1 The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)/World Health Organization (WHO) (2010) Diarrhoea: Why Children are Still Dying and What Can be Done About it. New York/Geneva: UNICEF/WHO.
2 Nweze, EI (2010) Aetiology of diarrhoea and virulence properties of diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli among patients and healthy subjects in southeast Nigeria. J Health Popul Nutr 28, 245–252.
3 Nabuurs, MJ (1998) Weaning piglets as a model for studying pathophysiology of diarrhea. Vet Q 20, Suppl. 3, S42–S45.
4 Juul-Madsen, HR, Jensen, KH, Nielsen, J, et al. (2009) Ontogeny and characterization of blood leukocyte subsets and serum proteins in piglets before and after weaning. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 133, 95–108.
5 Bianchi, AT, Zwart, RJ, Jeurissen, SH, et al. (1992) Development of the B- and T-cell compartments in porcine lymphoid organs from birth to adult life: an immunohistological approach. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 33, 201–221.
6 Johnson, IR, Ball, RO, Baracos, VE, et al. (2006) Glutamine supplementation influences immune development in the newly weaned piglet. Dev Comp Immunol 30, 1191–1202.
7 Solano-Aguilar, GI, Vengroski, KG, Beshah, E, et al. (2001) Characterization of lymphocyte subsets from mucosal tissues in neonatal swine. Dev Comp Immunol 25, 245–263.
8 Vega-Lopez, MA, Bailey, M, Telemo, E, et al. (1995) Effect of early weaning on the development of immune cells in the pig small intestine. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 44, 319–327.
9 Bailey, M, Miller, BG, Telemo, E, et al. (1993) Specific immunological unresponsiveness following active primary responses to proteins in the weaning diet of piglets. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 101, 266–271.
10 Darwich, L, Segales, J, Domingo, M, et al. (2002) Changes in CD4(+), CD8(+), CD4(+) CD8(+), and immunoglobulin M-positive peripheral blood mononuclear cells of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome-affected pigs and age-matched uninfected wasted and healthy pigs correlate with lesions and porcine circovirus type 2 load in lymphoid tissues. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 9, 236–242.
11 Forchielli, ML & Walker, WA (2005) The effect of protective nutrients on mucosal defense in the immature intestine. Acta Paediatr Suppl 94, 74–83.
12 van den Berg, A, van Elburg, RM, Westerbeek, EA, et al. (2005) Glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition in very-low-birth-weight infants and effects on feeding tolerance and infectious morbidity: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 81, 1397–1404.
13 Chamorro, S, de Blas, C, Grant, G, et al. (2009) Effect of dietary supplementation with glutamine and a combination of glutamine-arginine on intestinal health in 25-d-old weaned rabbits. J Anim Sci 88, 170–180.
14 Yi, GF, Carroll, JA, Allee, GL, et al. (2005) Effect of glutamine and spray-dried plasma on growth performance, small intestinal morphology, and immune responses of Escherichia coli K88+-challenged weaned pigs. J Anim Sci 83, 634–643.
15 DeMarco, VG, Li, N, Thomas, J, et al. (2003) Glutamine and barrier function in cultured Caco-2 epithelial cell monolayers. J Nutr 133, 2176–2179.
16 Scheppach, W, Dusel, G, Kuhn, T, et al. (1996) Effect of l-glutamine and n-butyrate on the restitution of rat colonic mucosa after acid induced injury. Gut 38, 878–885.
17 Evans, ME, Jones, DP & Ziegler, TR (2005) Glutamine inhibits cytokine-induced apoptosis in human colonic epithelial cells via the pyrimidine pathway. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 289, G388–G396.
18 Wu, GY, Field, CJ & Marliss, EB (1991) Glutamine and glucose metabolism in rat splenocytes and mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes. Am J Physiol 260, E141–E147.
19 Wu, GY, Field, CJ & Marliss, EB (1991) Glucose and glutamine metabolism in rat macrophages: enhanced glycolysis and unaltered glutaminolysis in spontaneously diabetic BB rats. Biochim Biophys Acta 1115, 166–173.
20 Newsholme, P (2001) Why is l-glutamine metabolism important to cells of the immune system in health, postinjury, surgery or infection? J Nutr 131, 2515S–2522S.
21 Ogle, CK, Ogle, JD, Mao, J-X, et al. (1994) Effect of glutamine on phagocytosis and bacterial killing by normal and pediatric burn patient neutrophils. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 18, 128–133.
22 Dugan, ME & McBurney, MI (1995) Luminal glutamine perfusion alters endotoxin-related changes in ileal permeability of the piglet. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 19, 83–87.
23 Wang, J, Chen, L, Li, P, et al. (2008) Gene expression is altered in piglet small intestine by weaning and dietary glutamine supplementation. J Nutr 138, 1025–1032.
24 Field, CJ, Thomson, CA, Van Aerde, JE, et al. (2000) Lower proportion of CD45R0+ cells and deficient interleukin-10 production by formula-fed infants, compared with human-fed, is corrected with supplementation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 31, 291–299.
