1.Mackenzie, SG, Leinonen, I, Ferguson, NS, et al. (2015) Accounting for uncertainty in the quantification of the environmental impacts of Canadian pig farming systems. J Anim Sci 93, 3130–3143.
2.Mallin, MA & Cahoon, LB (2003) Industrialized animal production—a major source of nutrient and microbial pollution to aquatic ecosystems. Popul Environ 24, 369–385.
3.Maguire, RO, Dou, Z, Sims, JT, et al. (2005) Dietary strategies for reduced phosphorus excretion and improved water quality. J Environ Qual 34, 2093–2103.
4.Selle, PH & Ravindran, V (2008) Phytate-degrading enzymes in pig nutrition. Livest Sci 113, 99–122.
5.Bedford, MR & Partridge, GG (2010) Enzymes in Farm Animal Nutrition, 2nd ed.Wallingford, Oxfordshire: CABI.
6.Knowlton, KF, Radcliffe, JS, Novak, CL, et al. (2004) Animal management to reduce phosphorus losses to the environment. J Anim Sci 82, E173–E195.
7.Lei, XG, Ku, PK, Miller, ER, et al. (1993) Supplementing corn-soybean meal diets with microbial phytase linearly improves phytate phosphorus utilization by weanling pigs. J Anim Sci 71, 3359–3367.
8.Han, YM, Yang, F, Zhou, AG, et al. (1997) Supplemental phytases of microbial and cereal sources improve dietary phytate phosphorus utilization by pigs from weaning through finishing. J Anim Sci 75, 1017–1025.
9.Simons, PCM, Versteegh, HAJ, Jongbloed, AW, et al. (1990) Improvement of phosphorus availability by microbial phytase in broilers and pigs. Br J Nutr 64, 525–540.
10.Bikker, P & Blok, MC (2017) Phosphorus and Calcium Requirements of Growing Pigs and Sows. CVB Documentation Report. Wageningen: Wageningen Livestock Research.
11.National Research Council (2012) Nutrient Requirements of Swine, 11th ed.Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
13.Harper, AF, Kornegay, ET & Schell, TC (1997) Phytase supplementation of low-phosphorus growing-finishing pig diets improves performance, phosphorus digestibility, and bone mineralization and reduces phosphorus excretion. J Anim Sci 75, 3174–3186.
14.Maxson, PF & Mahan, DC (1983) Dietary calcium and phosphorus levels for growing swine from 18 to 57 kilograms body weight 1, 2. J Anim Sci 56, 1124–1134.
15.Ketaren, PP, Batterham, ES, White, E, et al. (1993) Phosphorus studies in pigs: 1. Available phosphorus requirements of grower/finisher pigs. Br J Nutr 70, 249–268.
16.Cromwell, GL, Hays, VW, Chaney, CH, et al. (1970) Effects of dietary phosphorus and calcium level on performance, bone mineralization and carcass characteristics of swine. J Anim Sci 30, 519–525.
17.Crenshaw, TD, Peo, ER Jr, Lewis, AJ, et al. (1981) Influence of age, sex and calcium and phosphorus levels on the mechanical properties of various bones in swine. J Anim Sci 52, 1319–1329.
18.Gutierrez, NA, Serão, NVL, Elsbernd, AJ, et al. (2015) Quantitative relationships between standardized total tract digestible phosphorus and total calcium intakes and their retention and excretion in growing pigs fed corn–soybean meal diets. J Anim Sci 93, 2174–2182.
19.Gonzalo, E, Létourneau-Montminy, MP, Narcy, A, et al. (2018) Consequences of dietary calcium and phosphorus depletion and repletion feeding sequences on growth performance and body composition of growing pigs. Animal 12, 1165–1173.
20.Sørensen, KU, Tauson, AH & Poulsen, HD (2018) Long term differentiated phosphorus supply from below to above requirement affects nutrient balance and retention, body weight gain and bone growth in growing-finishing pigs. Livest Sci 211, 14–20.
21.Symeou, V, Leinonen, I & Kyriazakis, I (2014) Modelling phosphorus intake, digestion, retention and excretion in growing and finishing pigs: model description. Animal 8, 1612–1621.
22.Létourneau-Montminy, MP, Narcy, A, Dourmad, JY, et al. (2015) Modeling the metabolic fate of dietary phosphorus and calcium and the dynamics of body ash content in growing pigs. J Anim Sci 93, 1200–1217.
23.Lopes, JB, Moreira, JA, Kebreab, E, et al. (2009) A model on biological flow of phosphorus in growing pigs. Arq Bras Med Vet Zootec 61, 691–697.
