1. Seo, HS & Choi, MH (2015) Cholesterol homeostasis in cardiovascular disease and recent advances in measuring cholesterol signatures. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 153, 72–79.
2. Shao, DY, Bartley, GE, Yokoyama, W, et al. (2013) Plasma and hepatic cholesterol-lowering effects of tomato pomace, tomato seed oil and defatted tomato seed in hamsters fed with high-fat diets. Food Chem 139, 589–596.
3. Zhang, L, Zhou, M, Fang, GS, et al. (2013) Hypocholesterolemic effect of capsaicinoids by increased bile acids excretion in ovariectomized rats. Mol Nutr Food Res 57, 1080–1088.
4. Jeon, SM (2016) Regulation and function of AMPK in physiology and diseases. Exp Mol Med 48, e245.
5. Chen, X, Wang, XF, Li, ZJ, et al. (2012) Molecular cloning, tissue expression and protein structure prediction of the porcine 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) gene. Gene 495, 170–177.
6. Ji, JY, Zhao, XH, Leng, L, et al. (2011) Comparison of dietary control and atorvastatin on high fat diet induced hepatic steatosis and hyperlipidemia in rats. Lipids Health Dis 10, 23.
7. Kim, S, Hong, J, Jeon, R, et al. (2016) Adzuki bean ameliorates hepatic lipogenesis and proinflammatory mediator expression in mice fed a high-cholesterol and high-fat diet to induce nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Nutr Res 36, 90–100.
8. Kemper, MF, Srivastava, S., King, MT, et al. (2015) An ester of β-Hydroxybutyrate regulates cholesterol biosynthesis in rats and a cholesterol biomarker in humans. Lipids 50, 1185–1193.
9. Levinson, SS & Wagner, SG (2015) Implications of reverse cholesterol transport: Recent studies. Clin Chim Acta 439, 154–161.
10. He, WS, Wang, MG, Pan, XX, et al. (2013) Role of plant stanol derivatives in the modulation of cholesterol metabolism and liver gene expression in mice. Food Chem 140, 9–16.
11. Ogata, M, Tsujita, M, Hossain, MA, et al. (2009) On the mechanism for PPAR agonists to enhance ABCA1 gene expression. Atherosclerosis 205, 413–419.
12. Moschetta, A (2015) Nuclear receptors and cholesterol metabolism in the intestine. Atheroscler Suppl 17, 9–11.
13. Fu, ZD & Klaassen, CD (2013) Increased bile acids in enterohepatic circulation by short-term calorie restriction in male mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 273, 680–690.
14. Ross, BA, Bruce, SJ, Blondel-Lubrano, A, et al. (2011) A whole-grain cereal-rich diet increases plasma betaine, and tends to decrease total and LDL-cholesterol compared with a refined-grain diet in healthy subjects. Br J Nutr 105, 1492–1502.
15. Zhou, AL, Hergert, N, Rompato, G, et al. (2015) Whole grain oats improve insulin sensitivity and plasma cholesterol profile and modify gut microbiota composition in C57BL/6J Mice. J Nutr 145, 222–230.
16. Hoang, MH, Houng, SJ, Jun, HJ, et al. (2011) Barley intake induces bile acid excretion by reduced expression of intestinal ASBT and NPC1L1 in C57BL/6J Mice. J Agric Food Chem 59, 6798–6805.
17. Kim, H, Turowski, M, Anderson, WHK, et al. (2011) Supplementation of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose into yeast leavened all-whole grain barley bread potentiates cholesterol-lowering effect. J Agric Food Chem 59, 7672–7678.
18. Delaney, B, Nicolosi, RJ, Wilson, TA, et al. (2003)
β-Glucan fractions from barley and oats are similarly antiatherogenic in hypercholesterolemic Syrian golden hamsters. J Nutr 133, 468–495.
19. De Angelis, M, Montemurno, E, Vannini, L, et al. (2015) The role of whole-grain barley on human fecal microbiota and metabolome. Appl Environ Microbiol 81, 7945–7956.
20. Knutsen, SH & Holtekjølen, AK (2007) Preparation and analysis of dietary fibre constituents in whole grain from hulled and hull-less barley. Food Chem 102, 707–715.
21. Xia, XX, Li, GN, Ding, YB, et al. (2017) Effect of whole grain Qingke (Tibetan Hordeum vulgare L. Zangqing 320) on the serum lipid levels and intestinal microbiota of rats under high-Fat diet. J Agric Food Chem 65, 2686–2693.
22. American Association of Cereal Chemists (2003) Approved Method of the AACC, 10th ed. St. Paul, MN: AACC.
23. Association of Official Analytical Chemists (1980) Official Method of Analysis of AOAC Intl, 13th ed. Arlington, VA: AOAC.
24. Reeves, PG, Nielsen, FH & Fahey, GC (1993) AIN-93 purified diets for laboratory rodents: final report of the American Institute of Nutrition ad hoc writing committee on the reformulation of the AIN-76A rodent diet. J Nutr 123, 1939–1951.
25. Charan, J & Kantharia, ND (2013) How to calculate sample size in animal studies? J Pharmacol Pharmacother 4, 303–306.
26. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, National Research Council (US) & Institute for Laboratory (1985)
Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals
. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
27. Zhang, L, Fang, GS, Zheng, LH, et al. (2013) Hypocholesterolemic effect of capsaicinoids in rats fed diets with or without cholesterol. J Agric Food Chem 61, 4287–4293.
28. Park, SO & Park, BS (2015) Bifidogenic effect of grain larvae extract on serum lipid, glucose and intestinal microflora in rats. J Biosci 40, 513–520.
29. Liu, X, Ogawa, H, Kishida, T, et al. (2010) The effect of high-amylose cornstarch on lipid metabolism in OVX rats is affected by fructose feeding. J Nutr Biochem 21, 89–97.
30. Folch, J, Lees, M & Sloane Stanley, G (1957) A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipides from animal tissues. J Biol Chem 226, 497–509.
31. Zhang, L, Zheng, LH, Tian, BM, et al. (2013) Effects of capsaicinoids on cholesterol metabolism and its related gene. Acta Nutrimenta Sinica 35, 381–386 (In Chinese with English abstract).
32. Xia, XJ, Ran, CX, Ye, XJ, et al. (2017) Monitoring of the bacterial communities of bamboo shoots (Dendrocalamus latiflorus) during pickling process. Int J Food Sci Tech 52, 1101–1110.
34. Carmina, E, Bucchieri, S, Esposito, A, et al. (2007) Abdominal fat quantity and distribution in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and extent of its relation to insulin resistance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92, 2500–2505.
35. Ishimwe, N, Daliri, EB, Lee, BH, et al. (2015) The perspective on cholesterol-lowering mechanisms of probiotics. Mol Nutr Food Res 59, 94–105.
36. Sindhu, SC & Khetarpaul, K (2003) Effect of feeding probiotic fermented indigenous food mixture on serum cholesterol levels in mice. Nutr Res 23, 1071–1080.
37. Leiva, A, Verdejo, H, Benítez, ML, et al. (2011) Mechanisms regulating hepatic SR-BI expression and their impact on HDL metabolism. Atherosclerosis 217, 299–307.
38. van der Wulp, MYM, Verkade, HJ & Groen, AK (2013) Regulation of cholesterol homeostasis. Mol Cell Endocrinol 368, 1–16.
39. Dongowskia, G, Hutha, M & Gebhardta, E (2003) Steroids in the intestinal tract of rats are affected by dietary-fibre-rich barley-based diets. Br J Nutr 90, 895–906.
40. Zhong, YD, Marungruang, N & Fåk, F (2015) Effects of two whole-grain barley varieties on caecal SCFA, gut microbiota and plasma inflammatory markers in rats consuming low- and high-fat diets. Br J Nutr 113, 1558–1570.
41. Martinez-Floresa, HE, Chang, YK, Martinez-Bustos, F, et al. (2004) Effect of high fiber products on blood lipids and lipoproteins in hamsters. Nutr Res 24, 85–93.
42. Yalçın, E, Çelik, S, Akar, T, et al. (2007) Effects of genotype and environment on β-glucan and dietary fiber contents of hull-less barleys grown in Turkey. Food Chem 101, 171–176.
43. Andersson, AAM, Andersson, R, Piironen, V, et al. (2013) Contents of dietary fibre components and their relation to associated bioactive components in whole grain wheat samples from the HEALTHGRAIN diversity screen. Food Chem 136, 1243–1248.
44. Zhang, GP, Wang, JM & Chen, JX (2002) Analysis of beta-glucan content in barley cultivars from different locations of China. Food Chem 79, 251–254.
45. Kishida, T, Nogami, H, Ogawa, H, et al. (2002) The hypocholesterolemic effect of high amylose cornstarch in rats is mediated by an enlarged bile acid pool and increased fecal bile acid excretion, not by cecal fermented products. J Nutr 132, 2519–2524.
46. Tall, AR & Yvan-Charvet, L (2015) Cholesterol, inflammation and innate immunity. Nat Rev Immunol 15, 104–116.
47. Musso, G, Gambino, R & Cassader, M (2013) Cholesterol metabolism and the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Prog Lipid Res 52, 175–191.
48. Choi, JS, Kim, H, Jung, MH, et al. (2010) Consumption of barley β-glucan ameliorates fatty liver and insulin resistance in mice fed a high-fat diet. Mol Nutr Food Res 54, 1004–1013.
49. Yang, JL, Kim, YH, Lee, HS, et al. (2003) Barley beta-glucan lowers serum cholesterol based on the up-regulation of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase activity and mRNA abundance in cholesterol-fed rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 49, 381–387.
50. Zhang, XQ, Osaka, T & Tsuneda, S (2015) Bacterial metabolites directly modulate farnesoid X receptor activity. Nutr Metab 12, 1–14.
51. Out, C, Patankar, JV, Doktorova, M, et al. (2015) Gut microbiota inhibit Asbt-dependent intestinal bile acid reabsorption via Gata4. J Hepatol 63, 697–704.
52. Domínguez-Avila, JA, Alvarez-Parrilla, E, López-Díaz, JA, et al. (2015) The pecan nut (Carya illinoinensis) and its oil and polyphenolic fractions differentially modulate lipid metabolism and the antioxidant enzyme activities in rats fed high-fat diets. Food Chem 168, 529–537.