Appel, LJ, Moore, TJ, Obarzanek, E, et al., A clinical trial of the effects of dietary patternson blood pressure. DASH Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med 1997 336, 1117–1124.
Bentler, PMMutivariate analysis with latent variables: causal modeling. Annu Rev Psychol 1980 31, 11–21.
Bland, JM & Altman, DGCronbach's alpha. BMJ 1997 314, 572.
de Lorgeril, M, Salen, P, Martin, JL, Monjaud, I, Delaye, J & Mamelle, NMediterranean diet, traditional risk factors, and the rate of cardiovascular complications after myocardial infarction: final report of the Lyon Diet Heart study. Circulation 1999 99, 779–785.
Diehr, P & Beresford, SAThe relation of dietary patterns to future survival, health, and cardiovascular events in older adults. J Clin Epidemiol 2003 56, 1224–1235.
Esposito, K, Marfella, R, Ciotola, M, Di Palo, C, Giugliano, GD'Armiento, M, D'Andrea, F & Giugliano, DEffect of a Mediterranean-style diet on endothelial dysfunction and markers of vascular inflammationin the metabolic syndrome: a randomized trial. JAMA 2004 292, 1440–1446.
Farchi, G, Mariotti, S, Menotti, A, Seccareccia, F, Torsello, S & Fidanza, FDiet and 20-y mortality in two rural population groups of middle-aged men in Italy. Am J Clin Nutr 1989 50, 1095–1103.
Fung, TT, Hu, FB, Holmes, MD, Rosner, BA, Hunter, DJ, Colditz, GA & Willett, WCDietary patterns and the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Int J Cancer 2005a 116, 116–121.
Fung, TT, McCullough, ML, Newby, P, Manson, JE, Meigs, JB, Rifai, N, Willett, WC & Hu, FBDiet-quality scores and plasma concentrations of markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Am J Clin Nutr 2005b 82, 163–173.
Fung, TT, Rimm, EB, Spiegelman, D, Rifai, N, Tofler, GH, Willett, WC & Hu, FBAssociation between dietary patterns and plasma biomarkers of obesity and cardiovascular disease risk. Am J Clin Nutr 2001a 73, 61–67.
Fung, TT, Schulze, M, Manson, JE, Willett, WC & HU, FBpatterns, meat intake, and the risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Arch Intern Med 2004a 164, 2235–2240.
Fung, TT, Stampfer, MJ, Manson, JE, Rexrode, KM, Willett, WC & Hu, FBProspective study of major dietary patterns and stroke risk in women. Stroke 2004b 35, 2014–2019.
Fung, TT, Willett, WC, Stampfer, MJ, Manson, JE & Hu, FBDietary patterns and the risk of coronary heart disease in women. Arch Intern Med 2001b 1857, 1862–.
Gittelsohn, J, Wolever, TM, Harris, SB, Harris-Giraldo, R, Hanley, AJ & Zinman, BSpecific patterns of food consumption and preparation are associated with diabetes and obesity in a Native Canadian community. J Nutr 1998 128, 541–547.
Heidemann, C, Hoffmann, K, Spranger, J, Klipstein-Grobusch, K, Mohlig, M, Pfeiffer, AF & Boeing, HA dietary pattern protective against type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Potsdam study cohort. Diabetologia 2005 48, 1126–1134.
Hoffmann, K, Schulze, MB, Schienkiewitz, A, Nothlings, U & Boeing, HApplication of a new statistical method to derive dietary patterns in nutritional epidemiology. Am J Epidemiol 2004a 159, 935–944.
Hoffmann, K, Zyriax, BC, Boeing, H & Windler, EA dietary pattern derived to explain biomarker variation is strongly associated with the risk of coronary artery disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2004b 80, 633–640.
Hu, FBDietary pattern analysis: a new direction in nutritional epidemiology. Curr Opin Lipidol 2002 13, 3–9.
Hu, FB, Rimm, E, Smith-Warner, SA, Feskanich, D, Stampfer, MJ, Ascherio, A, Sampson, L & Willett, WCReproducibility and validity of dietary patterns assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire. Am J Clin Nutr 1999 69, 243–249.
Hu, FB, Rimm, EB, Stampfer, MJ, Ascherio, A, Spiegelman, D & Willett, WCProspective study of major dietary patterns and risk of coronary heart disease in men. Am J Clin Nutr 2000 72, 912–921.