24.Dias, RS, López, S, Moreira, JA, et al. (2010) Application of a kinetic model to describe phosphorus metabolism in pigs fed a diet with a microbial phytase. J Agric Sci 148, 277–286.
25.Fernández, JA (1995) Calcium and phosphorus metabolism in growing pigs. III. A model resolution. Livest Prod Sci 41, 255–261.
26.van Milgen, J, Valancogne, A, Dubois, S, et al. (2008) InraPorc: a model and decision support tool for the nutrition of growing pigs. Anim Feed Sci Technol 143, 387–405.
27.Wellock, IJ, Emmans, GC & Kyriazakis, I (2003) Modelling the effects of thermal environment and dietary composition on pig performance: model logic and concepts. Anim Sci 77, 255–266.
28.Whittemore, EC, Emmans, GC & Kyriazakis, I (2003) The problem of predicting food intake during the period of adaptation to a new food: a model. Br J Nutr 89, 383–399.
29.Moughan, PJ, Smith, WC & Pearson, G (1987) Description and validation of a model simulating growth in the pig (20–90 kg liveweight). New Zeal J Agr Res 30, 481–489.
30.Ferguson, NS, Gous, RM & Emmans, GC (1994) Preferred components for the construction of a new simulation model of growth, feed intake and nutrient requirements of growing pigs. S Afr J Anim Sci 24, 10–17.
31.Kyriazakis, I & Emmans, GC (1992) The effects of varying protein and energy intakes on the growth and body composition of pigs: 1. The effects of energy intake at constant, high protein intake. Br J Nutr 68, 603–613.
32.National Research Council (1998) Nutrient Requirements of Swine. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
33.Productschap Diervoeder (2010) Tabellenboek Veevoeding: voedernormen landbouwhuisdieren en voederwaarde (Animal Feed Tables Book: Farm Animal Feed Standards and Feed Value). Den Haag: CVB.
34.Whittemore, CT, Hazzledine, MJ & Close, WH (2003) Nutrient Requirement Standards for Pigs, vol. 23, Pig News and Information. Penicuik: British Society of Animal Science.
35.Nielsen, AJ (1972) Deposition of calcium and phosphorus in growing pigs determined by balance experiments and slaughter investigations. Acta Agric Scand B22, 223–237.
36.Suttle, NF (2010) Mineral Nutrition of Livestock, 4th ed.Wallingford: CABI.
37.De Wilde, RO & Jourquin, J (1992) Estimation of digestible phosphorus requirements in growing-finishing pigs by carcass analysis. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 68, 218–225.
38.Lipsey, MW & Wilson, DB (2001) Practical Meta-analysis, vol. 49, Applied Social Research Methods Series. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
39.Koricheva, J, Gurevitch, J & Mengersen, K (2013) Handbook of Meta-analysis in Ecology and Evolution. Woodstock: Princeton University Press.
40.Crenshaw, TD (2001) Calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D, and vitamin K in swine nutrition. In Swine Nutrition, 2nd ed., pp. 187–209 [AJ Lewis and LL Southern, editors]. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
41.Kyriazakis, I, Emmans, GC & Whittemore, CT (1991) The ability of pigs to control their protein intake when fed in three different ways. Physiol Behav 50, 1197–1203.
42.Kyriazakis, I & Emmans, GC (1995) The voluntary feed intake of pigs given feeds based on wheat bran, dried citrus pulp and grass meal, in relation to measurements of feed bulk. Br J Nutr 73, 191–207.
43.Whittemore, CT & Schofield, CP (2000) A case for size and shape scaling for understanding nutrient use in breeding sows and growing pigs. Livest Prod Sci 65, 203–208.
44.Stein, HH (2011) Standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of phosphorus. Proc Midwest Swine Nutr Conf, 47–52.
45.St-Pierre, NR (2001) Invited review: Integrating quantitative findings from multiple studies using mixed model methodology. J Dairy Sci 84, 741–755.
46.Bolker, BM, Brooks, ME, Clark, CJ, et al. (2009) Generalized linear mixed models: a practical guide for ecology and evolution. Trends Ecol Evol 24, 127–135.
47.Laird, NM & Ware, JH (1982) Random-effects models for longitudinal data. Biometrics 38, 963–974.
48.Misiura, MM, Filipe, JAN, Walk, CL, et al. (2018) Do not neglect calcium: a systematic review and meta-analysis (meta-regression) of its digestibility and utilisation in growing and finishing pigs. Br J Nutr 119, 1207–1219.
49.Pinheiro, JC, Bates, DM, DebRoy, S, et al. (2018) nlme: linear and nonlinear mixed effects models, 3.1–137 ed.
50.Viechtbauer, W (2010) Conducting meta-analyses in R with the metafor package. J Stat Softw 36, 1–48.
51.R Core Team (2016) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation.
52.Pinheiro, JC, Bates, DM (1995) Mixed Effects Models, Methods, and Classes for S and Splus. Madison, WI: Department of Biostatistcs, University of Wisconsin.
53.Huxley, JS, Teissier, G (1936) Terminology of relative growth. Nature 137, 780.
54.Gayon, J (2000) History of the concept of allometry. Am Zoo l40, 748–758.
55.Rao, CR (1973) Linear Statistical Inference and Its Applications, vol. 2. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
56.Nagelkerke, NJD (1991) A note on a general definition of the coefficient of determination. Biometrika 78, 691–692.
57.Warton, DI, Wright, IJ, Falster, DS, et al. (2006) Bivariate line-fitting methods for allometry. Biol Rev 81, 259–291.
58.Kermack, KA & Haldane, JBS (1950) Organic correlation and allometry. Biometrika 37, 30–41.
59.McArdle, BH (2003) Lines, models, and errors: regression in the field. Limnol Oceanogr 48, 1363–1366.
60.Warton, DI, Duursma, RA, Falster, DS, et al. (2012) smatr 3–an R package for estimation and inference about allometric lines. Methods Ecol Evol 3, 257–259.
61.Ferrari, S & Cribari-Neto, F (2004) Beta regression for modelling rates and proportions. J Appl Stat 31, 799–815.
62.Zeileis, A, Cribari-Neto, F, Grün, B, et al. (2010) Beta regression in R. J Stat Softw 34, 1–24.
63.Emmans, GC & Kyriazakis, I (1999) Growth and body composition. In A Quantative Biology of the Pig, pp. 181–197 [Kyriazakis, I, editor]. Wallingford: CABI.
64.Winsor, CP (1932) The Gompertz curve as a growth curve. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 18, 1.
65.Wellock, IJ, Emmans, GC & Kyriazakis, I (2004) Describing and predicting potential growth in the pig. Anim Sci 78, 379–388.
66.Emmans, GC (1994) Effective energy: a concept of energy utilization applied across species. Br J Nutr 71, 801–821.
67.Emmans, GC & Fisher, C (1986) Problems in nutritional theory. In Nutrient Requirements of Poultry and Nutritional Research, vol. 19, pp. 9–39 [Emmans, GC and Fisher, C, editors]. London: Butterworths & Co (Publishers) Ltd.
68.Nielsen, AJ (1973) Anatomical and chemical composition of Danish Landrace pigs slaughtered at 90 kilograms live weight in relation to litter, sex and feed composition. J Anim Sci 36, 476–483.
69.Mackenzie, SG (2016) Modelling the environmental impacts of pig farming systems and the potential of nutritional solutions to mitigate them. Doctoral thesis, Newcastle University.
70.Huang, S, Yang, Y & Wang, Y (2003) A critical look at procedures for validating growth and yield models. In Modelling Forest Systems, 1st ed., pp. 271–294 [Amaro, A, Reed, D and Soares, P, editors]. Guildford and King’s Lynn: CABI.
71.Doeschl-Wilson, AB, Knap, PW & Kinghorn, BP (2006) Evaluating animal genotypes through model inversion. In Mechanistic Modelling in Pig and Poultry Production, pp. 163–187 [Gous, R, Morris, T and Fisher, C, editors]. Trowbridge: CABI.
72.Doeschl-Wilson, AB, Knap, PW, Kinghorn, BP, et al. (2007) Using mechanistic animal growth models to estimate genetic parameters of biological traits. Animal 1, 489–499.
73.Wellock, IJ, Emmans, GC & Kyriazakis, I (2003) Modelling the effects of thermal environment and dietary composition on pig performance: model testing and evaluation. Anim Sci 77, 267–276.
74.Elzhov, TV, Mullen, KM, Spiess, AN, et al. (2016) Package ‘minpack. lm’.
75.Hyndman, RJ & Koehler, AB (2006) Another look at measures of forecast accuracy. Int J Forecast 22, 679–688.
76.Ekpe, ED, Zijlstra, RT & Patience, JF (2002) Digestible phosphorus requirement of grower pigs. Can J Anim Sci 82, 541–549.
77.Pomar, C, Jondreville, C, Dourmad, J, et al. (2006) Influence du niveau de phosphore des aliments sur les performances zootechniques et la rétention corporelle de calcium, phosphore, potassium, sodium, magnésium, fer et zinc chez le porc de 20 à 100 kg de poids vif (Influence of phosphorus level of food on zootechnical performance and body retention of calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, magnesium, iron and zinc in pigs from 20 to 100 kg body weight.). J Rech Porcine Fr38, 209.
78.Adeola, O, Azain, MJ, Carter, SD, et al. (2015) A cooperative study on the standardized total-tract digestible phosphorus requirement of twenty-kilogram pigs. J Anim Sci 93, 5743–5753.
79.Vier, CM, Dritz, SS, Wu, F, et al. (2019) Standardized total tract digestible phosphorus requirement of 24-to 130-kg pigs. J Anim Sci 97, 4023–4031.
80.Lagos, LV, Lee, SA, Fondevila, G, et al. (2019) Influence of the concentration of dietary digestible calcium on growth performance, bone mineralization, plasma calcium, and abundance of genes involved in intestinal absorption of calcium in pigs from 11 to 22 kg fed diets with different concentrations of digestible phosphorus. J Anim Sci Biotechnol 10, 47.
81.Sørensen, KU, Tauson, A-H & Poulsen, HD (2018) Long term differentiated phosphorus supply from below to above requirement affects nutrient balance and retention, body weight gain and bone growth in growing-finishing pigs. Livest Sci 211, 14–20.
82.Vier, CM, Dritz, SS, Wu, F, et al. (2019) Effects of standardized total tract digestible phosphorus on growth performance of 11-to 23-kg pigs fed diets with or without phytase. J Anim Sci 97, 4032–4040.
83.Wu, F, Woodworth, JC, Tokach, MD, et al. (2018) Standardized total tract digestible phosphorus requirement of 13-to 28-lb pigs fed diets with or without phytase. Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research reports no. 2378–5977. Manhattan, New York: Kansas State University.
84.Nieto, S, Kiefer, C, de Souza, KMR, et al. (2016) Digestible phosphorus levels for barrows from 50 to 80 kg. R Bras Zootec 45, 242–249.
85.O’Quinn, PR, Knabe, DA & Gregg, EJ (1997) Digestible phosphorus needs of terminal-cross growing-finishing pigs. J Anim Sci 75, 1308–1318.
86.Valable, AS, Narcy, A, Duclos, MJ, et al. (2018) Effects of dietary calcium and phosphorus deficiency and subsequent recovery on broiler chicken growth performance and bone characteristics. Animal 12, 1555–1563.
87.Rousseau, X, Létourneau-Montminy, MP, Même, N, et al. (2012) Phosphorus utilization in finishing broiler chickens: effects of dietary calcium and microbial phytase. Poult Sci 91, 2829–2837.
88.Yan, F, Angel, R, Ashwell, C, et al. (2005) Evaluation of the broiler’s ability to adapt to an early moderate deficiency of phosphorus and calcium. Poult Sci 84, 1232–1241.
89.Barkley, GR, Miller, HM & Forbes, JM (2004) The ability of laying hens to regulate phosphorus intake when offered two feeds containing different levels of phosphorus. Br J Nutr 92, 233–240.
90.Czarnogorski, M, Woda, CB, Schulkin, J, et al. (2004) Induction of a phosphate appetite in adult male and female rats. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 229, 914–919.
91.Sweeny, JM, Seibert, HE, Woda, C, et al. (1998) Evidence for induction of a phosphate appetite in juvenile rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 275, R1358–R1365.
92.Emmans, GC & Kyriazakis, I (2001) Consequences of genetic change in farm animals on food intake and feeding behaviour. Proc Nutr Soc 60, 115–125.
93.Raubenheimer, D & Simpson, SJ (1999) Integrating nutrition: a geometrical approach. In Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Insect-Plant Relationships, Series Entomologica, vol. 56, pp. 67–82 [SJ Simpson, AJ Mordue and J Hardie, editors]. Dordrecht: Springer.
94.Henry, Y (1985) Dietary factors involved in feed intake regulation in growing pigs: a review. Livest Prod Sci 12, 339–354.
95.Ferguson, NS & Gous, RM (1997) The influence of heat production on voluntary food intake in growing pigs given protein-deficient diets. Anim Sci 64, 365–378.
96.Schiavon, S, Dalla Bona, M, Carcò, G, et al. (2018) Effects of feed allowance and indispensable amino acid reduction on feed intake, growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing pigs. PLOS ONE 13, e0195645.
97.Bradford, MMV & Gous, RM (1991) The response of growing pigs to a choice of diets differing in protein content. Anim Sci 52, 185–192.
98.Li, W, Angel, R, Kim, S-W, et al. (2014) Assessment of postcrumble addition of limestone and calcium-specific appetite in broilers during the starter phase1. Poult Sci 93, 2578–2591.
99.Forbes, JM (2007) Voluntary Food Intake and Diet Selection in Farm Animals, 2nd ed.King’s Lynn: CABI.
100.Baker, SR, Kim, BG & Stein, HH (2013) Comparison of values for standardized total tract digestibility and relative bioavailability of phosphorus in dicalcium phosphate and distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs. J Anim Sci 91, 203–210.
101.Dias, RS, Kebreab, E, Vitti, DMSS, et al. (2006) A revised model for studying phosphorus and calcium kinetics in growing sheep. J Anim Sci 84, 2787–2794.
102.Vitti, DMSS, Kebreab, E, Lopes, JB, et al. (2000) A kinetic model of phosphorus metabolism in growing goats. J Anim Sci 78, 2706–2712.
104.Emmans, GC (1981) A model of the growth and feed intake of ad libitum fed animals, particularly poultry. BSAP Occas Publ 5, 103–110.
105.Emmans, GC & Kyriazakis, I (1997) Models of pig growth: problems and proposed solutions. Livest Prod Sci 51, 119–129.
106.Ferket, PR, Van Heugten, E, Van Kempen, TATG, et al. (2002) Nutritional strategies to reduce environmental emissions from nonruminants. J Anim Sci 80, E168–E182.
107.De Greef, KH (1992) Prediction of production: nutrition induced tissue partitioning in growing pigs. Doctoral thesis, Wageningen University.
108.Fabian, J, Chiba, LI, Frobish, LT, et al. (2004) Compensatory growth and nitrogen balance in grower-finisher pigs. J Anim Sci 82, 2579–2587.
109.Fabian, J, Chiba, LI, Kuhlers, DL, et al. (2002) Degree of amino acid restrictions during the grower phase and compensatory growth in pigs selected for lean growth efficiency. J Anim Sci 80, 2610–2618.
110.Kyriazakis, I & Emmans, GC (1991) Diet selection in pigs: dietary choices made by growing pigs following a period of underfeeding with protein. Anim Sci 52, 337–346.
111.Tullis, JB, Whittemore, CT & Phillips, P (1986) Compensatory nitrogen retention in growing pigs following a period of N deprivation. Br J Nutr 56, 259–267.
112.Zimmerman, DR & Khajarern, S (1973) Starter protein nutrition and compensatory responses in swine. J Anim Sci 36, 189–194.
113.Whittemore, CT, Tullis, JB & Hastie, SW (1978) Efficiency of use of nitrogen from dried microbial cells after a period of N deprivation in growing pigs. Br J Nutr 39, 193–200.
114.Stamataris, C, Kyriazakis, I & Emmans, GC (1991) The performance and body composition of young pigs following a period of growth retardation by food restriction. Anim Sci 53, 373–381.
115.Donker, RA, Den Hartog, LA, Brascamp, EW, et al. (1986) Restriction of feed intake to optimize the overall performance and composition of pigs. Livest Prod Sci 15, 353–365.
116.Bikker, P (1994) Protein and lipid accretion in body components of growing pigs: effects of body weight and nutrient intake. Doctoral thesis, Wageningen University.
117.Prince, TJ, Jungst, SB & Kuhlers, DL (1983) Compensatory responses to short-term feed restriction during the growing period in swine. J Anim Sci 56, 846–852.
118.Létourneau-Montminy, MP, Pomar, C & Lovatto, PA (2014) Apparent total tract digestibility of dietary calcium and phosphorus and their efficiency in bone mineral retention are affected by body mineral status in growing pigs. J Anim Sci 92, 3914–3924.
119.Oster, M, Gerlinger, C, Heide, K, et al. (2018) Lower dietary phosphorus supply in pigs match both animal welfare aspects and resource efficiency. Ambio 47, 20–29.
120.Varley, PF, Sweeney, T, Ryan, MT, et al. (2011) The effect of phosphorus restriction during the weaner-grower phase on compensatory growth, serum osteocalcin and bone mineralization in gilts. Livest Sci 135, 282–288.
121.Pettey, LA, Cromwell, GL & Lindemann, MD (2006) Estimation of endogenous phosphorus loss in growing and finishing pigs fed semi-purified diets. J Anim Sci 84, 618–626.
122.Kemme, PA, Radcliffe, JS, Jongbloed, AW, et al. (1997) Factors affecting phosphorus and calcium digestibility in diets for growing-finishing pigs. J Anim Sci 75, 2139–2146.
123.Dukhta, G, Van Milgen, J, Kövér, G, et al. (2017) Re-parametrization of a swine model to predict growth performance of broilers. 68th Annual Meeting of the European Federation of Animal Science (EAAP).