Ytrestøyl, T, Aas, TS & Åsgård, T (2015) Utilisation of feed resources in production of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Norway. Aquaculture 448, 365–374.
Shepherd, CJ, Monroig, O & Tocher, DR (2017) Future availability of raw materials for salmon feeds and supply chain implications: the case of Scottish farmed salmon. Aquaculture 467, 49–62.
Tacon, AG & Metian, M (2015) Feed matters: satisfying the feed demand of aquaculture. Rev Fish Sci Aquac 23, 1–10.
Ruyter, B, Røsjø, C, Einen, O, et al. (2000) Essential fatty acids in Atlantic salmon: time course of changes in fatty acid composition of liver, blood and carcass induced by a diet deficient in n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. Aquac Nutr 6, 109–117.
Bou, M, Berge, GM, Baeverfjord, G, et al. (2017) Requirements of n-3 very long-chain PUFA in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L): effects of different dietary levels of EPA and DHA on fish performance and tissue composition and integrity. Br J Nutr 117, 30–47.
Smith, WL & Murphy, RC (2002) The eicosanoids: cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and epoxygenase pathways. In New Comprehensive Biochemistry, vol. 36, pp. 341–371, chapter 13. New York: Elsevier.
Miyazaki, M & Ntambi, JM (2008) Fatty acid desaturation and chain elongation in mammals. In Biochemistry of Lipids, Lipoproteins and Membranes, pp. 191–211. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Nichols, P, Glencross, B, Petrie, J, et al. (2014) Readily available sources of long-chain omega-3 oils: is farmed Australian seafood a better source of the good oil than wild-caught seafood? Nutrients 6, 1063–1079.
Sissener, NH (2018) Are we what we eat? Changes to the feed fatty acid composition of farmed salmon and its effects through the food chain. J Exp Biol 221, jeb161521.
Sprague, M, Dick, JR & Tocher, DR (2016) Impact of sustainable feeds on omega-3 long-chain fatty acid levels in farmed Atlantic salmon, 2006–2015. Sci Rep 6, 21892.
Bou, M (2017) Metabolism of omega-3 very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L): effects of different dietary levels of EPA and DHA on fish performance and health. Philosophiae Doctor (PhD) Thesis, Norwegian University of Life Sciences.
Kitessa, S, Abeywardena, M, Wijesundera, C, et al. (2014) DHA-containing oilseed: a timely solution for the sustainability issues surrounding fish oil sources of the health-benefitting long-chain omega-3 oils. Nutrients 6, 2035–2058.
Petrie, JR, Shrestha, P, Zhou, X-R, et al. (2012) Metabolic engineering plant seeds with fish oil-like levels of DHA. PLOS ONE 7, e49165.
Petrie, JR, Shrestha, P, Liu, Q, et al. (2010) Rapid expression of transgenes driven by seed-specific constructs in leaf tissue: DHA production. Plant Methods 6, 8.
Petrie, JR, Zhou, X-R, Leonforte, A, et al. (2019) Development of a Brassica napus (canola) crop with fish oil-like levels of DHA in seed oil (In the Press).
Sissener, NH, Sanden, M, Krogdahl, Å, et al. (2011) Genetically modified plants as fish feed ingredients. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 68, 563–574.
Betancor, M, Sprague, M, Usher, S, et al. (2015) A nutritionally-enhanced oil from transgenic Camelina sativa effectively replaces fish oil as a source of eicosapentaenoic acid for fish. Sci Rep 5, 8104.
Thomassen, MS, Rein, D, Berge, GM, et al. (2012) High dietary EPA does not inhibit Δ5 and Δ6 desaturases in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fed rapeseed oil diets. Aquaculture 360, 78–85.
Glencross, BD, Tocher, DR, Matthew, C, et al. (2014) Interactions between dietary docosahexaenoic acid and other long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on performance and fatty acid retention in post-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Fish Physiol Biochem 40, 1213–1227.
Emery, JA, Norambuena, F, Trushenski, J, et al. (2016) Uncoupling EPA and DHA in fish nutrition: dietary demand is limited in Atlantic salmon and effectively met by DHA alone. Lipids 51, 399–412.
Julshamn, K, Brenna, J, Holland, R, et al. (1999) Plasma source mass spectrometry – new developments and applications. Royal Soc Chem 241, 167–172.
Folch, J, Lees, M & Sloane Stanley, G (1957) A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipides from animal tissues. J Biol Chem 226, 497–509.
