Aaron, JI, Mela, DJ & Evans, RE (1994) The influences of attitudes, beliefs, and label information on perceptions of reduced-fat spread. Appetite 22, 25–37.
Acheson, KJ, Campbell, IT, Edholm, OG, Miller, DS & Stock, MJ (1980) The measurement of food and energy intake in man: an evaluation of some techniques. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 33, 1147–1154.
Adams, WR, Kiefer, SW & Badia-Elder, N (1995) Tryptophandeficiency and alcohol consumption in rats as a model for disadvantaged human populations: a preliminary study. Medical Anthropologia 16, 175–191.
American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Anderson, KJ & Revelle, W (1982) Impulsivity, caffeine and proof-reading: a test of the Easterbrook hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception Performance 8, 614–624.
Anderson, SA & Raiten, DJ (1992) Safety of Amino Acids Used as Dietary Supplements. Report prepared for the Food and Drug Administration.
Ballard-Barbash, R, Graubard, I, Schatzkin, A & Thompson, FE (1996) Contribution of dieting to the inverse association between energy intake and body mass index. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50, 98–106.
Bartus, RT, Dean, RL, Beer, B & Lippa, AS (1982) The cholinergic hypothesis of geriatric memory dysfunction. Science 216, 408–417.
Basiotis, PP, Welsh, SO, Cronin, FJ, Kelsay, JL & Mertz, W (1987) Number of days of food intake records required to estimate individual and group nutrient intakes with defined confidence. Journal of Nutrition 117, 1638–1641.
Beaton, GH, Tarasuk, V & Anderson, GH (1992) Estimation of possible impact of non caloric fat and carbohydrate substitutes on macronutrient intake in the human. Appetite 19, 87–103.
Beauchamp, GK, Vazquez de Vaquera, M & Pearson, PB (1987) Dietary status of human infants and their sensory responses to amino acid flavor. In Umami: A Basic Taste, pp. 125–138 [Kawamura, Y and Kare, MT, editors]. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker.
Behar, D, Rapaport, JL, Adams, AA, Berg, CK & Cornblath, M (1984) Sugar challenge testing with children considered behaviourally ‘sugar reactive.’. Nutrition and Behavior 1, 277–288.
Bellisle, F, Dalix, AM, Chappuis, F, Rossi, F, Fiquet, P, Gaudin, V, Assoun, M & Slama, G (1996) Monosodium glutamate affects meal-time food selection in diabetic patients. Appetite 26, 267–276.
Bellisle, F, Monneuse, MO, Chabert, M, Larue-Achagiotis, C, Lanteaume, MT & Louis-Sylvestre, J (1991) Monosodium glutamate as a palatability enhancer in the European diet. Physiology and Behavior 49, 869–873.
Bellisle, F & Perez, C (1994) Low-energy substitutes for sugars and fats in the human diet: impact on nutritional regulation. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 18, 197–205.
Benkelfat, C, Ellenbogen, MA, Palmour, RM & Young, SN (1994) Mood-lowering effect of tryptophan depletion: enhanced sus- ceptibility in young men at genetic risk for major affective disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry 51, 687–697.
Benton, D (1992) Vitamin-mineral supplements and intelligence. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 51, 295–302.
Benton, D & Owens, D (1993) Blood glucose and human memory. Psychopharmacology 113, 83–88.
Benton, D, Owens, D & Parker, P (1994) Blood glucose, memory and attention. Neuropsychologia 115, 129.
Benton, D & Sargent, J (1992) Breakfast, blood glucose and memory. Biological Psychology 33, 207–210.
Blass, E & Fitzgerald, E (1988) Milk-induced analgesia and comforting in 10-day-old rats: opioid mediation. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 29, 9–13.
Blass, E, Fitzgerald, E & Kehoe, P (1987) Interactions between sucrose, pain and isolation distress. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 26, 483–489.
Blundell, JE & Burley, VJ (1992) Evaluation of the satiating power of dietary fat in man. In Progress in Obesity Research, pp.453–457 [Oomura, Y, Baba, S and Shimazu, T, editors]. London: Libbey.
Blundell, JE, Burley, VJ, Rolls, BJ & Peters, JC (1991) Simultaneous replication validates an effect of olestra on the pattern of eating. International Journal of Obesity 15, 9.
Blundell, JE & Green, SM (1996) Effect of sucrose and sweeteners on appetite and energy intake. International Journal of Obesity 20, Suppl. 2, S12–S17.
Blundell, JE & Hill, AJ (1986) Paradoxical effects of an intense sweetener (aspartame) on appetite. Lancet 1, 1092–1093.
Blundell, JE, Lawton, CL & Hill, AJ (1993) Mechanisms of appetite control and their abnormalities in obese patients. Hormonal Research 39, 72–76.
Booth, DA (1991) Are low-calorie substitutes compensated? Appetite 17, 159–162.
Booth, DA, Lee, M & McAleavey, C (1976) Acquired sensory control of satiation in man. British Journal of Psychology 67, 137–147.
Caputo, FA & Mattes, RD (1993) Human dietary responses to perceived manipulation of fat content in a midday meal. International Journal of Obesity 17, 237–240.
Carlson, SE, Ford, AJ, Werkman, SH, Peeples, JM & Koo, WWK (1996) Visual acuity and fatty acid status of term infants fed human milk and formulas with and without docosahexaenoate and arachidonate from egg yolk lecithin. Paediarric Research 5, 882–888.
Chandler, AMK, Walker, SP, Connolly, K & Grantham-McGregor, SM (1995) School breakfast improves verbal fluency in undernourished Jamaican children. Journal of Nutrition 125, 894–900.
Chapelot, D, Fricker, J, Pasquet, P & Apfelbaum, M (1993) Contribution of the cognitive factors in the response of restrained and non restrained eaters after a change in the fat content of the main course of lunch meal. International Journal of Obesity 17, 62.
Christensen, L, Krietsch, K & White, B (1989) Development, crossvalidation, and assessment of the reliability of the Christensen Dietary Distress Inventory. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science 21, 1–15.
Christensen, L & Redig, C (1993) Effect of meal composition on mood. Behavioral Neuroscience 107, 346–353.
Colditz, GA, Giovannucci, E, Rimm, EB, Stampfer, MJ, Rosner, B & Speizer, FE (1991) Alcohol intake in relation to diet and obesity among women and men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 54, 1701–1707.
Connors, CK & Blouin, AG (1983) Nutritional effects on behaviour of children. Journal of Psychiatric Research 17, 198–201.
Crombie, IK, Todman, J, McNeill, G, Florey, C, Menzies, IT & Kennedy, RA (1990) Effect of vitamin and mineral supplementation on verbal and non-verbal reasoning of schoolchildren. Lancet 311, 744–747.
Crook, WG (1974) An alternative method of managing the hyperactive child. Paediatrics 5, 46–56.
Cueto, S (1995) Cited in Pollitt E, Jacoby E & Cueto S (1995) Breakfast prevents delays of memory functions. FASEB Journal 9, A483.
Deary, IJ, Crawford, JR, Hepburn, D, Langan, S, Blackmore, L & Frier, BM (1993) Severe hypoglycaemia and intelligence in adult patients with insulin-treated diabetes. Diabetes 42, 341–344.
de Castro, JM (1987) Macronutrient relationships with meal patterns and mood in the spontaneous feeding behavior of humans. Physiology and Behavior 39, 561–569.
de Castro, JM & de Castro, ES (1989) Spontaneous meal patterns in humans: influence of the presence of other people. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50, 237–247.
de Graaf, C, Hulshof, T, Weststrate, JA & Hautvast, JGA (1996) Non-absorbable fat (sucrose polyester) and the regulation of energy intake and weight. American Journal of Physiology 270, R1386–R1393.
Debry, G (1989) Le Café, sa Composition, sa Consommation, ses Incidences sur la Santé (Coffee: Composition, Intake and Health Considerations). Nancy: Centre de Nutrition Humaine.
Deijen, JM, Heemstra, ML & Orlebeke, JF (1989) Dietary effects on mood and performance. Journal of Psychiatric Research 23, 275–283.
Dickie, NH & Bender, AE (1982) Breakfast and performance in schoolchildren. British Journal of Nutrition 48, 483–496.
Drewnowski, A (1990) Dietary fats: perceptions and preferences. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 4, 431–435.
Drewnowski, A, Kurth, C, Holden-Wiltse, J & Saari, J (1992) Food preferences in human obesity: carbohydrates versus fats. Appetite 18, 207–221.
Drewnowski, A & Schwartz, M (1990) Invisible fats: sensory assessment of sugar/fat mixtures. Appetite 14, 203–217.
Dum, J, Gramsch, C & Ferz, A (1983) Activation of hypothalamic β-endorphin pools by reward induced by highly palatable food. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 18, 443–447.
Duncan, KH, Bacon, JA & Weinsier, RL (1983) The effects of high and low energy density diets on satiety, energy intake and eating time of obese and non obese subjects. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 46, 886–892.
Feingold, BF (1981) Dietary management of behavior and learning disabilities. In Nutrition and Behavior [Miller, SA, editor]. Philadelphia, PA: Franklin Institute.
Ferguson, HB, Stoddart, C & Simeon, PG (1986) Double blind challenge studies of behavioural and cognitive effects of sucrose-aspartame ingestion in normal children. Nutrition Reviews 44, Suppl., 144–150.
Fernstrom, J (1994) The effect of dietary macronutrients on brain serotonin formation. In Appetite and Body Weight Regulation, pp.51–62 [Fernstrom, JD and Miller, GD, editors]. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc.
Fernstrom, JD & Wurtman, IU (1972) Brain serotonin content: physiological dependence on plasma tryptophan levels. Science 173, 149–151.
Femstrom, MH, Krowinski, RL & Kupfer, DJ (1987) Appetite and food preference in depression: effects of imipramine treatment. Biological Psychiatry 22, 529–539.
Foltin, RW, Kelly, TH & Fischman, MW (1993) Ethanol as an energy source in humans: comparison with dextrose-containing beverages. Appetite 20, 95–110.
Fourest-Fontecave, S, Adamson, E, Lins, PE, Ekblom, B, Sendahl, C & Strand, L (1987) Mental alertness in response to hypoglycaemia in normal man: the effect of 12 hours and 72 hours of fasting. Diabète et Métabolisme 13, 405–410.
Garner, DM, Olmstead, MP & Polivy, J (1983) Development and validation of a multidimensional eating disorders inventory for anorexia nervosa and bulimia. International Journal of Eating Disorders 2, 15–34.
Gonder-Frederick, L, Hall, JL, Vogt, J, Cox, DJ, Green, J & Gold, PE (1987) Memory enhancement in elderly humans: effects of glucose ingestion. Physiology and Behavior 41, 503–504.
Goodwin, GM, Fairburn, CG & Cowen, PJ (1987) Dieting changes serotonergic function in women, not men: implications for the aetiology of anorexia nervosa? Psychological Medicine 17, 839–842.
Goodwin, JS, Goodwin, JM & Garry, PJ (1983) Association between nutritional status and cognitive functioning in a healthy elderly population. Journal of the American Medical Association 249, 2917–2921.
Green, MW & Rogers, PJ (1995) Impaired cognitive functioning during spontaneous dieting. Psychological Medicine 25, 115–129.
Greenwood, CE & Winocur, G (1990) Learning and memory impairment in rats fed a high saturated fat diet. Behavioral Neural Biology 53, 74–87.
Hall, JL, Gonder-Frederick, LA, Chewning, WW, Silveira, J & Gold, PE (1989) Glucose enhancement of performance on memory tests in young and aged humans. Neuropsychologia 27, 1129–1138.
Herman, CP & Polivy, J (1980) Restrained eating. In Obesity, pp. 208–225 [Stunkard, AJ, editor]. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders.
Herold, KC, Polonsky, KS, Cohen, RM, Levy, J & Douglas, F (1985) Variable deterioration in cortical function during insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. Diabetes 34, 677–685.
Hill, AJ & Blundell, JE (1988) Role of amino acids in appetite control in man. In Amino Acids in Health and Disease, pp. 239–248 [Huether, G, editor]. Berlin: Springer Verlag.
Hindmarch, I, Kerr, JS & Sherwood, N (1991) The effects of alcohol and other drugs on psychomotor performance and cognitive function. Alcohol and Alcoholism 26, 71–79.
Holmes, CS, Koepke, KM & Thompson, RG (1986) Simple versus complex impairment at three blood glucose levels. Psychoneuroendocrinology 11, 353–357.
Hulshof, T, Graaf, C & Weststrate, JA (1995) Short term satiating effect of the fat replacer sucrose polyester (SPE) in man. British Journal of Nutrition 74, 569–585.
James, JE (1991) Caffeine and Health. London: Academic Press.
Jarvis, MJ (1993) Does caffeine intake enhance absolute levels of cognitive performance? Psychopharmacology 110, 45–52.
Johnson, J & Vickers, Z (1993) Effects of flavor and macronutrient composition of food servings on liking, hunger and subsequent intake. Appetite 21, 25–39.
Kanarek, RB & Swinney, D (1990) Effects of food snacks on cognitive performance in male college students. Appetite 14, 15–27.
Kant, AK, Ballard-Barbash, R & Schatzkin, A (1995) Evening eating and its relation to self-reported body weight and nutrient intake in women, CSFII 1985–86. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 14, 358–363.
Kaye, WH, Pickar, D, Naber, D & Ebert, MH (1982) Cerebrospinal fluid opioid activity in anorexia nervosa. Psychiatry 139, 643–645.
Kelly, TH, Foltin, RW, Rolls, BJ & Fischman, MW (1994) Effect of meal macronutrient and energy content on human performance. Appetite 23, 97–111.
Kendall, A, Levitsky, DA, Strupp, BJ & Lissner, L (1991) Weight loss on a low-fat diet: consequence of the impression of the control of food intake in humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53, 1124–1129.
Kolata, G (1982) Consensus on diets and hyperactivity. Science 215, 958.
Kruesi, MJP & Rapoport, JL (1986) Diet and human behavior: how much do they affect each other? Annual Review of Nutrition 6, 113–130.
Langan, SJ, Deary, IJ, Hepburn, DA & Frier, BM (1991) Cumulative cognitive impairment following recurrent severe hypoglycaemia in adult patients with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus. Diabetalogia 34, 337–344.
Lapp, JE (1981) Effects of glycemic alterations and noun imagery on the learning of paired associates. Journal of Learning Disabilities 14, 35–38.
Lieberman, H, Corkin, S, Spring, B, Growdon, JH & Wurtman, RJ (1983) Mood, performance and sensitivity: changes induced by food constituents. Journal of Psychiatric Research 17, 135–145.
Lieberman, HR, Spring, B & Garfield, GS (1986) The behavioral effects of food constituents: strategies used in studies of amino acids, protein, carbohydrates and caffeine. Nutrition Reviews 44, suppl., 61–69.
Lindley, MG (1993) Fat replacer ingredients and the markets for fat-reduced foods. In Low-Calorie Foods and Food Ingredients, pp.77–105 [Kahn, R, editor]. London: Blackie Academic and Professional.
Lipton, MA & Kane, FJ (1983) Psychiatry. In Nutritional Support of Medical Practice, 2nd ed., pp.562–580 [Scheider, HA, Anderson, CE and Coursin, D, editors]. Philadelphia, PA: Harper & Row.
Lissner, L, Levitsky, DA, Strupp, BJ, Kalkwarf, HJ & Roe, DA (1987) Dietary fat and the regulation of energy intake in human subjects. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 46, 886–892.
Lloyd, HM, Green, MW & Rogers, PJ (1994) Mood and cognitive performance effects of isocaloric lunches differing in fat and carbohydrate content. Physiology and Behavior 56, 51–57.
Lloyd, HM & Rogers, PJ (1995) Mood and cognitive performance improved by low dose of alcohol administered double blind. Appetite 24, 280.
Lloyd, HM, Rogers, PJ & Hedderley, DI (1996) Acute effects on mood and cognitive performance of breakfasts differing in fat and carbohydrate content. Appetite 27, 151–164.
Logue, AW (1991) The Psychology of Eating and Drinking. An Introduction, 2nd ed. New York, NY: W.H. Freeman.
Louis-Sylvestre, J, Tournier, A, Verger, P, Chabert, M & Delorme, B (1987) Learned caloric adjustment of human intake. Appetite 12, 95–103.
Macdiarmid, RI & Hetherington, MM (1995) Mood modulation by food: an exploration of affect and cravings in 'chocolate addicts'. British Journal of Psychology 34, 129–138.
McGivern, RF & Berntson, GG (1980) Mediation of diurnal fluctuations in pain sensitivity in the rat by food intake patterns: reversal by naloxone. Science 210, 210–211.
McNair, PM, Lorr, M & Dropplemen, LF (1971) Profile of Mood States Manual. San Diego, CA: Educational and Industrial Testing Service.
Mahan, LK, Chase, M, Furukawa, CT, Sulzbacher, S, Shapiroo, GG, Pierson, W & Bierman, CW (1988) Sugar 'allergy' and children's behaviour. Annals of Allergy 61,453–458.
Manning, CA, Hall, JL & Gold, PE (1990) Glucose effects on memory and other neuropsychological tests in elderly humans. Psychological Science 1, 307–311.
Martin, LJ, Su, W, Jones, PJ, Lockwood, GA, Tritchler, DL & Boyd, NF (1996) Comparison of energy intakes determined by food records and doubly labeled water in women participating in a dietary-intervention trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 63, 483–490.
Matsumura, M, Fukuda, N, Saito, S & Mori, H (1982) Effect of a test meal, duodenal acidification, and tetragastrin on the plasma concentration of P-endorphin-like immunoreactivity in man. Regulatory Peptides 4, 173–181.
Mayeno, AN & Gleich, DJ (1994) Eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome and tryptophan production: a cautionary tale. Tibtech 12, 346–352.
Melchior, JC, Fantino, M, Colas-Linhart, N, Rigaud, D, Petiet, A, Laforest, MD, Fumeron, F & Apfelbaum, M (1991) Lack of plasmatic beta-endorphin response to a gastronomic meal in healthy humans. Physiology and Behavior 49, 1217–1221.
Mercer, ME & Holder, MD (1997) Antinociceptive effects of palatable sweet ingesta on human responsivity to pressure pain. Physiology and Behavior 61, 311–318.
Michener, W & Rozin, P (1994) Pharmacological versus sensory factors in the satiation of chocolate craving. Physiology and Behavior 56, 419–422.
Michaud, C, Musse, N, Nicolas, JP & Méjean, L (1991) Effects of breakfast-size on short-term memory, concentration, mood and blood glucose. Journal of Adolescent Health 12, 53–57.
Milgram, GG (1990) The Facts About Drinking: Coping With Alcohol Use, Abuse, and Excessive Drinking. New York, NY: Consumers Union.
Mitchell, PJ & Redman, JR (1992) Effects of caffeine, time of day and user history on study-related performance. Psychophamcology 109, 121–126.
Nehlig, A, Daval, J-L & Debry, G (1992) Caffeine and the central nervous system: mechanisms of action, biochemical, metabolic and psychostimulant effects. Brain Research Reviews 17, 139–170.
Nelson, M (1992) Vitamin and mineral supplementation and academic performance in schoolchildren. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 51, 303–313.
Nelson, M, Naismith, DJ, Burley, V, Gatenby, SJ & Geddes, N (1990) Nutrient intakes, vitamin-mineral supplementation and intelligence in British schoolchildren. British Journal of Nutrition 64, 13–22.
Owens, DS & Benton, D (1994) The impact of raising blood glucose on reaction times. Neuropsychobiology 30, 106–113.
Perez, C, Dalix, AM, Guy-Grand, B & Bellisle, F (1994) Human responses to five concentrations of sucrose in a dairy product: immediate and delayedpalatability effects,. Appetite 23, 165–178.
Pollitt, E, Leibel, RL & Greenfield, D (1981) Brief fasting, stress and cognition in children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 34, 1526–1533.
Pollitt, E, Lewis, NL, Garza, C & Shulman, RJ (1983) Fasting and cognitive function. Journal of Psychiatric Research 17, 169–174.
Prewitt, TE, Schmeisser, D, Bowen, PE, Aye, P, Dolecek, TA, Langenberg, P, Cole, T & Brace, L (1991) Changes in body weight, body composition, and energy intake in women fed high- and low-fat diets. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 54, 304–310.
Prinz, RJ & Riddle, DB (1986) Association between nutrition and behaviour. Nutrition Reviews 44, Suppl., 151–158.
Prinz, RJ, Roberts, WA & Hantman, E (1980) Dietary correlates of hyperactive behaviour in children. Journal of Consulting Clinical Psychology 47,760–769.
Priola, RD & Lieber, CS (1972) Energy cost of the metabolism of drugs, including ethanol. Pharmacology 7, 185–196.
Ramzan, I, Wong, BK & Corcoran, GB (1993) Pain sensitivity in dietary-induced obese rats. Physiology and Behavior 54, 433–435.
Rapp, DJ (1978) Does diet affect hyperactivity? Learning Disabilities 11, 383–389.
Reid, M & Hammersley, R (1995) Effect of carbohydrate intake on subsequent food intake and mood state. Physiology and Behavior 8, 421–427.
Richardson, NJ, Rogers, PJ, Elliman, NA & O'Dell, RJ (1995) Mood and performance effects of caffeine in relation to acute and chronic caffeine deprivation. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 52, 313–320.
Rissanen, A, Sarlio-Lahteenkorva, S, Alfthan, G, Gref, CG, Keso, L & Salaspuro, M (1987) Employed problem drinkers: a nutritional risk group? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 45, 456–461.
Roane, DS & Martin, RJ (1990) Continuous sucrose feeding decreases pain threshold and increases morphine potency. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 35, 225–229.
Rodin, J & Slochower, J (1976) Externality in the nonobese: effects of environmental responsiveness on weight. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 33, 338–344.
Rogers, PJ (1995) Food, mood and appetite. Nutrition Research Reviews 8, 243–269.
Rogers, PJ, Richardson, NJ & Demoncourt, C (1995) Caffeine use: is there a net benefit for mood and psychomotor performance? Neuropsychobiology 31, 195–199.
Rolls, BJ (1991) Effects of intense sweeteners on hunger, food intake, and body weight: a review. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53, 872–878.
Rolls, BJ & Hammer, VA (1995) Fat, carbohydrate, and the regulation of energy intake. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 62, 1086s–1095S.
Rolls, BJ & Hetherington, M (1990) A behavior scientist's perspectives on the study of diet and behavior. In Diet and Behavior, pp. 209–227 [Krasnegor, NA, Miller, GD and Simopoumos, AP, editors]. London: Springer-Verlag.
Rolls, BJ, Hetherington, M & Burley, VJ (1988) The specificity of satiety: the influence of different amounts of protein, fats and carbohydrate on satiety. Physiology and Behavior 43, 45–53.
Rolls, BJ, Kim-Harris, S, Fischmann, MW, Foltin, RW, Moran, TH & Stoner, SA (1994) Satiety after preloads with different amounts of fat and carbohydrate: implications for obesity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 60, 476–487.
Rolls, BJ, Pirraglia, PA, Jones, MB & Peters, JC (1992) Effects of olestra, a noncaloric fat substitute, on daily energy and fat intakes in lean men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 56, 84–92.
Rolls, ET & Rolls, JH (1997) Olfactory sensory-specific satiety in humans. Physiology and Behavior 61, 461–473.
Rosen, LA, Booth, SR, Bender, ME, McGrath, ML, Sorrel, S & Drabman, R (1988) Effects of sugar (sucrose) on children's behavior. Journal of Consulting Clinical Psychology 56, 583–589.
Rosenthal, NE, Genhart, MJ, Caballero, B, Jacobsen, FM, Skwerer, RG, Coursey, RD, Rogers, S & Spring, BJ (1989) Psychobiological effects of carbohydrate- and protein-rich meals in patients with seasonal affective disorder and normal controls. Biological Psychiatry 25, 1029–1040.
Rosenthal, NE & Hefferman, MM (1986) Bulimia, carbohydrate craving, and depression: a central connection. In Nutrition and the Brain, vol. 7, pp. 139–166 [Wurtman, RJ and Wurtman, JJ, editors]. New York, NY: Raven Press.
Roshon, MS & Hagen, RL (1989) Sugar consumption, locomotion, task orientation, and learning in preschool children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 17, 349–357.
Rumpler, WV, Rhodes, DG, Baer, DJ, Conway, JM & Seale, JL (1996) Energy value of moderate alcohol consumption by humans investigated. The effects of an equal-energetic substitution of ethanol for dietary carbohydrate in high-and low-fat diets on energy expenditure and body composition. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 64, 108–114.
Saravis, S, Schachar, R, Zlotkin, S, Leiter, LA & Anderson, GH (1990) Aspartame: effects on learning, behaviour and mood. Paediatrics 86, 75–80.
Schlundt, DG, Virts, KL, Sbrocco, T, Pope-Cordle, J & Hill, JO (1993) A sequential behavioral analysis of craving sweets in obese women. Addictive Behavior 18, 67–80.
Schrauwen, LPAJ, van Marken Lichtenbelt, WD, Thimister, EJEM & Westerterp, KR (1995) Feeding subjects at energy balance in a respiration chamber. International Journal of Obesity 19, 82.
Schweiger, U, Laessle, RG, Kittl, S, Dickhaut, B, Schweiger, M & Pirke, KM (1986) Macronutrient intake, plasma large neutral amino acids and mood during weight-reducing diets. Journal of Neural Transplantation 67, 77–83.
Shetty, PS, Prentice, AM, Goldberg, GR, Murgatroyd, PR, McKenna, APM, Stubbs, RJ & Volschenk, PA (1994) Alterations in fuel selection and voluntary food intake in response to iso-energetic manipulation of glycogen stores in man. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 60, 534–543.
Silverman, K, Evans, SM, Strain, EC & Griffiths, RR (1992) Withdrawal syndrome after double-blind cessation of caffeine consumption. New England Journal of Medicine 327, 1109–1114.
Simeon, T & Grantham-McGregor, S (1989) Effects of missing breakfast on the cognitive functions of school children with differing nutritional status. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 49, 646–653.
Sjødin, A, Anderson, A, Hogberg, J & Westerterp, K (1994) Energy balance in cross country skiers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 26, 720–724.
Smith, AP & Kendrick, AM (1992) Meals and performance. In Handbook of Human Performance, vol. 2, Health and Peformance, pp.2–23 [Smith, AP and Jones, DM, editors]. London: Academic Press.
Smith, A, Kendrick, A & Maben, AL (1992) Use and effects of food and drinks in relation to daily rhythms of mood and cognitive performance. Effects of caffeine, lunch and alcohol on human performance, mood and cardiovascular function. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 51, 325–333.
Smith, AP, Kendrick, A, Maben, A & Salmon, J (1994 a) Effects of breakfast and caffeine on cognitive performance, mood and cardiovascular functioning. Appetite 22, 39–55.
Smith, AP, Maben, A & Brockman, P (1994 b) Effects of evening meals and caffeine on cognitive performance, mood and cardiovascular functioning. Appetite 22, 57–65.
Smith, AP & Miles, C (1986 a) Effects of lunch on selective and sustained attention. Neuropsychobiology 16, 117–120.
Smith, AP & Miles, C (1986 b) The effects of lunch on cognitive vigilance tasks. Ergonomics 29, 1251–1261.
Smith, AF & Miles, C (1987) The combined effects of occupational health hazards: an experimental investigation of the effects of noise, nightwork and meals. Internal Archives of Occupational Environmental Health 59, 83–89.
Smith, AP, Rusted, JM, Savory, M, Eaton-Williams, P & Hall, SR (1991) The effects of caffeine, impulsivity and time of day on performance, mood, and cardiovascular function. Journal of Psychophamcology 5, 120–128.
Sonko, BJ, Prentice, AM, Murgatroyd, PR, Goldberg, GR, de Ven, MLHM & Coward, WA (1994) Effect of alcohol on post-meal fat storage. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59, 619–625.
Spitzer, L & Rodin, J (1981) Human eating behavior: a critical review of studies in normal and overweight individuals. Appetite 2, 293–329.
Spring, B, Chiodo, J & Bowen, DJ (1987) Carbohydrates, trypto-phan, and behavior: a methodological review. Psychological Bulletin 102, 234–256.
Spring, B, Maller, O, Wurtman, J, Digman, L & Gozolino, L (1983) Effects of protein and carbohydrate meals on mood and performance: interactions with sex and age. Journal of Psychiatric Research 17, 155–167.
Stavric, B (1988) Methylxanthines: toxicity to humans. 2. Caffeine. Food and Chemical Toxicology 26, 645–662.
Steinberg, LA, O'Connell, NC, Hatch, TF, Picciano, MF & Birch, LL (1992) Tryptophan intake influences infants sleep latency. Journal of Nutrition 122, 1781–1791.
Stewart, MA (1970) Hyperactive children. Scientific American 222, 94–99.
Stubbs, RJ (1995) Macronutrient effects on appetite. International Journal of Obesity 19, S11–S19.
Stunkard, AJ & Messick, S (1985) The three factor eating questionnaire to measure dietary restraint, disinhibition and hunger. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 29, 71–83.
Swanson, IM & Kinsboume, M (1980) Food dyes impair performance of hyperactive children on a laboratory learning test. Science 207, 1485–1487.
Tamerin, JS & Mendelson, JH (1969) The psychodynamics of chronic inebriation; observation of alcoholics during the process of drinking in an experimental group setting. American Journal of Psychiatry 125, 886–889.
Teff, KL, Young, SN, Marchand, L & Botez, MI (1989) Acute effect of protein or carbohydrate breakfasts on human cerebrospinal fluid monoamine precursor and metabolite levels. Journal of Neurochemistry 52, 235–241.
Thayer, RE (1987) Energy, tiredness, and tension effects of a sugar snack versus modest exercise. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 52, 119–125.
Tournier, A & Louis-Sylvestre, J (1991) Effect of the physical state of a food on subsequent intake in human subjects. Appetite 16, 17–24.
Tremblay, A & Saint-Pierre, S (1996) The hyperphagic effect of a high-fat diet and alcohol intake persists after control for energy density. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 63, 479–482.
Tuttle, WW, Daum, K, Imig, CJ, Randall, S & Schumacher, MT (1952) Effect of omitting breakfast on the physiologic response of the aged. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 28, 117–120.
Tuttle, WW, Daum, K, Larsen, R, Salzano, J & Roloff, L (1954) Effect on schoolboys of omitting breakfast: physiologic responses, attitudes and scholastic attainments. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 30, 674–677.
Tuttle, WW, Daum, K, Myers, L & Martin, C (1950) Effects of omitting breakfast on the physiologic response of men. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 26, 332–335.
Vaisman, N, Voet, H, Akivis, A & Vakil, E (1996) Effect of breakfast timing on the cognitive functions of elementary school students. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 150, 1089–1092.
Verboeket van de Venne, WPHG & Westerterp, KR (1991) Influence of the feeding frequency on nutrient utilization in man: consequences for energy metabolism. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 45, 161–169.
Walker, R (1995) The safety of light foods. In Light Foods, pp. 87–94 [Leathwood, PD, Louis-Sylvestre, J and Mareschi, J-P, editors]. Brussels: ILSI Press.
Wallin, MS & Rissanen, AN (1994) Food and mood: relationship between food, serotonin, and affective disorders. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 377, 36–70.
Waterhouse, J, Minors, D, Atkinson, G & Benton, D (1997) Chronobiology and mealtimes: internal and external factors. British Journal of Nutrition 77, Suppl. 1, S29–S38.
Weiss, B, Williams, JH, Margen, S, Abrams, B, Caan, B, Citron, LJ, Cox, C, McKibben, J, Ogar, D & Schulz, S (1980) Behavioral responses to artificial food colors. Science 207, 1487–1489.
Wells, AS & Read, NW (1996) Influences of fat, energy and time of day on mood and performance. Physiology and Behavior 59, 1069–1076.
Wender, EH & Solanto, MV (1991) Effects of sugar on aggressive and inattentive behaviour in children with attention deficit disorder upon identification of targets in a non-search task. Perceptual Psychophysiology 16, 143–149.
Westerterp, KR, Donkers, HHLM, Fredrix, EWHM & Boekhoudt, P (1995) Energy intake, physical activity and body weight: a simulation model. British Journal of Nutrition 73, 337–347.
Westerterp, KR, Verboeket van de Venne, WPHG, Meijer, GAL & ten Hoor, F (1992) Self reported intake as a measure for energy intake, a validation against doubly labelled water. In Obesity in Europe 91, pp. 17–22 [Ailhaud, G, Guy-Grand, B, Lafontan, M and Ricquier, D, editors]. London: John Libbey.
Westerterp, KR, Verboeket-van de Venne, WPHG, Westerterp Plantenga, MS, Velthuis-te Wierik, EJM, de Graaf, C & Westrate, JA (1996) Dietary fat and body fat: an intervention study. International Journal of Obesity 20, 1022–1026.
Westerterp-Plantenga, MS, Ijedema, MJW & Wijckmans-Duijsens, NEG (1996 a) The role of macronutrient selection in determining patterns of food intake in obese and non-obese women. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50, 580–591.
Westerterp-Plantenga, MS, Pasman, WJ, Ijedema, MJW & Wijckmans-Duijsens, NEG (1996 b) Energy intake adaptation of food intake to extreme energy densities of food by obese and non-obese women. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50, 401–407.
Westerterp-Plantenga, MS, Wijckmans-Duijsens, NEG & ten Hoor, F (1994) Food intake in the daily environment after energy reduced lunch related to habitual meal frequency. Appetite 22, 173–182.
Westerterp-Plantenga, MS, Wijckmans-Duijsens, NEG, ten Hoor, F & Weststrate, JA (1997 a) Effect of replacement of fat by non- absorbable fat (Sucrose Polyester) in meals or snacks as a function of dietary restraint. Physiology and Behavior 61, 939– 947.
Westerterp-Plantenga, MS, Wijckmans-Duijsens, NEG, Verboeket- van de Venne, WPHG, de Graaf, C, Weststrate JA & van het Hof, KH (1997 b) Diet-induced thermogenesis and satiety in humans, after full fat and reduced fat meals. Physiology and Behavior 61, 343–349.
World Health Organization (1987) Evaluation of Certain Food Additives and Contaminants. Technical Report Series no. 759. Geneva: WHO.
Wolraich, M, Milich, R, Stumbo, P & Schutz, F (1985) Effects of sucrose ingestion on the behaviour of hyperactive boys. Journal of Pediatrics 106, 675–682.
Wolraich, M, Stumbo, P, Milich, R, Chenard, C & Schultz, F (1986) Dietary characteristics of hyperactive and control boys and their behavioural correlates. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 86, 500—–504.
Wurtman, JJ (1984) The involvement of brain serotonin in excessive carbohydrate snacking by obese carbohydrate cravers. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 84, 1004–1007.
Wurtman, JJ, Brzezinski, A, Wurtman, RJ & Laferrere, B (1989) Effect of nutrient intake on premenstrual depression. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 161, 1228–1235.
Wyon, DP, Abrahamsson, L, Järtelius, M & Fletcher, RJ (1997) An experimental study of the effects of energy intake at breakfast on the test performance of 10-year-old children in school. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 48, 5–12.
Yamaguchi, S (1987) Fundamental properties of Umami in human taste perception. In Umami: A Basic Taste, pp.41–73 [Kawamura, Y and Kare, MT, editors]. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker.
Yamaguchi, S (1991) Basic properties of Umami and effects on humans. Physiology and Behavior 49, 833–841.
Young, SN (1991) Some effects of dietary components (amino acids, carbohydrate, folic acid) on brain serotonin synthesis, mood, and behaviour. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 69, 893–903.
Young, SN (1993) The use of diet and dietary compounds in the study of factors controlling affect in humans. Journal of Psychiatric Neuroscience 18, 235–244.
Young, SN, Smith, SE, Pihl, RO & Ervin, FR (1985) Tryptophan depletion causes a rapid lowering of mood in normal males. Psychophannacology 87, 173–177.