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Multi-frequency impedance for the prediction of extracellular water and total body water

  • Paul Deurenberg (a1), Anna Tagliabue (a2) and Frans J. M. Schouten (a1)

Abstract

The relationship between total body water (TBW) and extracellular water (ECW), measured by deuterium oxide dilution and bromide dilution respectively, and impedance and impedance index (height2/impedance) at 1, 5, 50 and 100 kHz was studied. After correction for TBW, ECW was correlated only with the impedance index at 1 and 5 kHz. After correction for ECW, TBW was best correlated with the impedance index at 100 kHz. The correlation of body-water compartments with impedance values obtained with modelling programs was lower than with measured impedance values. Prediction formulas for ECW (at 1 and 5 kHz) and TBW (at 50 and 100 kHz) were developed. The prediction errors for ECW and TBW were 1·0 and 1·7 kg respectively (coefficient of variation 5%). The residuals of both ECW and TBW were related to the ECW/TBW value. Application of the prediction formulas in a population, independently measured, revealed a slight overestimation of TBW and ECW, which could be largely explained by differences in the validation group in body-water distribution and in body builds. The ratio of impedance at 1 kHz to impedance at 100 kHz was correlated with body-water distribution (ECW/TBW). The relation is however not strong enough to be useful as a predictor. It is concluded that an independent prediction of ECW and TBW, using impedance at low and high frequency respectively, is possible, but that the bias depends on the body-water distribution and body build of the measured subject.

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Keywords

Multi-frequency impedance for the prediction of extracellular water and total body water

  • Paul Deurenberg (a1), Anna Tagliabue (a2) and Frans J. M. Schouten (a1)

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