Mason, ME, Eager, ME & Waller, GR (1964) A procedure for the simultaneous quantitative determination of glycerol and fatty acid contents of fats and oils. Anal Chem 36, 587–590.
Livak, KJ & Schmittgen, TD (2001) Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2− ΔΔCT method. Methods 25, 402–408.
Sissener, NH, Rosenlund, G, Stubhaug, I, et al. (2018) Tissue sterol composition in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) depends on the dietary cholesterol content and on the dietary phytosterol:cholesterol ratio, but not on the dietary phytosterol content. Br J Nutr 119, 599–609.
Laakso, P (2005) Analysis of sterols from various food matrices. Eur J Lipid Sci Tech 107, 402–410.
Comité Européen de Normalisation (CEN) (1999) Foodstuffs – determination of vitamin E by high performance liquid chromatography: measurement of alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherols, prEN 12822. Brussels: Comité Européen de Normalisation.
Graff, I, Krossøy, C, Gjerdevik, K, et al. (2010) Influence of dietary menadione nicotinamide bisulphite (vitamin K3) and phylloquinone (vitamin K1) on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) tissue levels, determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Aquac Nutr 16, 637–647.
Baudhuin, P, Beaufay, H, Rahman-Li, Y, et al. (1964) Tissue fractionation studies. 17. Intracellular distribution of monoamine oxidase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, D-amino acid oxidase and catalase in rat-liver tissue. Biochem J 92, 179.
Evans, AM, DeHaven, CD, Barrett, T, et al. (2009) Integrated, nontargeted ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry platform for the identification and relative quantification of the small-molecule complement of biological systems. Anal Chem 81, 6656–6667.
Reitman, ZJ, Jin, G, Karoly, ED, et al. (2011) Profiling the effects of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 mutations on the cellular metabolome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108, 3270–3275.
Dehaven, CD, Evans, AM, Dai, H, et al. (2010) Organization of GC/MS and LC/MS metabolomics data into chemical libraries. J Cheminform 2, 9.
Betancor, M, Sprague, M, Sayanova, O, et al. (2015) Evaluation of a high-EPA oil from transgenic Camelina sativa in feeds for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.): effects on tissue fatty acid composition, histology and gene expression. Aquaculture 444, 1–12.
Tocher, DR, Betancor, MB, Sprague, M et al. (2019) Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, EPA and DHA: bridging the gap between supply and demand. Nutrients 11, 89.
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (2011) Revised consensus document on compositional considerations for new varieties of low erucic acid rapeseed (canola): key food and feed nutrients, anti-nutrients and toxicants series on the safety of novel foods and feeds, no. 24, Paris: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. https://www.oecd.org/env/ehs/biotrack/49343153.pdf
Betancor, MB, Li, K, Sprague, M, et al. (2017) An oil containing EPA and DHA from transgenic Camelina sativa to replace marine fish oil in feeds for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.): effects on intestinal transcriptome, histology, tissue fatty acid profiles and plasma biochemistry. PLOS ONE 12, e0175415.
Bou, M, Berge, GM, Baeverfjord, G, et al. (2017) Low levels of very-long-chain n-3 PUFA in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) diet reduce fish robustness under challenging conditions in sea cages. J Nutr Sci 6, e32.
Abidi, SL, List, GR & Rennick, KA (1999) Effect of genetic modification on the distribution of minor constituents in canola oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc 76, 463–467.
Sissener, NH, Liland, NS, Holen, E, et al. (2017) Phytosterols are not involved in the development of fatty liver in plant oil fed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at high or low water temperature. Aquaculture 480, 123–134.
Kortner, TM, Björkhem, I, Krasnov, A, et al. (2014) Dietary cholesterol supplementation to a plant-based diet suppresses the complete pathway of cholesterol synthesis and induces bile acid production in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Br J Nutr 111, 2089–2103.
Park, C, Choi, J, Jin, Y, et al. (2019) Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, but not α-linolenic acid, decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol synergistically with estrogen via regulation of cholesterol synthesis and clearance in ovariectomized rats. Nutr Res 66, 13–21.
Sissener, N, Torstensen, B, Owen, M, et al. (2017) Temperature modulates liver lipid accumulation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fed low dietary levels of long-chain n-3 fatty acids. Aquac Nutr 23, 865–878.
Todorčević, M, Vegusdal, A, Gjøen, T, et al. (2008) Changes in fatty acids metabolism during differentiation of Atlantic salmon preadipocytes; effects of n-3 and n-9 fatty acids. Biochim Biophys Acta 1781, 326–335.