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Keto analogues and amino acid supplementation and its effects on ammonaemia during extenuating endurance exercise in ketogenic diet-fed rats

  • Rogério T. Ferreira (a1) (a2) (a3), Sandra C. Gonçalves (a1) (a2) (a3), Maria L. Pedrosa (a2), Marcelo E. Silva (a3), Adriana Bassini (a1), Wagner S. Coelho (a1) (a4), Aníbal M. de Magalhães-Neto (a1) (a5), Eduardo S. Prado (a6) (a7) and L. C. Cameron (a1)...


Keto analogues and amino acids (KAAA) supplementation can reduce blood ammonia concentrations in athletes undergoing high-intensity exercise under both ketogenic and thermoneutral conditions. This study evaluated the acute effects of KAAA supplementation on ammonia metabolism during extenuating endurance exercise in rats fed a ketogenic diet. In all, eighty male Fischer rats at 90 d of age were divided into eight groups, and some were trained using a swimming endurance protocol. A ketogenic diet supplemented with keto analogues was administered for 10 d. Administration of the ketogenic diet ended 3 d before the exhaustion test (extenuating endurance exercise). A ketogenic diet plus KAAA supplementation and extenuating endurance exercise (trained ketogenic diet supplemented with KAAA (TKKa)) increased blood ammonia concentrations by approximately 50 % compared with the control diet (trained control diet supplemented with KAAA (TCKa)) and similar training (effect size=1·33; statistical power=0·50). The KAAA supplementation reduced blood urea concentrations by 4 and 18 % in the control and ketogenic diet groups, respectively, compared with the groups fed the same diets without supplementation. The trained groups had 60 % lower blood urate concentrations after TCKa treatment than after TKKa treatment. Our results suggest that KAAA supplementation can reduce blood ammonia concentrations after extenuating endurance exercise in rats fed a balanced diet but not in rats fed a ketogenic diet.


Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: L. C. Cameron, fax +55 21 2542 5280, email


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