2Bailey, RL, Dodd, KW, Goldman, JA, et al. (2010) Estimation of total usual calcium and vitamin D intakes in the United States. J Nutr 140, 817–822.
3Park, CY & Weaver, CM (2011) Calcium and bone health: influence of prebiotics. Funct Food Rev 3, 62–72.
4Bouhnik, Y, Flourie, B, D'Agay-Abensour, L, et al. (1997) Administration of transgalacto-oligosaccharides increases fecal bifidobacteria and modifies colonic fermentation metabolism in healthy humans. J Nutr 127, 444–448.
5Durand, M, Cordelet, C, Hannequart, G, et al. (1992) In vitro fermentation of a galacto-oligosaccharide by human bacteria in continuous culture. Proc Nutr Soc 51, 6A.
6Rémésy, C, Levrat, MA, Gamet, L, et al. (1993) Cecal fermentations in rats fed oligosaccharides (inulin) are modulated by dietary calcium level. Am J Physiol 264, G855–G862.
7Levrat, MA, Rémésy, C & Demigné, C (1991) High propionic acid fermentations and mineral accumulation in the cecum of rats adapted to different levels of inulin. J Nutr 121, 1730–1737.
8Pérez-Conesa, D, López, G & Ros, G (2007) Effects of probiotic, prebiotic and symbiotic follow-up infant formulas on large intestine morphology and bone mineralization in rats. J Sci Food Agric 87, 1059–1068.
9Rashka, L & Daniel, H (2005) Diet composition and age determine the effects of inulin-type fructans on intestinal calcium absorption in rat. Eur J Nutr 44, 360–364.
10Pérez-Conesa, D, López, G, Abellán, P, et al. (2006) Bioavailability of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus in rats fed probiotic, prebiotic and symbiotic powder follow-up infant formulas and their effect on physiological and nutritional parameters. J Sci Food Agric 86, 2327–2336.
11Chonan, O, Matsumoto, K & Watanuki, M (1995) Effects of galactooligosaccharides on calcium absorption and preventing bone loss in ovariectomized rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 59, 236–239.
12Chonan, O & Watanuki, M (1996) The effect of 6′-galactooligosaccharides on bone mineralization of rats adapted to different levels of dietary calcium. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 66, 244–249.
13Weaver, CM, Martin, BR, Nakatsu, CH, et al. (2011) Galacto-oligosaccharides improve mineral absorption and bone properties in growing rats through gut fermentation. J Agric Food Chem 59, 6501–6510.
14van den Heuvel, EG, Schoterman, MH & Muijs, T (2000) Transgalacto-oligosaccharides stimulate calcium absorption in postmenopausal women. J Nutr 130, 2938–2942.
15van den Heuvel, EGHM, Schaafsma, G, Muijs, T, et al. (1998) Non-digestible oligosaccharides do not affect calcium and non-heme iron absorption in young healthy men. Am J Clin Nutr 67, 445–452.
16Abrams, Sa, Griffin, IJ, Hawthorne, KM, et al. (2005) A combination of prebiotic short- and long-chain inulin-type fructans enhances calcium absorption and bone mineralization in young adults. Am J Clin Nutr 82, 471–476.
17Yang, YJ, Martin, BR & Boushey, CJ (2010) Development and evaluation of a brief calcium assessment tool for adolescents. J Am Diet Assoc 110, 111–115.
18Gibson, GR, Macfarlane, S & Macfarlane, GT (1993) Metabolic interactions involving sulphate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria in the human large intestine. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 12, 117–125.
19Harris, J & Benedict, F (1919) A Biometric Study of Basal Metabolism in Man. Washington, DC: Carnegie Institute of Washington.
20Ashby, RL, Ward, KA, Roberts, SA, et al. (2009) A reference database for the Stratec XCT-2000 peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) scanner in healthy children and young adults aged 6–19 years. Osteoporos Int 20, 1337–1346.
21Weaver, CM, Rothwell, AP & Wood, KV (2006) Measuring calcium absorption and utilization in humans. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 9, 568–574.
22Wastney, ME, Ng, J, Smith, D, et al. (1996) Differences in calcium kinetics between adolescent girls and young women. Am J Physiol 271, R208–R216.
23McKay, LF, Eastwood, MA & Brydon, WG (1985) Methane excretion in man – a study of breath, flatus, and faeces. Gut 26, 69–74.
24Pitt, P, De Bruijn, KM, Beeching, MF, et al. (1980) Studies on breath methane: the effect of ethnic origins and lactulose. Gut 21, 95l–959.
25Bond, JH Jr, Engel, RR & Levitt, MD (1971) Factors influencing pulmonary methane excretion in man. J Exp Med 133, 572–588.
26Ariefdjohan, MW, Savaiano, DA & Nakatsu, CH (2010) Optimization of DNA extraction kits for PCR-DGGE analysis of human intestinal microbial communities from fecal specimens. Nutr J 9, 23.
27Lane, DJ (1991) 16S/23S rRNA Sequencing. In Nucleic Acid Techniques in Bacterial Systematics, pp. 115–175 [Stackebrandt, E and Goodfellow, M, editors]. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
28Muyzer, G, de Waal, EC & Uitterlinden, AG (1993) Profiling of complex microbial populations by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified genes coding for 16S rRNA. Appl Environ Microbiol 59, 695–700.
29Satokari, RM, Vaughan, EE, Akkermans, ADL, et al. (2001) Bifidobacterial diversity in human feces detected by genus-specific PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Appl Environ Microbiol 67, 504–513.
30Griffin, IJ, Hicks, PMD, Heaney, RP, et al. (2003) Enriched chicory inulin increases calcium absorption in girls with lower calcium absorption. Nutr Res 23, 901–909.
31Van den Heuvel, EGHM, Muijs, T, van Dokkum, W, et al. (1999) Lactulose stimulates calcium absorption in postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 14, 1211–1216.
32Brommage, R, Binacua, C, Antille, S, et al. (1993) Intestinal calcium absorption in rats is stimulated by dietary lactulose and other resistant sugars. J Nutr 123, 2186–2194.
33Weaver, CM, Martin, BR, Story, JA, et al. (2010) Novel fibers increase bone calcium content and strength beyond efficiency of large intestine fermentation. J Agric Food Chem 58, 8952–8957.
34Brommage, R, Binacua, C & Carrié, AL (1995) The cecum does not participate in the stimulation of intestinal calcium absorption by calcitriol. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 54, 71–73.
35Ohta, A, Ohtuki, M, Takizawa, T, et al. (1994) Effects of fructooligosaccharides on the absorption of magnesium and calcium by cecectomized rats. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 64, 316–323.
36Younes, H, Coudray, C, Bellanger, J, et al. (2001) Effects of two fermentable carbohydrates (inulin and resistant starch) and their combination on calcium and magnesium balance in rats. Br J Nutr 86, 479–485.
37Van den Heuvel, EGHM, Muys, T, van Dokkum, W, et al. (1999) Oligofructose stimulates calcium absorption in adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr 69, 544–548.
38Griffin, IJ, Davila, PM & Abrams, SA (2002) Non-digestible oligosaccharides and calcium absorption in girls with adequate calcium intakes. Br J Nutr 87, Suppl. 2, S187–S191.
39Martin, BR, Braun, MM, Wigertz, K, et al. (2010) Fructo-oligosaccharides and calcium absorption and retention in adolescent girls. J Am Coll Nutr 29, 382–386.
40Coudray, C, Bellanger, J, Castiglia-Delavaud, C, et al. (1997) Effect of soluble or partly soluble dietary fibres supplementation on absorption and balance of calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc in healthy young men. Eur J Clin Nutr 51, 375–380.
41Tahiri, M, Tressol, JC, Arnaud, J, et al. (2003) Effect of short chain fructooligosaccharides on intestinal Ca absorption and Ca status in postmenopausal women: a stable isotope study. Am J Clin Nutr 77, 449–457.
42Van den Heuvel, EG, Muijs, T, Brouns, F, et al. (2009) Short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides improve magnesium absorption in adolescent girls with a low calcium intake. Nutr Res 29, 229–237.
43Dahl, WJ, Whiting, SJ, Isaac, TM, et al. (2005) Effects of thickened beverages fortified with inulin on beverage acceptance, gastrointestinal function, and bone resorption in institutionalized adults. Nutrition 21, 308–311.
44Holloway, L, Moynihan, S, Abrams, SA, et al. (2007) Effects of oligofructose-enriched inulin on intestinal absorption of calcium and magnesium and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women. Br J Nutr 97, 365–372.
45Tahiri, M, Tressol, JC, Arnaud, J, et al. (2001) Five-week intake of short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides increases intestinal absorption and status of magnesium in postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 16, 2152–2160.
46Adolphi, B, Scholz-Ahrens, KE, Vrese, M, et al. (2009) Short-term effect of bedtime consumption of fermented milk supplemented with calcium, inulin-type fructans and caseinphosphopeptides on bone metabolism in healthy, postmenopausal women. Eur J Nutr 48, 45–53.
47Lopez-Huertas, E, Teucher, B, Boza, JJ, et al. (2006) Absorption of calcium from milks enriched with fructo-oligosaccharides caseinophosphopeptides, tricalcium phosphate, and milk solids. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 310–316.
48Tzortzis, G, Goulas, AK, Gee, JM, et al. (2005) A novel galacto-oligosaccharides mixture increases the bifidobacterial population numbers in a continuous in vitro fermentation system and in the proximal colonic contents of pigs in vivo. J Nutr 135, 1726–1731.
49Rodriguez-Cabezas, ME, Camuesco, D, Arribas, B, et al. (2010) The combination of fructooligosaccharides and resistant starch shows prebiotic additive effects in rats. Clin Nutr 29, 832–839.
50Ben, X, Li, J, Feng, Z, et al. (2008) Low level of galacto-oligosaccharides in infant formula stimulates growth of intestinal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. World J Gastroenterol 14, 6564–6568.
51Bouhnik, Y, Raskine, L, Simoneau, G, et al. (2004) The capacity of nondigestible carbohydrates to stimulate fecal bifidobacteria in healthy humans: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, dose–response relation study. Am J Clin Nutr 80, 1658–1664.
52Walton, GE, van den Heuvel, EG, Kosters, MH, et al. (2012) A randomised crossover study investigating the effects of galacto-oligosaccharides on the faecal microbiota in men and women over 50 years of age. Br J Nutr 107, 1466–1475.
53Moro, G, Minoli, I, Mosca, M, et al. (2002) Dosage-related bifidogenic effects of galacto- and fructooligosaccharides in formula-fed term infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 34, 291–295.
54Davis, LMG, Martinez, I, Walter, J, et al. (2010) A dose dependent impact of prebiotic galactooligosaccharides on the intestinal microbiota of healthy adults. Int J Food Microbiol 144, 285–292.
55Slegte, J (2002) Determination of trans-galactooligosaccharides in selected food products by ion-exchange chromatography: collaborative study. J AOAC Int 85, 417–423.