Armstrong, AM, Chestnut, JE, Cromley, MJ and Young, IS (1996) The effect of dietary treatment on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in newly diagnosed non-insulin dependent diabetes. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 21, 719–726.
Austin, MA, Stephens, K, Walder, CE and Wijisman, E (1999) Linkage analysis of candidate genes and the small dense low-density lipoprotein phenotype. Atherosclerosis 142, 79–87.
Bain, BJ (1995) Method for the determination of haemoglobin concentration in blood. In Blood Cells: A Practical Approach pp. 15–18 [Bain, BJ, editor]. Oxford: Blackwell Science.
Benzie, IFF and Strain, JJ (1996) Uric acid, friend or foe?. Redox Report 2, 231–234.
Benzie, IFF and Strain, JJ (1997) Acute post-ingestion changes in plasma ascorbic acid concentration. Relationship to dose and to existing body stores. Nutrition Research 17, 2187–2190.
Benzie, IFF and Strain, JJ (1997) Simultaneous automated measurement of total antioxidant (reducing) capacity and ascorbic acid concentration. Redox Report 3, 322–328.
Benzie, IFF and Strain, JJ (1999) Effect of vitamin C supplementation on concentrations of vitamins C and E in fasting plasma. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 8, 207–210.
Benzie, IFF & Strain, JJ (1999b) Ferric reducing (antioxidant) power as a measure of antioxidant capacity: the FRAP Assay. In Oxidants and Antioxidants: A Volume of Methods in Enzymology, pp. 15–27 [Packer, L, editor]. Orlando, FL: Academic Press.
Chan, AC (1993) Partners in defense Vitamin C and Vitamin E?. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacy 719, 727–731.
Chen, MF, Hon, HC, Luai, CS and Lee, YT (1995) Vitamin E supplementation attenuates the myointimal proliferation of the abdominal aorta after balloon injury in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Prostaglandins 56, 219–238.
Choc, CK (1991) Vitamins and related dietary antioxidants. In Trace Elements, Micronutrients and Free Radicals, pp. 129–147 [Droesti, IE, editor]. New Jersey: Humana Press.
Clazada, C, Bruckdorfer, KR and Rice-Evans, CA (1997) The influence of antioxidant nutrients on platelet function of healthy volunteers. Atherosclerosis 128, 97–105.
Constantinezcu, A, Han, D and Packer, L (1993) Vitamin E recycling in human erythrocyte membranes. Journal of Biology and Chemistry 268, 10906–10913.
DiSciascio, N, Quarantino, CP, Rucci, C, Ciaglia, P, Mariari, MN and Giacomello, A (1994) Correlation of serum uric acid, cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 370, 77–78.
Fernandez, ML, Vega, S, Ayala, MT, Shen, H, Conde, K, Vergara-Jimenez, M and Rolskins, A (1997) Vitamin C level and dietary fat saturation alter hepatic cholesterol metabolism and plasma low-density lipoprotein metabolism in guinea-pigs. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 8, 414–424.
Feskens, EJM, Virtaneu, SM, Rasanen, L, Tuomilelito, J, Stengard, J, Pekkanen, J, Nissinen, A and Kromhout, D (1995) Dietary factors determining diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance — a 20-year follow-up of the Finnish and Dutch cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. Diabetes Care 18, 1104–1112.
Frei, B, England, L and Ames, BN (1989) Ascorbate is an outstanding antioxidant in human blood plasma. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 86, 6371–6381.
Gey, KF (1998) Vitamins E plus C and interacting constituents required for optimal health. A critical and constructive review of epidemiology and supplementation data regarding cardiovascular disease and cancer. Biofactors 7, 113–174.
Gey, KF and Puska, P (1989) Plasma vitamins E and A inversely correlated to mortality from IHD in cross-cultural epidemiology. Annals of the New York Academy of Science 570, 268–282.
Ginter, E, Jurcovicova, M and Chronin, C (1987) Vitamin C deficiency lowers the fractional catabolic rate of low-density lipoproteins in guinea-pigs. Annals of the New York Academy of Science 498, 473–497.
Hallfrisch, J, Singh, NN, Muller, DC, Baldwin, H, Bannon, ME and Andres, R (1994) High plasma vitamin C associated with high plasma HDL and HDL-2 cholesterol. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 60, 100–105.
Halpner, AD, Hanndelman, GJ, Belmont, CA, Harris, JM and Blumberg, JB (1998) Protection by vitamin C of oxidant-induced loss of vitamin E in rat hepatocytes. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 9, 355–359.
Jacob, RA (1995) The integrated antioxidant system. Nutrition Research 15, 755–766.
Jari, AE, Karlstrom, BE, Grangfeldt, YE, Bjork, IE, Asp, NGL and Vessby, BOH (1999) Improved glycaemic control and lipid profile and normalised fibrinolytic activity on a low-glycaemic index diet in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 22, 10–18.
Johnson, DJ, Kwlighin, SD, Kim, YG, Suga, S and Fogo, AB (1999) Reappraisal of the pathogenesis and consequences of hyperuricaemia in hypertension, cardiovascular disease and renal disease. American Journal of Kidney Diseases 33, 225–234.
Khaw, KT and Woodhouse, P (1997) Infection, haemostatic factors and cardiovascular disease. Fibrinolysis and Proteolysis 11, S149–S153.
Lee, J, Sparrow, D, Vokonas, PS, Landsberg, L and Weiss, ST (1995) Uric acid and coronary heart disease risk; evidence for a role for uric acid in obesity–insulin resistance syndrome. American Journal of Epidemiology 142, 288–294.
Lim, JF and Lee, YW (1998) Vitamin C supplementation restores the impaired vitamin E status of guinea-pigs fed oxidised frying oil. Journal of Nutrition 128, 116–122.
Livingstone, MBE, Prentice, AM, Coward, WA, Strain, JJ, Black, AE, Davies, PSW, Stewart, CM, Mc Kenna, PG and Whitehead, RG (1992) Validation of estimates of energy intake by weighed dietary record and diet history in children and adolescents. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 56, 29–35.
May, JM, Qu, Z and Mendiratta, S (1998) Protection and recycling of α-tocopherol in human erythrocytes by intracellular ascorbic acid. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 349, 281–289.
Niki, E, Noguchi, N, Tsuchiharski, H and Gotoh, N (1995) Interaction among vitamin C, vitamin E and B-carotene. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 6, S1322–S1326.
Paolisso, G, Balbi, V, Volpe, C, Varricchio, G, Gambardella, A, Saccomanno, F, Ammendola, S, Varricchio, M and Doisfrio, F (1995) Metabolic benefits deriving from chronic vitamin C supplementation in aged non-insulin dependent diabetic mellitus. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 14, 387–392.
Peuchant, E, Delmasbeauvieux, MC, Couchouron, A, Dubourg, L, Thomas, MJ, Perromat, A, Clerc, M and Oln, H (1997) Short-term insulin therapy and normoglycaemic effects on erythrocyte lipid peroxidation in NIDDM patients. Diabetes Care 20, 202–207.
Rimm, EB, Stampfer, MJ, Ascherio, A, Giovannincci, E, Colditz, GA and Willett, WC (1993) Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease in men. New England Journal of Medicine 328, 1450–1456.
Rock, CL, Fada, RD, Jacob, RA and Rowen, PE (1996) Update on the biological characteristics of the antioxidant micronutrients: vitamin C, vitamin E and the carotenoids. Journal of the American Dietietic Association 96, 693–702.
Samman, S, Brown, AJ and Singh, S (1997) The effect of ascorbic acid on plasma lipids and oxidisibility of LDL in male smokers. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 51, 472–477.
Schlotte, V, Sevanian, A, Hochstein, P and Weithman, KM (1998) Effect of uric acid and chemical analogues on oxidation of human low density lipoprotein. in vitro Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine 25, 839–847.
