Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Milk and risk of colorectal, colon and rectal cancer in the Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) Cohort Study

  • Toril Bakken (a1), Tonje Braaten (a1), Anja Olsen (a2), Anette Hjartåker (a3), Eiliv Lund (a1) and Guri Skeie (a1)...

Abstract

According to World Cancer Research Fund International/American Institute for Cancer Research, it is ‘probable’ that dairy products decrease the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, meta-analyses restricted to women have not shown associations between milk intake and risk of CRC. The aim of this study was to examine the association between milk intake and risk of CRC, colon cancer and rectal cancer among women. Data from 81 675 participants in the Norwegian Women and Cancer Cohort Study were included, and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to investigate milk intake using two different analytical approaches: one that included repeated measurements and one that included baseline measurements only (872 and 1084 CRC cases, respectively). A weak inverse association between milk intake and risk of colon cancer may be indicated both in repeated measurements analyses and in baseline data analyses. Hazard ratios (HR) for colon cancer of 0·80 (95 % CI 0·62, 1·03, P trend 0·07) and 0·81 (95 % CI 0·64, 1·01, P trend 0·03) and HR for rectal cancer of 0·97 (95 % CI 0·67, 1·42, P trend 0·92) and 0·71 (95 % CI 0·50, 1·01, P trend 0·03) were found when comparing the high with the no/seldom milk intake group in energy-adjusted multivariable models. Our study indicates that there may be a weak inverse association between milk intake and risk of colon cancer among women. The two analytical approaches yielded different results for rectal cancer and hence CRC. Our study indicates that the use of single or repeated measurements in analyses may influence the results.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Milk and risk of colorectal, colon and rectal cancer in the Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) Cohort Study
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Milk and risk of colorectal, colon and rectal cancer in the Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) Cohort Study
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Milk and risk of colorectal, colon and rectal cancer in the Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) Cohort Study
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: T. Bakken, fax +47 7764 4831, email toril.bakken@uit.no