Hu, FB & Willett, WCOptimal diets for prevention of coronary heart disease. JAMA 2002 288, 2569–2578.
Jacobs, DR jr & Steffen, LMNutrients, foods, and dietary patterns as exposures in research: a framework for food synergy. Am J Clin Nutr Suppl 2003 3, (78)508S–513S.
Jacques, PF & Tucker, KLAre dietary patterns useful for understanding the role of diet in chronic disease?. Am J Clin Nutr 2001 73, 1–2.
Kant, AKDietary patterns and health outcomes. J Am Diet Assoc 2004 104, 615–635.
Kant, KA, Schatzkin, A, Graubard, BI & Schairer, CA prospective study of diet quality and mortality in women. JAMA 2000 283, 2109–2115.
Kennedy, ET, Ohls, J, Carlson, S & Fleming, KThe Healthy Eating Index: design and applications. J Am Diet Assoc 1995 95, 1103–1108.
Kerver, JM, Yang, EJ, Bianchi, L & Song, WODietary patterns associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease in healthy US adults. Am J Clin Nutr 2003 78, 1103–1110.
Khani, BR, Ye, W, Terry, P & Wolk, AReproducibility and validity of major dietary patterns among Swedish women assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire. J Nutr 2004 134, 1541–1545.
Knoops, KT, de Groot, LC, Kromhout, D, Perrin, AE, Moreiras-Varela, O, Menotti, A & van Staveren, WAMediterranean diet, lifestyle factors, and 10-year mortality in elderly European men and women: the HALE project. JAMA 2004 292, 1433–1439.
Leclercq, C, Valsta, LM & Turrini, AFood composition issues implications for the development of food-based dietary guidelines. Public Health Nutr 2001 4, 677–682.
Lopez-Garcia, E, Schulze, MB, Fung, TT, Meigs, JB, Rifai, N, Manson, JE & Hu, FBMajor dietary patterns are related to lasma concentrations of markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Am J Clin Nutr 2004 80, 1029–1035.
McCann, SE, Marshall, JR, Brasure, JR, Graham, S & Freudenheim, JLAnalysis of patterns of food intake in nutritional epidemiology: food classification in principal components analysis and the subsequent impact on estimates for endometrial cancer. Public Health Nutr 2001 4, 989–997.
McCullough, ML, Feskanich, D, Rimm, FB, Giovannucci, EL, Ascherio, A, Variyam, JN, Spiegelman, D, Stampfer, MJ & Willett, WCAdherence to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and risk of major chronic disease in men. Am J Clin Nutr 2000a 72, 1223–1231.
McCullough, ML, Feskanich, D, Stampfer, MJ, Giovannucci, EL, Rimm, EB, Hu, FB, Spiegelman, D, Hunter, DJ, Colditz, GA & Willett, WCDiet quality and major chronic disease risk in men and women: moving toward improved dietary guidance. Am J Clin Nutr 2002 76, 1261–1271.
McCullough, ML, Feskanich, D, Stampfer, MJ, Rosner, BA, Hu, FB, Hunter, DJ, Variyam, JN, Colditz, GA & Willett, WCAdherence to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and risk of major chronic disease in women. Am J Clin Nutr 2000b 72, 1214–1222.
Margetts, BM, Beilin, LJ, Vandongen, R & Armstrong, BKVegetarian diet in mild hypertension: a randomised controlled trial.Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1986 293, 1468–1471.
Martinez, ME, Marshall, JR & Sechrest, LInvited commentary: Factor analysis and the search for objectivity. Am J Epidemiol 1998 146, 17–19.
Maskarinec, G, Novotny, R & Tasaki, KDietary patterns are associated with body mass index in multiethnic women. J Nutr 2000 130, 3068–3072.
Massari, M, Freeman, KM, Seccareccia, F, Menotti, A & Farchi, GAn index to measure the association between dietary patterns and coronary heart disease risk factors: findings from two Italian studies. Prev Med 2004 39, 841–847.
Michels, KB & Wolk, AA prospective study of variety of healthy foods and mortality in women.Int J Epidemiol 2002 31, 847–854.
Millen, BE, Quatromoni, PA, Nam, BH, O'Horo, CE, Polak, JF, Wolf, PA & D'Agostino, RBDietary patterns smoking, and subclinical heart disease in women: opportunities for primary prevention
from the Framingham Nutrition Studies. J Am Diet Assoc 2004 104, 208–214.
Montonen, J, Knekt, P, Harkanen, T, Jarvinen, R, Heliovaara, M, Aromaa, A & Reunanen, ADietary patterns and the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Am J Epidemiol 2005 161, 219–227.
Newby, PK, Hu, FB, Rimm, EB, Smith-Warner, SA, Feskanich, D, Sampson, L & Willett, WCReproducibility and validity of the Diet Quality Index Revised as assessed by use of a food-frequency questionnaire. Am J Clin Nutr 2003 78, 941–949.
Newby, PK, Muller, D & Tucker, KLAssociations of empirically derived eating patterns with plasma lipid biomarkers: a comparison of factor and cluster analysis methods. Am J Clin Nutr 2004 80, 759–767.
Newby, PK & Tucker, KLEmpirically derived eating patterns using factor or cluster analysis: a review. Nutr Rev 2004 62, 177–203.
Osler, M, Heitmann, BL, Gerdes, LU, Jorgensen, LM & Scholl, MDietary patterns and mortality in Danish men and women: a prospective observational study. Br J Nutr 2001 85, 219–225.
Osler, M, Helms Andreasen, A, Heitmann, B, Hoidrup, S, Gerdes, U, Morch Jorgensen, L & Schroll, MFood intake patterns and risk of coronary heart disease: a prospective cohort study examining the use of traditional scoring techniques. Eur J Clin Nutr 2002 56, 568–574.
Petersen, S, Peto, V, Rayner, M, Leal, J, Luengo-Fernandez, R & Gray, AEuropean Cardiovascular Disease Statistics. London: British Heart Foundation. 2005
Rouse, IL, Beilin, LJ, Armstrong, BK & Vandongen, RBloodpressure-lowering effect of a vegetarian diet: controlled trial in normotensive subjects. Lancet 1983 i, 5–10.
Schulze, MB, Hoffmann, K, Kroke, A & Boeing, HDietary patterns and their association with food and nutrient intake in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study. Br J Nutr 2001 85, 363–373.
Schulze, MB, Hoffmann, K, Kroke, A & Boeing, HAn
approach to construct simplified measures of dietary patterns from exploratory factor analysis. Br J Nutr 2003a 89, 409–419.
Schulze, MB, Hoffmann, K, Kroke, A & Boeing, HRisk of hypertension among women in the EPIC-Potsdam study: comparison of relative risk estimates for exploratory and hypothesisoriented dietary patterns. Am J Epidemiol 2003b 158, 365–373.
Schulze, MB, Hoffmann, K, Manson, JE, Willett, WC, Meigs, JBWeikert, CHeidemann, CColditz, GA & Hu, FBDietary pattern, inflammation, and incidence of type 2 diabetes in women. Am J Clin Nutr 2005 82, 675–684.
Schulze, MB & Hu, FBDietary patterns and risk of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and coronary heart disease. Curr Atheroscler Rep 2002 4, 462–467.
Stampfer, MJ, Hu, FB, Manson, JE, Rimm, EB & Willett, WCPrimary prevention of coronary heart disease in women through diet and lifestyle. N Engl J Med 2000 343, 16–22.
Trichopoulou, A, Costacou, T, Bamia, C & Trichopoulos, DAdherence to a Mediterranean diet and survival in a Greek population. N Engl J Med 2003 348, 2599–2608.
van Dam, RMNew approaches to the study of dietary patterns. Br J Nutr 2005 93, 573–574.
van Dam, RM, Grievink, L, Ocke, MC & Feskens, EJPatterns of food consumption and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the general Dutch population. Am J Clin Nutr 2003 77, 1156–1163.
van Dam, RM, Rimm, EB, Willett, WC, Stampfer, MJ & Hu, FBDietary patterns and risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus in U.S. men. Ann Intern Med 2002 136, 201–209.
Weikert, C, Hoffmann, K, Dierkes, J, Zyriax, BC, Klipstein-Grobusch, K, Schulze, MB, Jung, R, Windler, E & Boeing, HA homocysteine metabolism-related dietary pattern and the risk of coronary heart disease in two independent German study populations. J Nutr 2005 135, 1981–1988.
World Health Organization World Health Report: 2005, Make Every Mother and Child Count. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2003