Schmenke, DC and Behr, SR (1998) Vitamin E combined with selenium inhibits atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits independent of effects on plasma cholesterol concentrations. Circulation Research 8, 366–371.
Shaheen, AA, Abdelfattah, AA and Siefelvasr, M (1996) Influence of verapramil on the efficacy of vitamin E in preventing the ischaemia-reperfusion induced biochemical derangement in cerebral cortex of rat. Drug Research 47, 670–673.
Sharma, MK and Buettner, GR (1993) Interaction of vitamin C and vitamin E during free radical stress in plasma — an ESR study. Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine 14, 649–653.
Sprenger, T, Finckh, B, Fingerhut, R, Kohlschutter, A, Biesiegel, U and Kontush, A (1998) How different constituents of human plasma and low density lipoprotein determine plasma oxidisability by copper. Chemistry and Physics of Lipids 91, 39–52.
Stoyanovsky, DA, Goldman, R, Darrow, RM, Organisciak, DT and Kagan, VE (1995) Endogenous ascorbic acid regenerates vitamin E in the retina directly and in combination with exogenous dihydrolipoic acid. Current Eye Research 14, 181–189.
Strain, JJ & Benzie, IFF (1999) Antioxidants/diet and antioxidant defence. In Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition, vol. 1, pp. 95–106 [Sadler, M, Strain, JJ and Caballero, B, editors]. London: Academic Press.
Strain, JJ & Mulholland, CW (1992) Vitamin C and Vitamin E-synergistic interactions in vivo? In Free Radicals and Aging, pp. 419–422 [Emerit, I and Chance, B, editors]. Switzerland: Birkhauser Verlag.
Tanaka, K, Hashimoto, T, Tokumaru, S, Iguchi, I and Kojo, S (1997) Interactions between vitamin C and vitamin E are observed in tissues of inherently scorbutic rats. Journal of Nutrition 127, 2060–2064.
Thomas, SR, Neuzil, J, Mohr, D and Stocker, R (1995) Restoration of tocopherol by co-antioxidants make α-tocopherol an effective antioxidant for low-density lipoproteins. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 62, S1357–S1364.
Thurnham, DI, Davis, JA, Crump, BJ, Situayake, RD and Davis, M (1986) The use of different lipids to express serum tocopherol: lipid ratios for the measurement of vitamin E status. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry 23, 514–517.
Thurnham, DI, Smith, E and Flora, PS (1988) Concurrent liquid chromatographic assay of retinol, α-tocopherol, β-carotene, α-carotene, lycopene and β-cryptoxanthine in plasma with tocopherol acetate as an internal standard. Clinical Chemistry 34, 377–381.
Torun, M, Yardin, S, Sinusek, B and Burgaz, S (1998) Serum uric acid levels in cardiovascular diseases. Journal of Clinical and Pharmacological Therapeutics 23, 25–29.
Vasankari, TJ, Kujala, UM, Vasankari, TM, Vuorimara, T and Ahotupa, M (1997) Increased serum and LDL antioxidant potential after supplementation in endurance athletes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 65, 1052–1056.
Verlangierii, AJ and Bush, MJ (1992) Effects of α-tocopherol supplementation on experimentally induced primate atherosclerosis. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 11, 130–137.
Willingham, AK, Blanos, C, Bohannan, E and Candella, RJ (1993) The effects of high levels of vitamin E on the progression of atherosclerosis in the Watanabe heritable hyperlipemic rabbit. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 4, 651–654.
Witting, LA (1995) Vitamin E Do we need it? In Nutrition and Health. Topics and Controversies, pp. 157–179 [Wolinsky, I and Hickson, JF, editors]. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Yarnell, J, Baker, IA, Sweetman, PM, Bainton, D, O'Brien, JR, Whitehead, PJ and Elwood, PC (1991) Fibrinogen, viscosity and white blood cell count are major risk factors for ischaemic heart disease, the Caerphilly and Speedwell collaborative heart studies. Circulation 83, 36–44.