References

Hide All
1. International Agency for Research on Cancer/World Health Organization (2012) GLOBOCAN 2012: estimated cancer incidence, mortality and prevalence worldwide in 2012. http://globocan.iarc.fr/Pages/fact_sheets_cancer.aspx (accessed March 2017).
2. Aleksandrova, K, Pischon, T, Jenab, M, et al. (2014) Combined impact of healthy lifestyle factors on colorectal cancer: a large European cohort study. BMC Med 12, 168.
3. World Cancer Research Fund International/American Institute for Cancer Research (2017) Continuous Update Project Report. Diet, Nutrition, Physical Activity and Colorectal Cancer 2017. WCRF Network. London/Washington, DC: World Cancer Research Fund International/American Institute for Cancer Research.
4. Vieira, AR, Abar, L, Chan, D, et al. (2017) Foods and beverages and colorectal cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies, an update of the evidence of the WCRF-AICR Continuous Update Project. Ann Oncol 28, 17881802.
5. Ralston, RA, Truby, H, Palermo, CE, et al. (2014) Colorectal cancer and nonfermented milk, solid cheese, and fermented milk consumption: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 54, 11671179.
6. World Cancer Research Fund International (2017) World Cancer Research Fund International Systematic Literature Review. The Associations Between Food, Nutrition and Physical Activity and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer. London: World Cancer Research Fund International.
7. Norat, T & Riboli, E (2003) Dairy products and colorectal cancer. A review of possible mechanisms and epidemiological evidence. Eur J Clin Nutr 57, 117.
8. Lamprecht, SA & Lipkin, M (2001) Cellular mechanisms of calcium and vitamin D in the inhibition of colorectal carcinogenesis. Ann N Y Acad Sci 952, 7387.
9. Bodana, AR & Rao, DR (1990) Antimutagenic activity of milk fermented by Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus . J Dairy Sci 73, 33793384.
10. Elfahri, KR, Vasiljevic, T, Yeager, T, et al. (2016) Anti-colon cancer and antioxidant activities of bovine skim milk fermented by selected Lactobacillus helveticus strains. J Dairy Sci 99, 3140.
11. Rafter, J (2003) Probiotics and colon cancer. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 17, 849859.
12. Kelley, NS, Hubbard, NE & Erickson, KL (2007) Conjugated linoleic acid isomers and cancer. J Nutr 137, 25992607.
13. Parodi, PW (1997) Cows’ milk fat components as potential anticarcinogenic agents. J Nutr 127, 10551060.
14. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2017) Milk and milk products. http://www.fao.org/agriculture/dairy-gateway/milk-and-milk-products/en/#.V2LjaE3VwyE (accessed March 2017).
15. Norwegian Directorate of Health (2015) Utviklingen i norsk kosthold. Matforsyningsstatistikk (Changes in Norwegian Diet. Food Disappearance Data). Oslo: Norwegian Directorate of Health.
16. Norwegian Directorate of Health (2012) Utviklingen i norsk kosthold. Matforsyningsstatistikk (Changes in Norwegian Diet. Food Disappearance Data). Oslo: Norwegian Directorate of Health.
17. Hjartaker, A, Lagiou, A, Slimani, N, et al. (2002) Consumption of dairy products in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort: Data from 35 955 24-hour dietary recalls in 10 European countries. Public Health Nutr 5, 12591271.
18. Hjartaker, A, Thoresen, M, Engeset, D, et al. (2010) Dairy consumption and calcium intake and risk of breast cancer in a prospective cohort: the Norwegian Women and Cancer study. Cancer Causes Control 21, 18751885.
19. Borch, KB, Ekelund, U, Brage, S, et al. (2012) Criterion validity of a 10-category scale for ranking physical activity in Norwegian women. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 9, 2.
20. Hjartaker, A, Andersen, LF & Lund, E (2007) Comparison of diet measures from a food-frequency questionnaire with measures from repeated 24-hour dietary recalls. The Norwegian Women and Cancer Study. Public Health Nutr 10, 10941103.
21. Lund, E, Dumeaux, V, Braaten, T, et al. (2008) Cohort profile: The Norwegian Women and Cancer Study – NOWAC – Kvinner og kreft. Int J Epidemiol 37, 3641.
22. Lund, E, Kumle, M, Braaten, T, et al. (2003) External validity in a population-based national prospective study - The Norwegian Women and Cancer Study (NOWAC). Cancer Causes Control 14, 10011008.
23. Parr, CL, Veierød, MB, Laake, P, et al. (2006) Test-retest reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and estimated effects on disease risk in the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study (NOWAC). Nutr J 5, 4.
24. Skeie, G, Mode, N, Henningsen, M, et al. (2015) Validity of self-reported body mass index among middle-aged participants in the Norwegian Women and Cancer study. Clin Epidemiol 7, 313323.
25. Hjartaker, A, Lund, E & Bjerve, KS (1997) Serum phospholipid fatty acid composition and habitual intake of marine foods registered by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Eur J Clin Nutr 51, 736742.
26. National Association for Diet and Health (1995) Mål og vekt for matvarer (Norwegian Weight and Measurement Table). Oslo: National Association for Diet and Health.
27. National Council on Nutrition and Physical Activity, Norway Norwegian Food Safety Authority & University of Oslo (2001) Den store matvaretabellen (Norwegian Food Composition Table). Oslo: National Council on Nutrition and Physical Activity in Norway, Norwegian Food Safety Authority. University of Oslo.
28. Oostindjer, M, Alexander, J, Amdam, GV, et al. (2014) The role of red and processed meat in colorectal cancer development: a perspective. Meat Sci 97, 583596.
29. Larsen, IK, Smastuen, M, Johannesen, TB, et al. (2009) Data quality at the Cancer Registry of Norway: An overview of comparability, completeness, validity and timeliness. Eur J Cancer 45, 12181231.
30. Norwegian Food Safety Authority (1999) Norkost 1993-94 og 1997. Landsomfattende kostholdsundersøkelser blant menn og kvinner i alderen 16-79 år (Nationwide Dietary Survey in Norway Among Men and Women Aged 16-79 Years, 1993-94 and 1997). Oslo: Norwegian Food Safety Authority.
31. University of Oslo, Norwegian Food Safety Authority & Norwegian Directorate of Health (2012) Norkost 3. En landsomfattende kostholdsundersøkelse blant menn og kvinner i Norge i alderen 18-70 år, 2010-11 (Nationwide Dietary Survey in Norway Among Men and Women Aged 18-70 Years, 2010-11), ]. Oslo: University of Oslo. Norwegian Food Safety Authority. Norwegian Directorate of Health, 2012.
32. Wu, K, Willett, WC, Fuchs, CS, et al. (2002) Calcium intake and risk of colon cancer in women and men. J Natl Cancer Inst 94, 437446.
33. Lee, SA, Shu, XO, Yang, G, et al. (2009) Animal origin foods and colorectal cancer risk: a report from the Shanghai Women’s Health Study. Nutr Cancer 61, 194205.
34. Martinez, ME, Giovannucci, EL, Colditz, GA, et al. (1996) Calcium, vitamin D, and the occurrence of colorectal cancer among women. J Natl Cancer Inst 88, 13751382.
35. Ursin, G, Bjelke, E, Heuch, I, et al. (1990) Milk consumption and cancer incidence: a Norwegian prospective study. Br J Cancer 61, 454459.
36. Park, SY, Murphy, SP, Wilkens, LR, et al. (2007) Calcium and vitamin D intake and risk of colorectal cancer: The Multiethnic Cohort Study. Am J Epidemiol 165, 784793.
37. Kesse, E, Boutron-Ruault, MC, Norat, T, et al. (2005) Dietary calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D, dairy products and the risk of colorectal adenoma and cancer among French women of the E3N-EPIC prospective study. Int J Cancer 117, 137144.
38. Lin, J, Zhang, SM, Cook, NR, et al. (2005) Intakes of calcium and vitamin D and risk of colorectal cancer in women. Am J Epidemiol 161, 755764.
39. McCullough, ML, Robertson, AS, Rodriguez, C, et al. (2003) Calcium, vitamin D, dairy products, and risk of colorectal cancer in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort (United States). Cancer Causes Control 14, 112.
40. Kampman, E, Goldbohm, RA, van den Brandt, PA, et al. (1994) Fermented dairy products, calcium, and colorectal cancer in The Netherlands Cohort Study. Cancer Res 54, 31863190.
41. Kearney, J, Giovannucci, E, Rimm, EB, et al. (1996) Calcium, vitamin D, and dairy foods and the occurrence of colon cancer in men. Am J Epidemiol 143, 907917.
42. Singh, PN & Fraser, GE (1998) Dietary risk factors for colon cancer in a low-risk population. Am J Epidemiol 148, 761774.
43. Pietinen, P, Malila, N, Virtanen, M, et al. (1999) Diet and risk of colorectal cancer in a cohort of Finnish men. Cancer Causes Control 10, 387396.
44. Jarvinen, R, Knekt, P, Hakulinen, T, et al. (2001) Prospective study on milk products, calcium and cancers of the colon and rectum. Eur J Clin Nutr 55, 10001007.
45. Sanjoaquin, MA, Appleby, PN, Thorogood, M, et al. (2004) Nutrition, lifestyle and colorectal cancer incidence: a prospective investigation of 10998 vegetarians and non-vegetarians in the United Kingdom. Br J Cancer 90, 118121.
46. Larsson, SC, Bergkvist, L, Rutegard, J, et al. (2006) Calcium and dairy food intakes are inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in the Cohort of Swedish Men. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 667673.
47. Gaard, M, Tretli, S & Loken, EB (1996) Dietary factors and risk of colon cancer: a prospective study of 50,535 young Norwegian men and women. Eur J Cancer Prev 5, 445454.
48. Tantamango-Bartley, Y, Knutsen, SF, Jaceldo-Siegl, K, et al. (2017) Independent associations of dairy and calcium intakes with colorectal cancers in the Adventist Health Study-2 cohort. Public Health Nutr 20, 25772586.
49. Simons, CC, Leurs, LJ, Weijenberg, MP, et al. (2010) Fluid intake and colorectal cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Nutr Cancer 62, 307321.
50. Murphy, N, Norat, T, Ferrari, P, et al. (2013) Consumption of dairy products and colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). PLOS ONE 8, e72715.
51. Frattini, M, Balestra, D, Suardi, S, et al. (2004) Different genetic features associated with colon and rectal carcinogenesis. Clin Cancer Res 10, 40154021.
52. Kapiteijn, E, Liefers, GJ, Los, LC, et al. (2001) Mechanisms of oncogenesis in colon versus rectal cancer. J Pathol 195, 171178.
53. Huncharek, M, Muscat, J & Kupelnick, B (2009) Colorectal cancer risk and dietary intake of calcium, vitamin D, and dairy products: a meta-analysis of 26,335 cases from 60 observational studies. Nutr Cancer 61, 4769.
54. Theodoratou, E, Timofeeva, M, Li, X, et al. (2017) Nature, nurture, and cancer risks: genetic and nutritional contributions to cancer. Annu Rev Nutr 37, 293320.
55. Norwegian Directorate of Health, Norwegian Food Safety Authority & University of Oslo (2016) Matvaretabellen (Norwegian food composition table). http://www.matvaretabellen.no/ (accessed March 2017).
56. Newmark, HL & Lipkin, M (1992) Calcium, vitamin D, and colon cancer. Cancer Res 52, S2067S2070.
57. Lamprecht, SA & Lipkin, M (2003) Chemoprevention of colon cancer by calcium, vitamin D and folate: Molecular mechanisms. Nat Rev Cancer 3, 601614.
58. Rogers, AC, Hanly, AM, Collins, D, et al. (2012) Review article: loss of the calcium-sensing receptor in colonic epithelium is a key event in the pathogenesis of colon cancer. Clin Colorectal Cancer 11, 2430.
59. Cho, E, Smith-Warner, SA, Spiegelman, D, et al. (2004) Dairy foods, calcium, and colorectal cancer: a pooled analysis of 10 cohort studies. J Natl Cancer Inst 96, 10151022.
60. Skeie, G, Braaten, T, Hjartaker, A, et al. (2009) Use of dietary supplements in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition calibration study. Eur J Clin Nutr 63, S226S238.
61. Pufulete, M (2008) Intake of dairy products and risk of colorectal neoplasia. Nutr Res Rev 21, 5667.
62. Touvier, M, Chan, DS, Lau, R, et al. (2011) Meta-analyses of vitamin D intake, 25-hydroxyvitamin D status, vitamin D receptor polymorphisms, and colorectal cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 20, 10031016.
63. Haug, A, Høstmark, AT & Harstad, OM (2007) Bovine milk in human nutrition – a review. Lipids Health Dis 6, 25.
64. Ollberding, NJ, Nomura, AM, Wilkens, LR, et al. (2011) Racial/ethnic differences in colorectal cancer risk: the multiethnic cohort study. Int J Cancer 129, 18991906.

Keywords

Milk and risk of colorectal, colon and rectal cancer in the Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) Cohort Study

  • Toril Bakken (a1), Tonje Braaten (a1), Anja Olsen (a2), Anette Hjartåker (a3), Eiliv Lund (a1) and Guri Skeie (a1)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed