsuchihashi, H, Kigoshi, M, Iwatsuki, M, et al. (1995) Action of beta-carotene as an antioxidant against lipid peroxidation. Arch Biochem Biophys 323, 137147.
27. Spiteller, G (2002) Are changes of the cell membrane structure causally involved in the aging process? Ann N Y Acad Sci 959, 3044.
28. Jiang, Q, Christen, S, Shigenaga, MK, et al. (2001) Gamma-tocopherol, the major form of vitamin E in the US diet, deserves more attention. Am J Clin Nutr 74, 714722.
29. Kurutas, EB (2016) The importance of antioxidants which play the role in cellular response against oxidative/nitrosative stress: current state. Nutr J 15, 71.
30. Niki, E (2014) Role of vitamin E as a lipid-soluble peroxyl radical scavenger: in vitro and in vivo evidence. Free Radic Biol Med 66, 312.
31. Bjelakovic, G, Nikolova, D, Gluud, LL, et al. (2008) Antioxidant supplements for prevention of mortality in healthy participants and patients with various diseases. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, issue 2, CD007176.
32. Bjelakovic, G, Nikolova, D, Gluud, LL, et al. (2012) Antioxidant supplements for prevention of mortality in healthy participants and patients with various diseases. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, issue 3, CD007176.
33. Ghezzi, P, Jaquet, V, Marcucci, F, et al. (2017) The oxidative stress theory of disease: levels of evidence and epistemological aspects. Br J Pharmacol 174, 17841796.
34. Milkovic, L, Gasparovic, AC, Zarkovic, N (2015) Overview on major lipid peroxidation bioactive factor 4-hydroxynonenal as pluripotent growth-regulating factor. Free Radic Res 49, 850860.
35. Chen, ZH, Saito, Y, Yoshida, Y, et al. (2005) 4-Hydroxynonenal induces adaptive response and enhances PC12 cell tolerance primarily through induction of thioredoxin reductase 1 via activation of Nrf2. J Biol Chem 280, 4192141927.
36. Azzi, A (2018) Many tocopherols, one vitamin E. Mol Aspects Med 61, 92103.
37. von Lintig, J (2012) Provitamin A metabolism and functions in mammalian biology. Am J Clin Nutr 96, 1234S1244S.
38. Vrolijk, MF, Opperhuizen, A, Jansen, EH, et al. (2015) The shifting perception on antioxidants: the case of vitamin E and β-carotene. Redox Biol 4, 272278.
39. Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group (1994) The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. N Engl J Med 330, 10291035.
40. Niki, E (2014) Antioxidants: basic principles, emerging concepts, and problems. Biomed J 37, 106111.
41. Sanyal, AJ, Chalasani, N, Kowdley, KV, et al. (2010) Pioglitazone, vitamin E, or placebo for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. N Engl J Med 362, 16751685.
42. Vardi, M, Levy, NS & Levy, AP (2013) Vitamin E in the prevention of cardiovascular disease: the importance of proper patient selection. J Lipid Res 54, 23072314.
43. Ruskovska, T, Pop-Kostova, A, Jansen, EHJM, et al. (2017) Vitamin E supplementation in chronically hemodialyzed patients – influence on blood hemoglobin and plasma (anti)oxidant status. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 87, 139148.
44. Ahmad, KA, Yuan Yuan, D, Nawaz, W, et al. (2017) Antioxidant therapy for management of oxidative stress induced hypertension. Free Radic Res 51, 428438.
45. Abner, EL, Schmitt, FA, Mendiondo, MS, et al. (2011) Vitamin E and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis. Curr Aging Sci 4, 158170.
46. Curtis, AJ, Bullen, M, Piccenna, L, et al. (2014) Vitamin E supplementation and mortality in healthy people: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 28, 563573.
47. Jansen, E & Ruskovska, T (2015) Serum biomarkers of (anti)oxidant status for epidemiological studies. Int J Mol Sci. 16, 2737827390.
48. Frijhoff, J, Winyard, PG, Zarkovic, N, et al. (2015) Clinical relevance of biomarkers of oxidative stress. Antioxid Redox Signal 23, 11441170.
49. Kurin, E, Mucaji, P & Nagy, M (2012) In vitro antioxidant activities of three red wine polyphenols and their mixtures: an interaction study. Molecules 17, 1433614348.
50. Erben-Russ, M, Bors, W & Saran, M (1987) Reactions of linoleic acid peroxyl radicals with phenolic antioxidants: a pulse radiolysis study. Int J Radiat Biol Relat Stud Phys Chem Med 52, 393412.
51. Siti, HN, Kamisah, Y, Kamsiah, J (2015) The role of oxidative stress, antioxidants and vascular inflammation in cardiovascular disease (a review). Vascul Pharmacol 71, 4056.
52. Gonzalez, S, Fernandez, M, Cuervo, A, et al. (2014) Dietary intake of polyphenols and major food sources in an institutionalised elderly population. J Hum Nutr Diet 27, 176183.
53. Miranda, AM, Steluti, J, Fisberg, RM, et al. (2016) Dietary intake and food contributors of polyphenols in adults and elderly adults of Sao Paulo: a population-based study. Br J Nutr 115, 10611070.
54. Grosso, G, Stepaniak, U, Topor-Mądry, R, et al. (2014) Estimated dietary intake and major food sources of polyphenols in the Polish arm of the HAPIEE study. Nutrition 30, 13981403.
55. Scalbert, A & Williamson, G (2000) Dietary intake and bioavailability of polyphenols. J Nutr 130, 2073S2085S.
56. Pandey, KB & Rizvi, SI (2009) Plant polyphenols as dietary antioxidants in human health and disease. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2, 270278.
57. Neveu, V, Perez-Jimenez, J, Vos, F, et al. (2010) Phenol-explorer: an online comprehensive database on polyphenol contents in foods. Database (Oxford) 2010, bap024. http://www.phenol-explorer.eu (accessed March 2019).
58. Bhagwat, S, Haytowitz, DB, & Holden, JM (ret.) (2014) USDA database for the flavonoid content of selected foods. Release 3.1. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. http://www.ars.usda.gov/nutrientdata/flav (accessed March 2019).
59. Hertog, MG, Feskens, EJ, Hollman, PC, et al. (1993) Dietary antioxidant flavonoids and risk of coronary heart disease: the Zutphen Elderly Study. Lancet 342, 10071011.
60. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (2010) USDA Database for the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) of Selected Foods. Release 2.
61. Prior, RL, Hoang, H, Gu, L, et al. (2003). Assays for hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC(FL))) of plasma and other biological and food samples. J Agric Food Chem 51, 32733279.
62. Gillespie, KM, Chae, JM & Ainsworth, EA (2007) Rapid measurement of total antioxidant capacity in plants. Nat Protoc 2, 867870.
63. Litescu, SC, Eremia, S & Radu, GL (2010) Methods for the determination of antioxidant capacity in food and raw materials. Adv Exp Med Biol 698, 241249.
64. Cunningham, E (2013) What has happened to the ORAC database? J Acad Nutr Diet 113, 740.
65. Manach, C, Williamson, G, Morand, C, et al. (2005) Bioavailability and bioefficacy of polyphenols in humans. I. Review of 97 bioavailability studies. Am J Clin Nutr 81, 230S242S.
66. Halliwell, B, Zhao, K & Whiteman, M (2000) The gastrointestinal tract: a major site of antioxidant action? Free Radic Res 33, 819830.
67. Del Rio, D, Rodriguez-Mateos, A, Spencer, JP, et al. (2013) Dietary (poly)phenolics in human health: structures, bioavailability, and evidence of protective effects against chronic diseases. Antioxid Redox Signal 18, 18181892.
68. Lotito, SB, Zhang, WJ, Yang, CS, et al. (2011) Metabolic conversion of dietary flavonoids alters their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Free Radic Biol Med 51, 454463.
69. Loke, WM, Proudfoot, JM, Stewart, S, et al. (2008) Metabolic transformation has a profound effect on anti-inflammatory activity of flavonoids such as quercetin: lack of association between antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitory activity. Biochem Pharmacol 75, 10451053.
70. Williamson, G & Clifford, MN (2017) Role of the small intestine, colon and microbiota in determining the metabolic fate of polyphenols. Biochem Pharmacol 139, 2439.
71. Mullen, W, Edwards, CA & Crozier, A (2006) Absorption, excretion and metabolite profiling of methyl-, glucuronyl-, glucosyl- and sulpho-conjugates of quercetin in human plasma and urine after ingestion of onions. Br J Nutr 96, 107116.
72. Inoue-Choi, M, Yuan, JM, Yang, CS, et al. (2010) Genetic association between the COMT genotype and urinary levels of tea polyphenols and their metabolites among daily green tea drinkers. Int J Mol Epidemiol Genet 1, 114123.
73. Gibney, ER, Milenkovic, D, Combet, E, et al. (2019) Factors influencing the cardiometabolic response to (poly)phenols and phytosterols: a review of the COST Action POSITIVe activities. Eur J Nutr 58, Suppl. 2, 3747.
74. Kawabata, K, Yoshioka, Y & Terao, J (2019) Role of intestinal microbiota in the bioavailability and physiological functions of dietary polyphenols. Molecules 24, E370.
75. Fernandez-Millan, E, Ramos, S, Alvarez, C, et al. (2014) Microbial phenolic metabolites improve glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and protect pancreatic beta cells against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced toxicity via ERKs and PKC pathways. Food Chem Toxicol 66, 245253.
76. Gonzalez-Sarrias, A, Garcia-Villalba, R, Romo-Vaquero, M, et al. (2017) Clustering according to urolithin metabotype explains the interindividual variability in the improvement of cardiovascular risk biomarkers in overweight-obese individuals consuming pomegranate: a randomized clinical trial. Mol Nutr Food Res 61, 1600830.
77. Hazim, S, Curtis, PJ, Schar, MY, et al. (2016) Acute benefits of the microbial-derived isoflavone metabolite equol on arterial stiffness in men prospectively recruited according to equol producer phenotype: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 103, 694702.
78. Forman, HJ, Davies, KJ & Ursini, F (2014) How do nutritional antioxidants really work: nucleophilic tone and para-hormesis versus free radical scavenging in vivo . Free Radic Biol Med 66, 2435.
79. Krga, I, Milenkovic, D, Morand, C, et al. (2016) An update on the role of nutrigenomic modulations in mediating the cardiovascular protective effect of fruit polyphenols. Food Funct 7, 36563676.
80. Kim, HS, Quon, MJ & Kim, JA (2014) New insights into the mechanisms of polyphenols beyond antioxidant properties; lessons from the green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin 3-gallate. Redox Biol 2, 187195.
81. Goszcz, K, Duthie, GG, Stewart, D, et al. (2017) Bioactive polyphenols and cardiovascular disease: chemical antagonists, pharmacological agents or xenobiotics that drive an adaptive response? Br J Pharmacol 174, 12091225.
82. Kerimi, A & Williamson, G (2016) At the interface of antioxidant signalling and cellular function: key polyphenol effects. Mol Nutr Food Res 60, 17701788.
83. Monfoulet, LE, Mercier, S, Bayle, D, et al. (2017) Curcumin modulates endothelial permeability and monocyte transendothelial migration by affecting endothelial cell dynamics. Free Radic Biol Med 112, 109120.
84. Krga, I, Tamaian, R, Mercier, S, et al. (2018) Anthocyanins and their gut metabolites attenuate monocyte adhesion and transendothelial migration through nutrigenomic mechanisms regulating endothelial cell permeability. Free Radic Biol Med 124, 364379.
85. Alvarez-Cilleros, D, Ramos, S, Goya, L, et al. (2018) Colonic metabolites from flavanols stimulate nitric oxide production in human endothelial cells and protect against oxidative stress-induced toxicity and endothelial dysfunction. Food Chem Toxicol 115, 8897.
86. Milenkovic, D, Berghe, WV, Morand, C, et al. (2018) A systems biology network analysis of nutri(epi)genomic changes in endothelial cells exposed to epicatechin metabolites. Sci Rep 8, 15487.
87. Rattan, S (2014) Aging, health, hormesis and future lines of investigation. Aging Sci 2, 1000e111.
88. Son, TG, Camandola, S & Mattson, MP (2008) Hormetic dietary phytochemicals. Neuromolecular Med 10, 236246.
89. Lewandowska, U, Szewczyk, K, Hrabec, E, et al. (2013) Overview of metabolism and bioavailability enhancement of polyphenols. J Agric Food Chem 61, 1218312199.
90. Yates, AA, Erdman, JW Jr, Shao, A, et al. (2017) Bioactive nutrients – time for tolerable upper intake levels to address safety. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 84, 94101.
91. Guo, F, Moellering, RD & Garvey, WT (2014) The progression of cardiometabolic disease: validation of a new cardiometabolic disease staging system applicable to obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring) 22, 110118.
92. Bondonno, CP, Yang, X, Croft, KD, et al. (2012) Flavonoid-rich apples and nitrate-rich spinach augment nitric oxide status and improve endothelial function in healthy men and women: a randomized controlled trial. Free Radic Biol Med 52, 95102.
93. Medina-Remon, A, Zamora-Ros, R, Rotches-Ribalta, M, et al. (2011) Total polyphenol excretion and blood pressure in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 21, 323331.
94. Sarria, B, Mateos, R, Sierra-Cinos, JL, et al. (2012) Hypotensive, hypoglycaemic and antioxidant effects of consuming a cocoa product in moderately hypercholesterolemic humans. Food Funct 3, 867874.
95. Khan, N, Monagas, M, Andres-Lacueva, C, et al. (2012) Regular consumption of cocoa powder with milk increases HDL cholesterol and reduces oxidized LDL levels in subjects at high-risk of cardiovascular disease. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 22, 10461053.
96. Sarria, B, Martinez-Lopez, S, Sierra-Cinos, JL, et al. (2015) Effects of bioactive constituents in functional cocoa products on cardiovascular health in humans. Food Chem 174, 214218.
97. Martinez-Lopez, S, Sarria, B, Sierra-Cinos, JL, et al. (2014) Realistic intake of a flavanol-rich soluble cocoa product increases HDL-cholesterol without inducing anthropometric changes in healthy and moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. Food Funct 5, 364374.
98. Covas, MI, Nyyssonen, K, Poulsen, HE, et al. (2006) The effect of polyphenols in olive oil on heart disease risk factors: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 145, 333341.
99. Annuzzi, G, Bozzetto, L, Costabile, G, et al. (2014) Diets naturally rich in polyphenols improve fasting and postprandial dyslipidemia and reduce oxidative stress: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 99, 463471.
100. Paquette, M, Medina Larque, AS, Weisnagel, SJ, et al. (2017) Strawberry and cranberry polyphenols improve insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant, non-diabetic adults: a parallel, double-blind, controlled and randomised clinical trial. Br J Nutr 117, 519531.
101. Bozzetto, L, Annuzzi, G, Pacini, G, et al. (2015) Polyphenol-rich diets improve glucose metabolism in people at high cardiometabolic risk: a controlled randomised intervention trial. Diabetologia 58, 15511560.
102. Grassi, D, Lippi, C, Necozione, S, et al. (2005) Short-term administration of dark chocolate is followed by a significant increase in insulin sensitivity and a decrease in blood pressure in healthy persons. Am J Clin Nutr 81, 611614.
103. Dower, JI, Geleijnse, JM, Gijsbers, L, et al. (2015) Effects of the pure flavonoids epicatechin and quercetin on vascular function and cardiometabolic health: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Am J Clin Nutr 101, 914921.
104. Wedick, NM, Pan, A, Cassidy, A, et al. (2012) Dietary flavonoid intakes and risk of type 2 diabetes in US men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 95, 925933.
105. Hooper, L, Kroon, PA, Rimm, EB, et al. (2008) Flavonoids, flavonoid-rich foods, and cardiovascular risk: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 3850.
106. Haghighatdoost, F & Hariri, M (2019) Can resveratrol supplement change inflammatory mediators? A systematic review and meta-analysis on randomized clinical trials. Eur J Clin Nutr 73, 345355.
107. Momose, Y, Maeda-Yamamoto, M & Nabetani, H (2016) Systematic review of green tea epigallocatechin gallate in reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of humans. Int J Food Sci Nutr 67, 606613.
108. Martin, MA, Goya, L & Ramos, S (2017) Protective effects of tea, red wine and cocoa in diabetes. Evidences from human studies. Food Chem Toxicol 109, 302314.
109. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) (2010) Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to cocoa flavanols and protection of lipids from oxidative damage (ID 652, 1372, 1506, 3143), and maintenance of normal blood pressure (ID 1507) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA J 8, 1792.
110. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) (2012) Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to cocoa flavanols and maintenance of normal endothelium-dependent vasodilation pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA J 10, 2809.
111. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) (2011) Scientific opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to polyphenols in olive and protection of LDL particles from oxidative damage (ID 1333, 1638, 1639, 1696, 2865), maintenance of normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations (ID 1639), maintenance of normal blood pressure (ID 3781), ‘anti-inflammatory properties’ (ID 1882), ‘contributes to the upper respiratory tract health’ (ID 3468), ‘can help to maintain a normal function of gastrointestinal tract’ (3779), and ‘contributes to body defences against external agents’ (ID 3467) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA J 9, 2033.
112. Woerdeman, J, Del Rio, D, Calani, L, et al. (2018) Red wine polyphenols do not improve obesity-associated insulin resistance: a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Obes Metab 20, 206210.
113. Auclair, S, Chironi, G, Milenkovic, D, et al. (2010) The regular consumption of a polyphenol-rich apple does not influence endothelial function: a randomised double-blind trial in hypercholesterolemic adults. Eur J Clin Nutr 64, 11581165.
114. Manach, C, Milenkovic, D, Van de Wiele, T, et al. (2017) Addressing the inter-individual variation in response to consumption of plant food bioactives: towards a better understanding of their role in healthy aging and cardiometabolic risk reduction. Mol Nutr Food Res 61, 1600557.
115. Milenkovic, D, Morand, C, Cassidy, A, et al. (2017) Interindividual variability in biomarkers of cardiometabolic health after consumption of major plant-food bioactive compounds and the determinants involved. Adv Nutr 8, 558570.
116. Menezes, R, Rodriguez-Mateos, A, Kaltsatou, A, et al. (2017) Impact of flavonols on cardiometabolic biomarkers: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled human trials to explore the role of inter-individual variability. Nutrients 9, E117.
117. Gonzalez-Sarrias, A, Combet, E, Pinto, P, et al. (2017) A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of flavanol-containing tea, cocoa and apple products on body composition and blood lipids: exploring the factors responsible for variability in their efficacy. Nutrients 9, 746.
118. Garcia-Conesa, MT, Chambers, K, Combet, E, et al. (2018) Meta-analysis of the effects of foods and derived products containing ellagitannins and anthocyanins on cardiometabolic biomarkers: analysis of factors influencing variability of the individual responses. Int J Mol Sci 19, E694.
119. Martini, D, Chiavaroli, L, Gonzalez-Sarrias, A, et al. (2019) Impact of foods and dietary supplements containing hydroxycinnamic acids on cardiometabolic biomarkers: a systematic review to explore inter-individual variability. Nutrients 11, E1805.

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Polyphenols in human nutrition: from the in vitro antioxidant capacity to the beneficial effects on cardiometabolic health and related inter-individual variability – an overview and perspective

  • T. Ruskovska (a1), V. Maksimova (a1) and D. Milenkovic (a2) (a3)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.