Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

High consumption of vegetable and fruit colour groups is inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer: a case–control study

  • Wei-Ping Luo (a1), Yu-Jing Fang (a2) (a3), Min-Shan Lu (a1), Xiao Zhong (a1), Yu-Ming Chen (a1) and Cai-Xia Zhang (a1)...

Abstract

The colour of the edible portion of vegetables and fruit reflects the presence of specific micronutrients and phytochemicals. No existing studies have examined the relationship between the intake of vegetable and fruit colour groups and the risk of colorectal cancer. The present study, therefore, aimed to investigate these associations in a Chinese population. A case–control study was conducted between July 2010 and July 2014 in Guangzhou, China, in which 1057 consecutively recruited cases of colorectal cancer were frequency-matched to 1057 controls by age (5-year interval), sex and residence (rural/urban). A validated FFQ was used to collect dietary information during face-to-face interviews. Vegetables and fruit were classified into four groups according to the colour of their primarily edible parts: green; orange/yellow; red/purple; white. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the OR and 95 % CI. A higher consumption of orange/yellow, red/purple and white vegetables and fruit was inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer, with adjusted OR of 0·16 (95 % CI 0·12, 0·22) for orange/yellow, 0·23 (95 % CI 0·17, 0·31) for red/purple and 0·53 (95 % CI 0·40, 0·70) for white vegetables and fruit when the highest and lowest quartiles were compared. Total vegetable intake and total fruit intake have also been found to be inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. However, the intake of green vegetable and fruit was not associated with colorectal cancer risk. The results of the present study, therefore, suggest that a greater intake of orange/yellow, red/purple and white vegetables and fruit is inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      High consumption of vegetable and fruit colour groups is inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer: a case–control study
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      High consumption of vegetable and fruit colour groups is inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer: a case–control study
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      High consumption of vegetable and fruit colour groups is inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer: a case–control study
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: Professor C.-X. Zhang, fax +86 20 87330446, email zhangcx3@mail.sysu.edu.cn

References

Hide All
1 World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research (2011) Continuous Update Project Report. Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Colorectal Cancer. London: World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research.
2 Arafa, MA, Waly, MI, Jriesat, S, et al. (2011) Dietary and lifestyle characteristics of colorectal cancer in Jordan: a case-control study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 12, 19311936.
3 Franceschi, S, Favero, A, La Vecchia, C, et al. (1997) Food groups and risk of colorectal cancer in Italy. Int J Cancer 72, 5661.
4 Satia-Abouta, J, Galanko, JA, Martin, CF, et al. (2004) Food groups and colon cancer risk in African-Americans and Caucasians. Int J Cancer 109, 728736.
5 Terry, P, Terry, J & Wolk, A (2001) Fruit and vegetable consumption in the prevention of cancer: an update. J Intern Med 250, 280290.
6 Flood, A, Velie, EM, Chaterjee, N, et al. (2002) Fruit and vegetable intakes and the risk of colorectal cancer in the Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project follow-up cohort. Am J Clin Nutr 75, 936943.
7 Lin, J, Zhang, SM, Cook, NR, et al. (2005) Dietary intakes of fruit, vegetables, and fiber, and risk of colorectal cancer in a prospective cohort of women (United States). Cancer Causes Control 16, 225233.
8 Michels, KB, Edward, G, Joshipura, KJ, et al. (2000) Prospective study of fruit and vegetable consumption and incidence of colon and rectal cancers. J Natl Cancer Inst 92, 17401752.
9 Sato, Y, Tsubono, Y, Nakaya, N, et al. (2005) Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of colorectal cancer in Japan: The Miyagi Cohort study. Public Health Nutr 8, 309314.
10 Tsubono, Y, Otani, T, Kobayashi, M, et al. (2005) No association between fruit or vegetable consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer in Japan. Br J Cancer 92, 17821784.
11 Voorrips, LE, Goldbohm, RA, van Poppel, G, et al. (2000) Vegetable and fruit consumption and risks of colon and rectal cancer in a prospective cohort study: The Netherlands Cohort study on diet and cancer. Am J Epidemiol 152, 10811092.
12 McCarl, M, Harnack, L, Limburg, PJ, et al. (2006) Incidence of colorectal cancer in relation to glycemic index and load in a cohort of women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 15, 892896.
13 Terry, P, Giovannucci, E, Michels, KB, et al. (2001) Fruit, vegetables, dietary fiber, and risk of colorectal cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 93, 525533.
14 Pennington, JAT & Fisher, RA (2010) Food component profiles for fruit and vegetable subgroups. J Food Compost Anal 23, 411418.
15 Pennington, JAT & Fisher, RA (2009) Classification of fruits and vegetables. J Food Compost Anal 22, S23S31.
16 Levi, F, Pasche, C, La Vecchia, C, et al. (1999) Food groups and colorectal cancer risk. Br J Cancer 79, 1283.
17 Park, Y, Subar, AF, Kipnis, V, et al. (2007) Fruit and vegetable intakes and risk of colorectal cancer in the NIH-AARP diet and health study. Am J Epidemiol 166, 170180.
18 Jacobs, DR, Gross, MD & Tapsell, LC (2009) Food synergy: an operational concept for understanding nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 1543S1548S.
19 Ainsworth, BE, Haskell, WL, Whitt, MC, et al. (2000) Compendium of physical activities: an update of activity codes and MET intensities. Med Sci Sports Exerc 32, S498S504.
20 Ainsworth, BE, Haskell, WL, Herrmann, SD, et al. (2011) 2011 compendium of physical activities: a second update of codes and MET values. Med Sci Sports Exerc 43, 15751581.
21 Yang, YX, Wang, GY & Pan, XC (2002) China Food Composition. Beijing: Peking University Medical Press pp. 329.
22 Zhang, CX & Ho, SC (2009) Validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire among Chinese women in Guangdong province. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 18, 240.
23 Liu, YT, Dai, JJ, Xu, CH, et al. (2012) Greater intake of fruit and vegetables is associated with lower risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Chinese adults: a case-control study. Cancer Causes Control 23, 589599.
24 Zhang, CX, Ho, SC, Chen, YM, et al. (2009) Greater vegetable and fruit intake is associated with a lower risk of breast cancer among Chinese women. Int J Cancer 125, 181188.
25 Willett, WC, Howe, GR & Kushi, LH (1997) Adjustment for total energy intake in epidemiologic studies. Am J Clin Nutr 65, 1220S1228S.
26 Vogtmann, E, Xiang, YB, Li, HL, et al. (2013) Fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of colorectal cancer: results from the Shanghai Men's Health Study. Cancer Causes Control 24, 19351945.
27 Singh, PN & Fraser, GE (1998) Dietary risk factors for colon cancer in a low-risk population. Am J Epidemiol 148, 761774.
28 Chiu, BC, Ji, BT, Dai, Q, et al. (2003) Dietary factors and risk of colon cancer in Shanghai, China. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 12, 201208.
29 Annema, N, Heyworth, JS, McNaughton, SA, et al. (2011) Fruit and vegetable consumption and the risk of proximal colon, distal colon, and rectal cancers in a case-control study in Western Australia. J Am Diet Assoc 111, 14791490.
30 Le Marchand, L, Hankin, JH, Wilkens, LR, et al. (1997) Dietary fiber and colorectal cancer risk. Epidemiology 8, 658665.
31 Liu, RH (2004) Potential synergy of phytochemicals in cancer prevention: mechanism of action. J Nutr 134, 3479S3485S.
32 Steinmetz, KA & Potter, JD (1996) Vegetables, fruit, and cancer prevention: a review. J Am Diet Assoc 96, 10271039.
33 Giovannucci, E, Rimm, EB, Liu, Y, et al. (2002) A prospective study of tomato products, lycopene, and prostate cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst 94, 391398.
34 Adebamowo, CA, Cho, E, Sampson, L, et al. (2005) Dietary flavonols and flavonol-rich foods intake and the risk of breast cancer. Int J Cancer 114, 628633.
35 Bidoli, E, Franceschi, S, Talamini, R, et al. (1992) Food consumption and cancer of the colon and rectum in north-eastern Italy. Int J Cancer 50, 223229.
36 Fleischauer, AT, Poole, C & Arab, L (2000) Garlic consumption and cancer prevention: meta-analyses of colorectal and stomach cancers. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 10471052.
37 Milner, JA (2006) Preclinical perspectives on garlic and cancer. J Nutr 136, 827S831S.
38 Kidd, PM (2000) The use of mushroom glucans and proteoglycans in cancer treatment. Altern Med Rev 5, 427.
39 Riboli, E & Norat, T (2003) Epidemiologic evidence of the protective effect of fruit and vegetables on cancer risk. Am J Clin Nutr 78, 559S569S.
40 Aune, D, Lau, R, Chan, DS, et al. (2011) Nonlinear reduction in risk for colorectal cancer by fruit and vegetable intake based on meta-analysis of prospective studies. Gastroenterology 141, 106118.
41 McMichael, AJ & Potter, JD (1985) Host factors in carcinogenesis: certain bile-acid metabolic profiles that selectively increase the risk of proximal colon cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 75, 185191.
42 Jacobs, ET, Lanza, E, Alberts, DS, et al. (2006) Fiber, sex, and colorectal adenoma: results of a pooled analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 343349.

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Luo Supplementary Material
Appendix

 Word (62 KB)
62 KB
WORD
Supplementary materials

Luo Supplementary Material
Appendix

 Word (62 KB)
62 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed