1Pan, XR, Yang, WY, Li, GW, et al. (1997) Prevalence of diabetes and its risk factors in China, 1994. National Diabetes Prevention and Control Cooperative Group. Diabetes Care 20, 1664–1669.
2Gu, D, Reynolds, K, Duan, X, et al. (2003) Prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in the Chinese adult population: International Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular Disease in Asia (InterASIA). Diabetologia 46, 1190–1198.
3Yang, WY, Lu, JM, Weng, JP, et al. (2010) Prevalence of diabetes among men and women in China. New Engl J Med 362, 1090–1101.
4Alberti, KG & Zimmet, PZ (1998) Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Part 1: diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus provisional report of a WHO consultation. Diabet Med 15, 539–553.
5Nathan, DM, Davidson, MB, DeFronzo, RA, et al. (2007) Impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance – implications for care. Diabetes Care 30, 753–759.
6Kim, NH, Pavkov, ME, Looker, HC, et al. (2008) Plasma glucose regulation and mortality in pima Indians. Diabetes Care 31, 488–492.
7Levitzky, YS, Pencina, MJ, D'Agostino, RB, et al. (2008) Impact of impaired fasting glucose on cardiovascular disease: the Framingham Heart Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 51, 264–270.
8Chien, KL, Hsu, HC, Su, TC, et al. (2008) Fasting and postchallenge hyperglycemia and risk of cardiovascular disease in Chinese: the Chin-Shan Community Cardiovascular Cohort study. Am Heart J 156, 996–1002.
9Bonora, E, Kiechl, S, Willeit, J, et al. (2003) Carotid atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease in the metabolic syndrome: prospective data from the Bruneck study. Diabetes Care 26, 1251–1257.
10Knowler, WC, Barrett-Connor, E, Fowler, SE, et al. (2002) Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 346, 393–403.
11Kosaka, K, Noda, M & Kuzuya, T (2005) Prevention of type 2 diabetes by lifestyle intervention: a Japanese trial in IGT males. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 67, 152–162.
12Tuomilehto, J, Lindstrom, J, Eriksson, JG, et al. (2001) Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. New Engl J Med 344, 1343–1350.
13Eriksson, KF & Lindgarde, F (1991) Prevention of Type-2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes-mellitus by diet and physical exercise. The 6-year Malmo feasibility study. Diabetologia 34, 891–898.
14Sun, JQ, Wang, YF, Chen, XF, et al. (2008) An integrated intervention program to control diabetes in overweight Chinese women and men with type 2 diabetes. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 17, 514–524.
15Redmon, JB, Raatz, SK, Reck, KP, et al. (2003) One-year outcome of a combination of weight loss therapies for subjects with type 2 diabetes – a radomized trial. Diabetes Care 26, 2505–2511.
16Wadden, TA, West, DS, Neiberg, RH, et al. (2009) One-year weight losses in the Look AHEAD study: factors associated with success. Obesity 17, 713–722.
17Genuth, S, Alberti, KG, Bennett, P, et al. (2003) Follow-up report on the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 26, 3160–3167.
18Chinese Diabetes Society (2008) 2007 Chinese guidelines for the management of type 2 diabetes. Natl Med J China 88, 1227–1245.
19Chinese Nutrition Society (2008) Dietary Guidelines for Chinese. Beijing: Tibetan People's Publishing House.
20Unick, JL, Beavers, D, Jakicic, JM, et al. (2011) Effectiveness of lifestyle interventions for individuals with severe obesity and type 2 diabetes: results from the Look AHEAD trial. Diabetes Care 34, 2152–2157.
21Heymsfield, SB, van Mierlo, CAJ, van der Knaap, HC, et al. (2003) Weight management using a meal replacement strategy: meta and pooling analysis from six studies. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 27, 537–549.
22Svetkey, LP, Stevens, VJ, Brantley, PJ, et al. (2008) Comparison of strategies for sustaining weight loss – the weight loss maintenance randomized controlled trial. JAMA 299, 1139–1148.
23Feldstein, AC, Nichols, GA, Smith, DH, et al. (2008) Weight change in diabetes and glycemic and blood pressure control. Diabetes Care 31, 1960–1965.
24Redmon, JB, Raatz, SK, Reck, KP, et al. (2003) One-year outcome of a combination of weight loss therapies for subjects with type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial. Diabetes Care 26, 2505–2511.
25Edelstein, SL, Knowler, WC, Bain, RP, et al. (1997) Predictors of progression from impaired glucose tolerance to NIDDM: an analysis of six prospective studies. Diabetes 46, 701–710.
26Hamman, RF, Wing, RR, Edelstein, SL, et al. (2006) Effect of weight loss with lifestyle intervention on risk of diabetes. Diabetes Care 29, 2102–2107.
27Jia, WP, Pang, C, Chen, L, et al. (2007) Epidemiological characteristics of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose regulation in a Chinese adult population: the Shanghai Diabetes Studies, a cross-sectional 3-year follow-up study in Shanghai urban communities. Diabetologia 50, 286–292.
28Pan, XR, Li, GW, Hu, YH, et al. (1997) Effects of diet and exercise in preventing NIDDM in people with impaired glucose tolerance – the Da Qing IGT and diabetes study. Diabetes Care 20, 537–544.
29Chiasson, JL, Josse, RG, Gomis, R, et al. (2002) Acarbose for prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus: the STOP-NIDDM randomised trial. Lancet 359, 2072–2077.
30Gerstein, HC, Yusuf, S, Bosch, J, et al. (2006) Effect of rosiglitazone on the frequency of diabetes in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 368, 1096–1105.
31Perreault, L, Kahn, SE, Christophi, CA, et al. (2009) Regression from pre-diabetes to normal glucose regulation in the diabetes prevention program. Diabetes Care 32, 1583–1588.