25 Klimberg, VS, Salloum, RM, Kasper, M, et al. (1990) Oral glutamine accelerates healing of the small intestine and improves outcome after whole abdominal radiation. Arch Surg 125, 1040–1045.
26 Wu, G, Meier, SA & Knabe, DA (1996) Dietary glutamine supplementation prevents jejunal atrophy in weaned pigs. J Nutr 126, 2578–2584.
27 Dhaliwal, R & Heyland, DK (2005) Nutrition and infection in the intensive care unit: what does the evidence show? Curr Opin Crit Care 11, 461–467.
28 Sarmiento, JI, Casey, TA & Moon, HW (1988) Postweaning diarrhea in swine: experimental model of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection. Am J Vet Res 49, 1154–1159.
29 Wu, G (2009) Amino acids: metabolism, functions, and nutrition. Amino Acids 37, 1–17.
30 Field, CJ, Johnson, I & Pratt, VC (2000) Glutamine and arginine: immunonutrients for improved health. Med Sci Sports Exerc 32, S377–S388.
31 Field, M (1976) Regulation of active ion transport in the small intestine. Ciba Found Symp 109–127.
32 Pfaffl, MW (2004) Quantification strategies in real-time PCR. In A-Z of Quantitative PCR, pp. 89–120 [Bustin, SA, editor]. LaJolla, CA: International University Line.
33 Pfaffl, MW (2001) A new mathematical model for relative quantification in real-time RT-PCR. Nucleic Acids Res 29, e45.
34 Gyles, CL (1992) Escherichia coli cytotoxins and enterotoxins. Can J Microbiol 38, 734–746.
35 Al-Sadi, R, Boivin, M & Ma, T (2009) Mechanism of cytokine modulation of epithelial tight junction barrier. Front Biosci 14, 2765–2778.
36 Duchmann, R, Neurath, M, Marker-Hermann, E, et al. (1997) Immune responses towards intestinal bacteria – current concepts and future perspectives. Z Gastroenterol 35, 337–346.
37 Silva, AC, Santos-Neto, MS, Soares, AM, et al. (1998) Efficacy of a glutamine-based oral rehydration solution on the electrolyte and water absorption in a rabbit model of secretory diarrhea induced by cholera toxin. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 26, 513–519.
38 Coeffier, M, Hecketsweiler, B, Hecketsweiler, P, et al. (2005) Effect of glutamine on water and sodium absorption in human jejunum at baseline and during PGE1-induced secretion. J Appl Physiol 98, 2163–2168.
39 Keljo, DJ, Butler, DG & Hamilton, JR (1985) Altered jejunal permeability to macromolecules during viral enteritis in the piglet. Gastroenterology 88, 998–1004.
40 Isolauri, E, Kaila, M, Arvola, T, et al. (1993) Diet during rotavirus enteritis affects jejunal permeability to macromolecules in suckling rats. Pediatr Res 33, 548–553.
41 Haynes, TE, Li, P, Li, X, et al. (2009) l-Glutamine or l-alanyl-l-glutamine prevents oxidant- or endotoxin-induced death of neonatal enterocytes. Amino Acids 37, 131–142.
42 Gianotti, L, Alexander, JW, Gennari, R, et al. (1995) Oral glutamine decreases bacterial translocation and improves survival in experimental gut-origin sepsis. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 19, 69–74.
43 Baskerville, A, Hambleton, P & Benbough, JE (1980) Pathological features of glutaminase toxicity. Br J Exp Pathol 61, 132–138.
44 Domeneghini, C, Di, GA, Bosi, G, et al. (2006) Can nutraceuticals affect the structure of intestinal mucosa? Qualitative and quantitative microanatomy in l-glutamine diet-supplemented weaning piglets. Vet Res Commun 30, 331–342.
45 Guandalini, S, Rao, MC, Smith, PL, et al. (1982) cGMP modulation of ileal ion transport: in vitro effects of Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin. Am J Physiol 243, G36–G41.
46 Armstrong, CP, Taylor, TV & Torrence, HB (1987) Ionic flux and mucosal ultrastructure in the rat bile-pancreatic duct. Effect of bile salt perfusion on duct integrity. Dig Dis Sci 32, 861–871.
47 Coeffier, M, Marion, R, Ducrotte, P, et al. (2003) Modulating effect of glutamine on IL-1beta-induced cytokine production by human gut. Clin Nutr 22, 407–413.
48 Jing, L, Wu, Q & Wang, F (2007) Glutamine induces heat-shock protein and protects against Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide-induced vascular hyporeactivity in rats. Crit Care 11, R34.
49 Snoeck, V, Huyghebaert, N, Cox, E, et al. (2003) Enteric-coated pellets of F4 fimbriae for oral vaccination of suckling piglets against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infections. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 96, 219–227.
50 Murtaugh, MP & Foss, DL (2002) Inflammatory cytokines and antigen presenting cell activation. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 87, 109–121.