Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Macronutrient distribution over a period of 23 years in relation to energy intake and body fatness

  • Lando L. J. Koppes (a1) (a2) (a3), Niels Boon (a4), Astrid C. J. Nooyens (a2) (a5), Willem van Mechelen (a1) (a2) and Wim H. M. Saris (a4)...

Abstract

The distribution of the four macronutrients is associated with energy intake and body fatness according to short-term interventions. The present study involves macronutrient distribution in relation to energy intake and body fatness over a period of 23 years in individuals who have ad libitum access to food. Eight follow-up measurements have been performed in 168 men and 182 women who participate in the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study. From the age of 13 years onwards, dietary intake, physical activity and the thickness of four skinfolds have been assessed. Body fatness was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the age of 36 years. Generalised estimating equation regression analyses showed that energy percentages (En%) from protein and (in men) carbohydrates were inversely related to energy intake, while the En% from fat was positively related with energy intake. The men and women with high body fatness at the age of 36 years had a 1 En% higher protein intake, and the women with high body fatness had a 2 En% lower alcohol intake at the age of 32 and 36 years. The apparent inconsistent relationships between protein and energy intake and protein and body fatness can in women be explained by reverse causation and underreporting, as in women, low energy intake could not be explained by low physical activity. In conclusion, high intake of protein and (in men) carbohydrate, and low intake of fat are inversely related to total energy intake. High body fatness at the age of 36 years is related to a higher protein intake and, in women, to a lower alcohol intake.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Macronutrient distribution over a period of 23 years in relation to energy intake and body fatness
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Macronutrient distribution over a period of 23 years in relation to energy intake and body fatness
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Macronutrient distribution over a period of 23 years in relation to energy intake and body fatness
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Dr Lando L. J. Koppes, fax +31 23 5549394, email lando.koppes@tno.nl

References

Hide All
1World Health Organization (2003) Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases. Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series no. 916. Geneva: WHO..
2Saris, WH & Tarnopolsky, MA (2003) Controlling food intake and energy balance: which macronutrient should we select? Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 6, 609613.
3Farnsworth, E, Luscombe, ND, Noakes, M, Wittert, G, Argyiou, E & Clifton, PM (2003) Effect of a high-protein, energy-restricted diet on body composition, glycemic control, and lipid concentrations in overweight and obese hyperinsulinemic men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 78, 3139.
4Eisenstein, J, Roberts, SB, Dallal, G & Saltzman, E (2002) High-protein weight-loss diets: are they safe and do they work? A review of the experimental and epidemiologic data. Nutr Rev 60, 189200.
5Baba, NH, Sawaya, S, Torbay, N, Habbal, Z, Azar, S & Hashim, SA (1999) High protein vs high carbohydrate hypoenergetic diet for the treatment of obese hyperinsulinemic subjects. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 23, 12021206.
6Skov, AR, Toubro, S, Ronn, B, Holm, L & Astrup, A (1999) Randomized trial on protein vs carbohydrate in ad libitum fat reduced diet for the treatment of obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 23, 528536.
7Whitehead, JM, McNeill, G & Smith, JS (1996) The effect of protein intake on 24 h energy expenditure during energy restriction. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 20, 727732.
8Johnston, CS, Day, CS & Swan, PD (2002) Postprandial thermogenesis is increased 100 % on a high-protein, low-fat diet versus a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet in healthy, young women. J Am Coll Nutr 21, 5561.
9Mikkelsen, PB, Toubro, S & Astrup, A (2000) Effect of fat-reduced diets on 24 h energy expenditure: comparisons between animal protein, vegetable protein, and carbohydrate. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 11351141.
10Westerterp, KR, Wilson, SA & Rolland, V (1999) Diet induced thermogenesis measured over 24 h in a respiration chamber: effect of diet composition. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 23, 287292.
11Robinson, SM, Jaccard, C, Persaud, C, Jackson, AA, Jequier, E & Schutz, Y (1990) Protein turnover and thermogenesis in response to high-protein and high-carbohydrate feeding in men. Am J Clin Nutr 52, 7280.
12Poppitt, SD, McCormack, D & Buffenstein, R (1998) Short-term effects of macronutrient preloads on appetite and energy intake in lean women. Physiol Behav 64, 279285.
13Stubbs, RJ, van Wyk, MC, Johnstone, AM & Harbron, CG (1996) Breakfasts high in protein, fat or carbohydrate: effect on within-day appetite and energy balance. Eur J Clin Nutr 50, 409417.
14Westerterp-Plantenga, MS, Lejeune, MP, Nijs, I, van Ooijen, M & Kovacs, EM (2004) High protein intake sustains weight maintenance after body weight loss in humans. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 28, 5764.
15Liddle, RA, Green, GM, Conrad, CK & Williams, JA (1986) Proteins but not amino acids, carbohydrates, or fats stimulate cholecystokinin secretion in the rat. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 251, G243G248.
16Bowen, J, Noakes, M, Trenerry, C & Clifton, PM (2006) Energy intake, ghrelin, and cholecystokinin after different carbohydrate and protein preloads in overweight men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91, 14771483.
17Foster, GD, Wyatt, HR, Hill, JO, McGuckin, BG, Brill, C, Mohammed, BS, Szapary, PO, Rader, DJ, Edman, JS & Klein, S (2003) A randomized trial of a low-carbohydrate diet for obesity. N Engl J Med 348, 20822090.
18Lean, ME, Han, TS, Prvan, T, Richmond, PR & Avenell, A (1997) Weight loss with high and low carbohydrate 1200 kcal diets in free living women. Eur J Clin Nutr 51, 243248.
19Yancy, WS Jr, Olsen, MK, Guyton, JR, Bakst, RP & Westman, EC (2004) A low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-fat diet to treat obesity and hyperlipidemia: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 140, 769777.
20Astrup, A, Grunwald, GK, Melanson, EL, Saris, WH & Hill, JO (2000) The role of low-fat diets in body weight control: a meta-analysis of ad libitum dietary intervention studies. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 24, 15451552.
21Astrup, A, Ryan, L, Grunwald, GK, Storgaard, M, Saris, W, Melanson, E & Hill, JO (2000) The role of dietary fat in body fatness: evidence from a preliminary meta-analysis of ad libitum low-fat dietary intervention studies. Br J Nutr 83, Suppl. 1, S25S32.
22Wannamethee, SG & Shaper, AG (2003) Alcohol, body weight, and weight gain in middle-aged men. Am J Clin Nutr 77, 13121317.
23Koppes, LLJ, Twisk, JWR, Van Mechelen, W, Snel, J & Kemper, HCG (2005) Cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between alcohol consumption and lipids, blood pressure and body weight indices. J Stud Alcohol 66, 713721.
24Maskarinec, G, Takata, Y, Pagano, I, Carlin, L, Goodman, MT, Le Marchand, L, Nomura, AM, Wilkens, LR & Kolonel, LN (2006) Trends and dietary determinants of overweight and obesity in a multiethnic population. Obesity 14, 717726.
25Heitmann, BL, Lissner, L, Sørensen, TI & Bengtsson, C (1995) Dietary fat intake and weight gain in women genetically predisposed for obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 61, 12131217.
26Lissner, L, Heitmann, BL & Bengtsson, C (1997) Low-fat diets may prevent weight gain in sedentary women: prospective observations from the population study of women in Gothenburg, Sweden. Obes Res 5, 4348.
27Field, AE, Willett, WC, Lissner, L & Colditz, GA (2007) Dietary fat and weight gain among women in the Nurses' Health Study. Obesity 15, 967976.
28Kemper, HCG (2004) Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study (AGAHLS): a 23-Year Follow-up from Teenager to Adult About Lifestyle and Health. Medicine and Sport Science, vol. 47. Basel: Karger.
29Post, GB (1989) Nutrition in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study in Dietary Patterns from Teenager to Adult. Haarlem, The Netherlands: De Vrieseborch.
30Bakker, I, Twisk, JW, van Mechelen, W, Mensink, GB & Kemper, HC (2003) Computerization of a dietary history interview in a running cohort; evaluation within the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study. Eur J Clin Nutr 57, 394404.
31Voorlichtingsbureau voor de Voeding (Netherlands Nutrition Centre) (1996) NEVO Table (Dutch Food Composition Chart). Den Haag: Stichting Nederlands Voedingsstoffenbestand.
32Kemper, HCG, Twisk, JWR, Koppes, LLJ, Van Mechelen, W & Post, GB (2001) A 15-year physical activity pattern is positively related to aerobic fitness in young males and females (13–27 years). Eur J Appl Physiol 84, 395402.
33Weiner, JS & Lourie, JA (1969) Human Biology, a Guide to Field Methods. IBP Handbook. Oxford: Blackwell.
34Twisk, JWR (2003) Applied Longitudinal Data Analysis for Epidemiology: a Practical Guide. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
35Jebb, SA (2005) Dietary strategies for the prevention of obesity. Proc Nutr Soc 64, 217227.
36Astrup, A (1999) Macronutrient balances and obesity: the role of diet and physical activity. Public Health Nutr 2, 341347.
37van Marken Lichtenbelt, WD, Hartgens, F, Vollaard, NB, Ebbing, S & Kuipers, H (2004) Body composition changes in bodybuilders: a method comparison. Med Sci Sports Exerc 36, 490497.
38Goris, AH, Westerterp-Plantenga, MS & Westerterp, KR (2000) Undereating and underrecording of habitual food intake in obese men: selective underreporting of fat intake. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 130134.
39Nooyens, ACJ, Koppes, LLJ, Visscher, TLS, Twisk, JWR, Kemper, HCG, Schuit, AJ, van Mechelen, W & Seidell, JC (2007) Adolescent skinfold thickness is a better predictor of high body fatness in adults than is body mass index: the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 15331539.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed