1Subasinghe, R, Soto, D & Jia, J (2009) Global aquaculture and its role in sustainable development. Rev Aquacult 1, 2–9.
2Bell, JG, Tocher, DR, Henderson, RJ, et al. (2003) Altered fatty acid compositions in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed diets containing linseed and rapeseed oils can be partially restored by a subsequent fish oil finishing diet. J Nutr 133, 2793–2801.
3Torstensen, BE, Froyland, L, Ørnsrud, R, et al. (2004) Tailoring of a cardioprotective muscle fatty acid composition of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed vegetable oils. Food Chem 87, 567–580.
4Thanuthong, T, Francis, DS, Senadheera, SD, et al. (2011) Fish oil replacement in rainbow trout diets and total dietary PUFA content: I) effects on feed efficiency, fat deposition and the efficiency of a finishing strategy. Aquaculture 320, 82–90.
5Sargent, JR, Tocher, DR & Bell, JG (2002) The lipids. In Fish Nutrition, pp. 181–257 [Halver, JE and Hardy, RW, editors]. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
6Benedito-Palos, L, Bermejo-Nogales, A, Karampatos, AI, et al. (2011) Modelling the predictable effects of dietary lipid sources on the fillet fatty acid composition of one-year-old gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.). Food Chem 124, 538–544.
7Ballester-Lozano, GF, Benedito-Palos, L, Navarro, JC, et al. (2011) Prediction of fillet fatty acid composition of market-size gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) using a regression modelling approach. Aquaculture 319, 81–88.
8Velázquez, M, Zamora, S & Martínez, FJ (2006) Effect of different feeding strategies on gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) demand-feeding behaviour and nutritional utilization of the diet. Aquac Nutr 12, 403–409.
9Bonaldo, A, Isani, G, Fontanillas, R, et al. (2010) Growth and feed utilization of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, L.) fed to satiation and restrictively at increasing dietary energy levels. Aquac Int 18, 909–919.
10Suárez, MD, Martínez, TF, Saez, MI, et al. (2010) Effects of dietary restriction on post-mortem changes in white muscle of sea bream (Sparus aurata). Aquaculture 307, 49–55.
11Valente, LMP, Cornet, J, Donnay-Moreno, C, et al. (2011) Quality differences of gilthead sea bream from distinct production systems in Southern Europe: intensive, integrated, semi-intensive or extensive systems. Food Control 22, 708–717.
12Kiessling, A, Johansson, L & Storebakken, T (1989) Effects of reduced feed ration levels on fat content and fatty acid composition in white and red muscle from rainbow trout. Aquaculture 79, 169–175.
13Kiessling, A, Åsgård, T, Storebakken, T, et al. (1991) Changes in the structure and function of the epaxial muscle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in relation to ration and age: III. Chemical composition. Aquaculture 93, 373–387.
14Kiessling, A, Pickova, J, Johansson, L, et al. (2001) Changes in fatty acid composition in muscle and adipose tissue of farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in relation to ration and age. Food Chem 73, 271–284.
15Kiessling, A, Pickova, J, Eales, JG, et al. (2005) Age, ration level, and exercise affect the fatty acid profile of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) muscle differently. Aquaculture 243, 345–356.
16Henderson, JR & Tocher, DR (1987) The lipid composition and biochemistry of freshwater fish. Prog Lipid Res 26, 281–347.
17Los, DA & Murata, N (2004) Membrane fluidity and its roles in the perception of environmental signals. Biochim Biophys Acta – Biomembr 1666, 142–157.
18Ibarz, A, Blasco, J, Beltran, M, et al. (2005) Cold-induced alterations on proximate composition and fatty acid profiles of several tissues in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Aquaculture 249, 477–486.
19Folch, J, Lees, M & Sloane Stanley, GH (1957) A simple method for insolation and purification of total lipides from animal tissues. J Biol Chem 226, 497–509.
20Olsen, RE & Henderson, RJ (1989) The rapid analysis of neutral and polar marine lipids using double-development HPTLC and scanning densitometry. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 129, 189–197.
21Fewster, ME, Burns, BJ & Mead, JF (1969) Quantitative densitometric thin-layer chromatography of lipids using copper acetate reagent. J Chromatogr 43A 120–126.
22Christie, WW (1982) Lipid Analysis. Isolation, Separation, Identification and Structural Analysis of Lipids. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
23Calduch-Giner, JA, Mingarro, M, Vega-Rubín de Celis, S, et al. (2003) Molecular cloning and characterization of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) growth hormone receptor (GHR). Assessment of alternative splicing. Comp Biochem Phys 136B, 1–13.
24Livak, KJ & Schmittgen, TD (2001) Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2T − ΔΔCT method. Methods 25, 402–408.
25Saera-Vila, A, Calduch-Giner, JA, Gómez-Requeni, P, et al. (2005) Molecular characterization of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) lipoprotein lipase. Transcriptional regulation by season and nutritional condition in skeletal muscle and fat storage tissues. Comp Biochem Phys 142B, 224–232.
26Cruz-García, L, Saera-Vila, A, Navarro, I, et al. (2009) Targets for TNF alpha-induced lipolysis in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) adipocytes isolated from lean and fat juvenile fish. J Exp Biol 212, 2254–2260.
27Oku, H, Koizumi, N, Okumura, T, et al. (2006) Molecular characterization of lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase and pancreatic lipase genes: effects of fasting and refeeding on their gene expression in red sea bream Pagrus major. Comp Biochem Phys 145B, 168–178.
28Castro, LFC, Wilson, JM, Goncalves, O, et al. (2011) The evolutionary history of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene family in vertebrates. BMC Evol Biol 11, 14.
29Bermejo-Nogales, A, Benedito-Palos, L, Calduch-Giner, JA, et al. (2011) Feed restriction up-regulates uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) gene expression in heart and red muscle tissues of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.). New insights in substrate oxidation and energy expenditure. Comp Biochem Phys 159A, 296–302.
30Wood, JD, Enser, M, Fisher, AV, et al. (2008) Fat deposition, fatty acid composition and meat quality: a review. Meat Sci 78, 343–358.
31Kolditz, C, Borthaire, M, Richard, N, et al. (2008) Liver and muscle metabolic changes induced by dietary energy content and genetic selection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Am J Physio-Regul Integr Comp Physiol 294, R1154–R1164.
32Kolditz, CI, Paboeuf, G, Borthaire, M, et al. (2008) Changes induced by dietary energy intake and divergent selection for muscle fat content in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), assessed by transcriptome and proteome analysis of the liver. BMC Genomics 9, 506.
33Bell, JG, Pratoomyot, J, Strachan, F, et al. (2010) Growth, flesh adiposity and fatty acid composition of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) families with contrasting flesh adiposity: effects of replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oils. Aquaculture 306, 225–232.
34Benedito-Palos, L, Navarro, JC, Sitjà-Bobadilla, A, et al. (2008) High levels of vegetable oils in plant protein-rich diets fed to gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.): growth performance, muscle fatty acid profiles and histological alterations of target tissues. Br J Nutr 100, 992–1003.
35Benedito-Palos, L, Navarro, JC, Kaushik, S, et al. (2010) Tissue-specific robustness of fatty acid signatures in cultured gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) fed practical diets with a combined high replacement of fish meal and fish oil. J Anim Sci 88, 1759–1770.
36Skalli, A & Robin, JH (2004) Requirement of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids for European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles: growth and fatty acid composition. Aquaculture 240, 399–415.
37Jobling, M, Leknes, O, Sæther, BS, et al. (2008) Lipid and fatty acid dynamics in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, tissues: influence of dietary lipid concentrations and feed oil sources. Aquaculture 281, 87–94.
38Regost, C, Arzel, J, Cardinal, M, et al. (2003) Total replacement of fish oil by soybean or linseed oil with a return to fish oil in Turbot (Psetta maxima): 2. Flesh quality properties. Aquaculture 220, 737–747.
39Jobling, M & Bendiksen, EA (2003) Dietary lipids and temperature interact to influence tissue fatty acid compositions of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., parr. Aquac Res 34, 1423–1441.
40Trushenski, J, Lewis, H & Kohler, C (2008) Fatty acid profile of sunshine bass: II. profile change differs among fillet lipid classes. Lipids 43, 643–653.
41Schulz, C, Knaus, U, Wirth, M, et al. (2005) Effects of varying dietary fatty acid profile on growth performance, fatty acid, body and tissue composition of juvenile pike perch (Sander lucioperca). Aquac Nutr 11, 403–413.
42Pettersson, A, Pickova, J & Brännäs, E (2010) Swimming performance at different temperatures and fatty acid composition of arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) fed palm and rapeseed oils. Aquaculture 300, 176–181.
43Delgado, A, Estévez, A, Hortelano, P, et al. (1994) Analyses of fatty acids from different lipids in liver and muscle of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.). influence of temperature and fasting. Comp Biochem Phys 108A, 673–680.
44Kjaer, MA, Vegusdal, A, Berge, GM, et al. (2009) Characterisation of lipid transport in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) when fasted and fed high or low fat diets. Aquaculture 288, 325–336.
45Bendiksen, EÅ & Jobling, M (2003) Effects of temperature and feed composition on essential fatty acid (n-3 and n-6) retention in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr. Fish Physiol Biochem 29, 133–140.
46Mourente, G & Bell, JG (2006) Partial replacement of dietary fish oil with blends of vegetable oils (rapeseed, linseed and palm oils) in diets for European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) over a long term growth study: effects on muscle and liver fatty acid composition and effectiveness of a fish oil finishing diet. Comp Biochem Phy 145B, 389–399.
47Hansen, JØ, Berge, GM, Hillestad, M, et al. (2008) Apparent digestion and apparent retention of lipid and fatty acids in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) fed increasing dietary lipid levels. Aquaculture 284, 159–166.
48Pratoomyot, J, Bendiksen, EÅ, Campbell, PJ, et al. (2011) Effects of different blends of alternative protein sources as alternatives to dietary fishmeal on growth performance and body lipid composition of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquaculture 316, 44–52.
49Storlien, LH, Jenkins, AB, Chisholm, DJ, et al. (1991) Influence of dietary-fat composition on development of insulin resistance in rats – relationship to muscle triglyceride and omega-3-fatty-acids in muscle phospholipid. Diabetes 40, 280–289.
50Borkman, M, Storlien, LH, Pan, DA, et al. (1993) The relation between insulin sensitivity and the fatty-acid composition of skeletal-muscle phospholipids. N Engl J Med 328, 238–244.
51Hu, QZ, Ishii, E & Nakagawa, Y (1994) Differential changes in relative levels of arachidonic-acid in major phospholipids from rat-tissues during the progression of diabetes. J Biochem 115, 405–408.
52Lombardo, YB & Chicco, AG (2006) Effects of dietary polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids on dyslipidemia and insulin resistance in rodents and humans. A review. J Nutr Biochem 17, 1–13.
53Pan, DA, Lillioja, S, Milner, MR, et al. (1995) Skeletal muscle membrane lipid composition is related to adiposity and insulin action. J Clin Invest 96, 2802–2808.
54Haugaard, SB, Madsbad, S, Hoy, CE, et al. (2006) Dietary intervention increases n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in skeletal muscle membrane phospholipids of obese subjects. Implications for insulin sensitivity. Clin Endocrinol 64, 169–178.
55Haugaard, SB, Vaag, A, Mu, HL, et al. (2009) Skeletal muscle structural lipids improve during weight-maintenance after a very low calorie dietary intervention. Lipids Health Dis 8, 34.
56Pérez, J, Zanuy, S & Carrillo, M (1988) Effects of diet and feeding time on daily variations in plasma-insulin, hepatic camp and other metabolites in a teleost fish, Dicentrarchus labrax L. Fish Physiol Biochem 5, 191–197.
57Kennedy, EP & Weiss, SB (1956) The function of cytidine coenzymes in the biosynthesis of phospholipids. J Biol Chem 222, 193–214.
58Lands, WEM (1958) Metabolism of glycerolipids – comparison of lecithin and triglyceride synthesis. J Biol Chem 231, 883–888.
59Tocher, DR (2003) Metabolism and functions of lipids and fatty acids in teleost fish. Rev Fish Sci 11, 107–184.
60Tocher, DR, Bendiksen, E, Campbell, PJ, et al. (2008) The role of phospholipids in nutrition and metabolism of teleost fish. Aquaculture 280, 21–34.
61Hishikawa, D, Shindou, H, Kobayashi, S, et al. (2008) Discovery essential of a lysophospholipid acyltransferase family for membrane asymmetry and diversity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105, 2830–2835.
62Tocher, DR & Sargent, JR (1992) Direct effects of temperature on phospholipid and polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in isolated brain cells from rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Comp Biochem Phys 101B, 353–359.
63Kazachkov, M, Chen, QL, Wang, LP, et al. (2008) Substrate preferences of a lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase highlight its role in phospholipid remodeling. Lipids 43, 895–902.
64Pérez-Chacón, G, Astudillo, AM, Balgoma, D, et al. (2009) Control of free arachidonic acid levels by phospholipases A2 and lysophospholipid acyltransferases. Biochim Biophys Acta – Mol Cell Biol Lipids 1791, 1103–1113.
65Abbott, SK, Else, PL & Hulbert, AJ (2010) Membrane fatty acid composition of rat skeletal muscle is most responsive to the balance of dietary n-3 and n-6 PUFA. Br J Nutr 103, 522–529.
66Cui, Z & Vance, DE (1996) Expression of phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase-2 is markedly enhanced in long term choline-deficient rats. J Biol Chem 271, 2839–2843.
67Browning, JD & Horton, JD (2004) Molecular mediators of hepatic steatosis and liver injury. J Clin Invest 114, 147–152.
68Dong, H, Wang, J, Li, C, et al. (2007) The phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase gene V175M single nucleotide polymorphism confers the susceptibility to NASH in Japanese population. J Hepatol 46, 915–920.
69Tocher, DR (1995) Glycerophospholipid metabolism. Biochem Mol Biol Fishes 4, 119–157.
70Seiliez, I, Panserat, S, Corraze, G, et al. (2003) Cloning and nutritional regulation of a Δ6-desaturase-like enzyme in the marine teleost gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). Comp Biochem Phys 135B, 449–460.
71Tocher, DR, Zheng, X, Schlechtriem, C, et al. (2006) Highly unsaturated fatty acid synthesis in marine fish: cloning, functional characterization, and nutritional regulation of fatty acyl Delta 6 desaturase of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.). Lipids 41, 1003–1016.
72Zheng, X, Ding, Z, Xu, Y, et al. (2009) Physiological roles of fatty acyl desaturases and elongases in marine fish: characterisation of cDNAs of fatty acyl Δ6 desaturase and elovl5 elongase of cobia (Rachycentron canadum). Aquaculture 290, 122–131.
73Oku, H & Umino, T (2008) Molecular characterization of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and their gene expression in the differentiating adipocytes of red sea bream Pagrus major. Comp Biochem Phys 151B, 268–277.
74Ntambi, JM, Miyazaki, M, Stoehr, JP, et al. (2002) Loss of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 function protects mice against adiposity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99, 11482–11486.
75Dobrzyn, A & Dobrzyn, P (2006) Stearoyl-CoA desaturase – a new player in skeletan muscle metabolism regulation. J Physiol Pharmacol 57, 31–42.
76Hulver, MW, Berggren, JR, Carper, MJ, et al. (2005) Elevated stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 expression in skeletal muscle contributes to abnormal fatty acid partitioning in obese humans. Cell Metab 2, 251–261.
77Jiang, GQ, Li, ZH, Liu, F, et al. (2005) Prevention of obesity in mice by antisense oligonucleotide inhibitors of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1. J Clin Invest 115, 1030–1038.
78Sampath, H & Ntambi, JM (2006) Stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1, sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha: independent and interactive roles in the regulation of lipid metabolism. Curr Opin Clin Nut. Metab Care 9, 84–88.
79Wong, H & Schotz, MC (2002) The lipase gene family. J Lipid Res 43, 993–999.
80McCoy, MG, Sun, GS, Marchadier, D, et al. (2002) Characterization of the lipolytic activity of endothelial lipase. J Lipid Res 43, 921–929.
81Yasuda, T, Hirata, KI, Ishida, T, et al. (2007) Endothelial lipase is increased by inflammation and promotes LDL uptake in macrophages. J Atheroscler Thromb 14, 192–201.
82Cruz-García, L, Sánchez-Gurmaches, J, Bouraoui, L, et al. (2011) Changes in adipocyte cell size, gene expression of lipid metabolism markers, and lipolytic responses induced by dietary fish oil replacement in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.). Comp Biochem Phys 158A, 391–399.
83Lladó, I, Pons, A & Palou, A (1999) Effects of fasting on lipoprotein lipase activity in different depots of white and brown adipose tissues in diet-induced overweight rats. J Nutr Biochem 10, 609–614.
84Bergo, M, Olivecrona, G & Olivecrona, T (1996) Forms of lipoprotein lipase in rat tissues: in adipose tissue the proportion of inactive lipase increases on fasting. Biochem J 313, 893–898.
85Sugden, MC, Holness, MJ & Howard, RM (1993) Changes in lipoprotein-lipase activities in adipose-tissue, heart and skeletal-muscle during continuous or interrupted feeding. Biochem J 292, 113–119.
86Ruge, T, Svensson, M, Eriksson, JW, et al. (2005) Tissue-specific regulation of lipoprotein lipase in humans: effects of fasting. Eur J Clin Invest 35, 194–200.
87Albalat, A, Saera-Vila, A, Capilla, E, et al. (2007) Insulin regulation of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity and expression in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Comp Biochem Phys 148B, 151–159.
88Saera-Vila, A, Calduch-Giner, JA, Navarro, I, et al. (2007) Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)α as a regulator of fat tissue mass in the Mediterranean gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.). Comp Biochem Phys 146B, 338–345.
89Morais, S, Edvardsen, RB, Tocher, DR, et al. (2012) Transcriptomic analyses of intestinal gene expression of juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) fed diets with Camelina oil as replacement for fish oil. Comp Biochem Phys 161B, 283–293.
90Ventre, J, Doebber, T, Wu, M, et al. (1997) Targeted disruption of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene – metabolic consequences in obese and nonobese mice. Diabetes 46, 1526–1531.
91Bulló-Bonet, M, García-Lorda, P, López-Soriano, FJ, et al. (1999) Tumour necrosis factor, a key role in obesity? FEBS Lett 451, 215–219.
92Albalat, A, Gómez-Requeni, P, Rojas, P, et al. (2005) Nutritional and hormonal control of lipolysis in isolated gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) adipocytes. A J Physiol-Regul Integr Comp Physiol 289, R259–R265.
93Mauvoisin, D & Mounier, C (2011) Hormonal and nutritional regulation of SCD1 gene expression. Biochimie 93, 78–86.
94Miyazaki, M, Flowers, MT, Sampath, H, et al. (2007) Hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 deficiency protects mice from carbohydrate-induced adiposity and hepatic steatosis. Cell Metab 6, 484–496.
95Barak, Y, Liao, D, He, WM, et al. (2002) Effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta on placentation, adiposity, and colorectal cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99, 303–308.
96Peters, JM, Lee, SST, Li, W, et al. (2000) Growth, adipose, brain, and skin alterations resulting from targeted disruption of the mouse peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta(delta). Mol Cell Biol 20, 5119–5128.