3Mascarenhas, MR, Zemel, BS, Tershakovec, AM & Stallings, VA (2001) Adolescence. In Present Knowledge in Nutrition, 8th ed., pp. 426–438 [Bowman, BA and Russell, RM, editors]. Washington, DC: ILSI Press.
4Moran, VH (2007) A systematic review of dietary assessments of pregnant adolescents in industrialised countries. Br J Nutr 97, 411–425.
5Andrade, RG, Pereira, RA & Sichieri, R (2003) Consumo alimentar de adolescentes com e sem sobrepeso do município do Rio de Janeiro [Food intake in overweight and normal-weight adolescents in the city of Rio de Janeiro]. Cad Saúde Públ 19, 1485–1495.
6Barros, DC, Pereira, RA, Gama, SGN & Leal, MC (2004) O consumo alimentar de gestantes adolescentes no município do Rio de Janeiro [Food consumption by pregnant adolescents in Rio de Janeiro Brazil]. Cad Saúde Públ 20, Suppl., S121–S129.
7Jensen, RG (1999) Lipids in human milk. Lipids 34, 1243–1271.
8Yuhas, R, Pramuk, K & Lien, EL (2006) Human milk fatty acid composition from nine countries varies most in DHA. Lipids 41, 851–858.
9Crawford, M (2000) Placental delivery of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids: implications for the lipid nutrition of preterm infants. Am J Clin Nutr 71, Suppl. 1, 275S–284S.
10Parra, MS, Schnaas, L, Meydani, M, Perroni, E, Martinez, S & Romieu, I (2002) Erythrocyte cell membrane phospholipid levels compared against reported dietary intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnant Mexican women. Public Health Nutr 5, 931–937.
11Innis, SM & Elias, SL (2003) Intakes of essential n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids among pregnant Canadian women. Am J Clin Nutr 77, 473–478.
12Pontes, PV, Torres, AG, Trugo, NMF, Fonseca, VM & Sichieri, R (2006) n-6 and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the erythrocyte membrane of Brazilian preterm and term neonates and their mothers at delivery. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 74, 117–123.
13Henderson, RA, Jensen, RG, Lammi-Keefe, CJ, Ferris, AM & Dardick, KR (1992) Effect of fish oil on the fatty acid composition of human milk and maternal and infant erythrocytes. Lipids 27, 863–869.
14Jensen, CL, Maude, M, Anderson, RE & Heird, W (2000) Effect of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation of lactating women on the fatty acid composition of breast milk lipids and maternal and infant plasma phospholipids. Am J Clin Nutr 71, Suppl., 292S–299S.
15Makrides, M & Neumann, MA (1996) Effect of maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on breast milk composition. Eur J Clin Nutr 50, 352–357.
16Rocquelin, G, Tapsoba, S, Dop, MC, Mbemba, F, Traissac, P & Martin-Prével, Y (1998) Lipid content and essential fatty acid (EFA) composition of mature Congolese breast milk are influenced by mothers' nutritional status: impact on infants' EFA supply. Eur J Clin Nutr 52, 164–171.
17Boris, J, Jensen, B, Salvig, JD, Secher, NJ & Olsen, SF (2004) A randomized controlled trial of the effect of fish oil supplementation in late pregnancy and early lactation on the n-3 fatty acid content in human breast milk. Lipids 39, 1191–1196.
18Neville, MC & Picciano, MF (1997) Regulation of milk lipid secretion and composition. Annu Rev Nutr 17, 159–184.
19Marangoni, F, Agostoni, C, Lammardo, AM, Bonvissuto, M, Giovannini, M, Galli, C & Riva, E (2002) Polyunsaturated fatty acids in maternal plasma and in breast milk. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 66, 535–540.
20Torres, AG, Ney, JG, Meneses, F & Trugo, NMF (2006) Polyunsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid isomers in breast milk are associated with plasma non-esterified and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition in lactating women. Br J Nutr 95, 517–524.
21Ruyle, M, Connor, WE, Anderson, GJ & Lowensohn, RI (1990) Placental transfer of essential fatty acids in humans: venous–arterial difference for docosahexaenoic acid in fetal umbilical erythrocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 87, 7902–7906.
22Guesnet, P, Pugo-Gunsam, P, Maurage, C, Pinault, M, Giraudeau, B, Alessandri, JM, Durand, G, Antoine, JM & Couet, C (1999) Blood lipid concentrations of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids at birth determine their relative postnatal changes in term infants fed breast milk or formula. Am J Clin Nutr 70, 292–298.
23Ghebremeskel, K, Min, Y, Crawford, MA, Nam, JH, Kim, A, Koo, JN & Suzuki, H (2000) Blood fatty acid composition of pregnant and non-pregnant Korean women: red cells may act as a reservoir of arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for utilization by the developing fetus. Lipids 35, 567–574.
24Vlaadingerbroek, H & Hornstra, G (2004) Essential fatty acids in erythrocyte phospholipids during pregnancy and at delivery in mothers and their neonates: comparison with plasma phospholipids. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 71, 363–374.
25Hunter, D (1998) Biochemical indicators of dietary intake. In Nutritional Epidemiology, 2nd ed., pp. 174–243 [Willett, W, editor]. New York: Oxford University Press.
26Torres, AG, Meneses, F & Trugo, NMF (2000) Fatty acid content of erythrocyte membrane in Brazilian lactating women and its relation with dietary intake. FASEB J 14, .
27Torres, AG, Meneses, F & Trugo, NMF (2002) Content of conjugated linoleic acids, cis-9, trans-11, 18:2 and trans-10, cis-12, 18:2 in breast milk from Brazilian women: association with milk composition and diet. Adv Exp Med Biol 503, 273–274.
28Holman, RT, Johnson, SB & Ogburn, PL (1991) Deficiency of essential fatty acids and membrane fluidity during pregnancy and lactation. Proc Natl Acad Sci 88, 4835–4839.
29Fokkema, MR, Smit, EN, Martini, IA, Woltil, HA, Boersma, ER & Muskiet, FAJ (2002) Assessment of essential fatty acid and ω-3 fatty acid status by measurement of erythrocyte 20:3ω-9 (Mead acid), 22:5ω-6/20:4ω-6 and 22:5ω-6/22:6ω-3. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 67, 345–356.
30Hoffman, DR & Uauy, R (1992) Essentiality of dietary ω3 fatty acids for premature infants: plasma and red blood cell fatty acid composition. Lipids 27, 886–895.
31World Health Organization (1995), The Use and Interpretation of Anthropometry, Geneva: World Health Organization.
32Núcleo de Estudos e Pesquisas em Alimentos/Universidade Estadual de Campinas (2004) Tabela Brasileira de Composição de Alimentos – TACO [Brazilian Food Composition Table – TACO]. Campinas: UNICAMP/ Ministério da Saúde.
33Lucas, A, Gibbs, JAH, Lyster, RLJ & Baum, JD (1978) Crematocrit: simple clinical technique for estimating fat concentration and energy value of human milk. British Med J 1, 1018–1020.
34Trugo, NMF, Donangelo, CM, Koury, JC, Silva, MI & Freitas, LA (1988) Concentration and distribution pattern of selected micronutrients in preterm and term milk from urban Brazilian mothers during early lactation. Eur J Clin Nutr 42, 497–507.
35Perry, NA & Doan, FJ (1950) A picric acid method for the simultaneous determination of lactose and sucrose in dairy products. J Dairy Sci 33, 176–185.
36Broekhuyse, RM (1974) Long-term storage of erythrocytes for quantitative analyses of lipids. Clin Chim Acta 52, 53–58.
37Bligh, EG & Dyer, WJ (1959) A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Can J Biochem Physiol 37, 911–917.
38Jensen, RG, Lammi-Keefe, C & Koletzko, B (1997) Representative sampling of human milk and the extraction of fat for analysis of environmental lipophilic contaminants. Toxicol Environ Chem 62, 229–247.
39Kramer, JKG, Fellner, V, Dugan, MER, Sauer, FD, Mossoba, MM & Yurawecz, MP (1997) Evaluating acid and base catalysts in the methylation of milk and rumen fatty acids with special emphasis on conjugated dienes and total trans fatty acids. Lipids 32, 1219–1228.
40Torres, AG, Trugo, NMF & Trugo, LC (2002) Mathematical method for the prediction of retention times of fatty acid methyl esters in temperature-programmed capillary gas-chromatography. J Agric Food Chem 50, 4156–4163.
41Polette, A, Durand, P, Floccard, B & Blache, D (1992) A method for specific analysis of free fatty acids in biological samples by capillary gas chromatography. Anal Biochem 206, 241–245.
42Ney, JG, Torres, AG & Trugo, NMF (2004) Análise de ácidos graxos não-esterificados de plasma humano por cromatografia gasosa capilar com injeção sem divisão de fluxo [Analysis of nonesterified fatty acids in human plasma by capillary gas chromatography with splitless injection]. Quím Nova 27, 561–566, http://www.scielo.br/pdf/qn/v27n4/20796.pdf.
43Glew, RH, Huang, Y-S, VanderJagt, TA, Chuang, L-T, Bhatt, SK, Magnussen, MA & VanderJagt, DJ (2001) Fatty acid composition of the milk lipids of Nepalese women: correlation between fatty acid composition of serum phospholipids and melting point. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 65, 147–156.
44Institute of Medicine (2002) Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
45Allen, LH (2001) Pregnancy and lactation. In Present Knowledge in Nutrition, 8th ed., pp. 403–415 [Bowman, BA and Russell, RM, editors]. Washington, DC: ILSI Press.
46Butte, NF, Hopkinson, JM, Mehta, N, Moon, JK & Smith, EO (1999) Adjustments in energy expenditure and substrate utilization during late pregnancy and lactation. Am J Clin Nutr 69, 299–307.
47Torres, AG, Ney, JG, Ribeiro, M & Trugo, NMF (2004) Plasma nonesterified fatty acid composition is different in lactating and nonpregnant nonlactating women. Adv Exp Med Biol 554, 511–514.
48Tigas, S, Sunehag, A & Haymond, MW (2002) Metabolic adaptation to feeding and fasting during lactation in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87, 302–307.
49Heptulla, R, Smitten, A, Teague, B, Tamborlane, WV, Ma, Y-Z & Caprio, S (2001) Temporal patterns of circulating leptin levels in lean and obese adolescents: relationships to insulin, growth hormone, and free fatty acids rhythmicity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86, 90–96.
50Koletzko, B, Cetin, I, Brenna, T, et al. (2007) Dietary fat intakes for pregnant and lactating women. Br J Nutr 98, 873–877.
51Otto, SJ, van Houwelingen, AC, Badart-Smook, A & Hornstra, G (2001) Comparison of the peripartum and postpartum phospholipids polyunsaturated fatty acid profiles of lactating and nonlactating women. Am J Clin Nutr 73, 1074–1079.
52Torres, AG, Meneses, F & Trugo, NMF (2002) Erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition of Brazilian nursing women: effect of the lactational period. Adv Exp Med Biol 503, 321–322.
54Motil, KJ, Kertz, B, Montandon, CN & Ellis, KJ (1996) Dietary nutrients are diverted from milk production to body stores in lactating adolescents. FASEB J 10, 1095.
55Hediger, ML, Scholl, TO & Schall, JI (1997) Implications of the Camden Study of adolescent pregnancy: interactions among maternal growth, nutritional status, and body composition. Ann N Y Acad Sci 817, 281–291.
56Scholl, TO, Hediger, ML & Schall, JI (1997) Maternal growth and fetal growth: pregnancy course and outcome in the Camden Study. Ann N Y Acad Sci 817, 292–301.
57Brenna, JT, Varamini, B, Jensen, RG, Diersen-Schade, DA, Boettcher, JA & Arterburn, LN (2007) Docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid concentrations in human breast milk worldwide. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 1457–1464.
58Innis, SM (2007) Human milk: maternal dietary lipids and infant development. Proc Nutr Soc 66, 397–404.