Bell, A.W., Battaglia, F.C. & Meschia, G. (1987) Relation between metabolic rate and body size in the ovine fetus. Journal of Nutrition 117, 1181–1186.
Bensadoun, A., Paladines, O.L. & Reid, J.T. (1962). Effect of level of intake and physical form of the diet on plasma glucose concentration and volatile fatty acid absorption in ruminants. Journal of Dairy Science 45, 1203–1210.
Brody, S. (1945). Bioenergetics and Growth. New York: Reinhold Publishing Company.
Burrin, D.G., Bauer, M.L., Dubrovin, L.C., Britton, R.A. & Ferrell, C.L. (1987). Nutrient restriction decreases visceral organ size and metabolic activity in sheep. Journal of Animal Science 65, Suppl. 1, 87 Abstr.
Chou, C.C., Hsieh, C.P., Yu, Y.M., Kvietys, P., Yu, L.C., Pittman, R. & Dabney, J.M. (1976). Localization of mesenteric hyperemia during digestion in dogs. American Journal of Physiology 230, 583–589.
Dobson, A., Barnes, R.J. & Comline, R.S. (1981). Changes in the sources of hepatic portal blood flow with feeding in the sheep. Physiologist 24, 15 Abstr.
Edelstone, D.I. & Holzman, I.R. (1981). Gastrointestinal tract O2 uptake and regional blood flow during digestion in conscious newborn lambs. American Journal of Physiology 241, G289–G293.
Eisemann, J.H., Huntington, G.B. & Ferrell, C.L. (1987). Blood flow to hindquarters of steers measured by transit time ultrasound and indicator dilution. Journal of Dairy Science 70, 1385–1390.
Ferrell, C.L. & Jenkins, T.G. (1984). Energy utilization by mature, non-pregnant, non-lactating cows of different types. Journal of Animal Science 58, 234–243.
Ferrell, C.L. & Koong, L.J. (1985). Response of body organs of lambs to differing nutritional treatments. In Energy Metabolism of Farm Animals, pp. 26–29 [Moe, P.W., Tyrrell, H.F. and Reynolds, P.J., editors]. European Association of Animal Production, Publication no. 32. Totowa, New Jersey: Rowman and Littlefield.
Ferrell, C.L., Koong, L.J. & Nienaber, J.A. (1986). Effect of previous nutrition on body composition and maintenance energy costs of growing lambs. British Journal of Nutrition 56, 595–605.
Graham, N.McC., Searle, T.W. & Griffiths, D.A. (1974). Basal metabolic rate in lambs and young sheep. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 25, 957–971.
Holliday, M.A., Potter, D., Jarrah, A. & Bearg, S. (1967). The relation of metabolic rate to body-weight and organ size. Pediatrician Research 1, 185–195.
Huntington, G.B. (1984). Relationship of portal blood flow to metabolizable energy intake of cattle. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 64, Suppl. 1, 16–17.
Huntington, G.B. & Prior, R.L. (1983). Digestion and absorption of nutrients by beef heifers fed a high concentrate diet. Journal of Nutrition 113, 2280–2288.
Huntington, G.B., Prior, R.L. & Britton, R.A. (1980). Glucose and lactate absorption and metabolic interrelationships in lambs switched from low to high concentrate diets. Journal of Nutrition 110, 1904–1910.
Huntington, G.B. & Reynolds, C.K. (1986). Blood flow and nutrient flux across stomach and post-stomach tissues in beef steers. Federation Proceedings 45, 606.
Huntington, G.B. & Tyrrell, H.F. (1985). Oxygen consumption by portal-drained viscera of cattle: comparison of analytical methods and relationship to whole-body oxygen consumption. Journal of Dairy Science 68, 2727–2731.
Huntington, G.B., Varga, G.A., Reynolds, P.J. & Tyrrell, H.F. (1985). Net absorption of nutrients and oxygen consumption by portal-drained viscera in relation to energy metabolism by Holstein cattle. In Energy Metabolism of Farm Animals, pp. 22–25 [Moe, P.W., Tyrrell, H.F. and Reynolds, P.J., editors]. European Association of Animal Production, no. 32. Totowa, New Jersey: Rowman and Littlefield.
Jenkins, T.G. & Ferrell, C.L. (1983). Nutrient requirements to maintain weight of mature, non-lactating, non-pregnant cows of four diverse breed types. Journal of Animal Science 56, 761–770.
Katz, M.L. & Bergman, E.N. (1969). Simultaneous measurements of hepatic and portal venous blood flow in the sheep and dog. American Journal of Physiology 216, 946–952.
Kleiber, M. (1947). Body size and metabolic rate. Physiological Reviews 27, 511–541.
Koong, L.J., Nienaber, J.A., Pekas, J.C. & Yen, J.T. (1982). Effects of plane of nutrition on organ size and fasting heat production in pigs. Journal of Nutrition 112, 1638–1642.
Lautt, W.W. (1980). Control of hepatic arterial blood flow: independence from liver metabolic activity. American Journal of Physiology 239, H559–H564.
Lautt, W.W. (1983). Relationship between hepatic blood flow and overall metabolism: the hepatic arterial buffer response. Federation Proceedings 42, 1662–1666.
Ledger, H.P. & Sayers, A.R. (1977). The utilization of dietary energy by steers during periods of restricted food intake and subsequent realimentation. I. The effect of time on maintenance requirements of steers held at constant live weights. Journal of Agricultural Science 88, 11–26.
Lomax, M.A. & Baird, G.D. (1983). Blood flow and nutrient exchange across the liver and gut of the dairy cow. British Journal of Nutrition 49, 481–496.
Marston, H.R. (1948). Energy transactions in sheep. I. The basal heat production and the heat increment. Australian Journal of Science Research B1, 91–129.
Munro, H.N. (1969). The evolution of protein metabolism in mammals. In Mammalian Protein Metabolism, vol. 3, pp. 151–171 [Munro, H.N., editor]. New York: Academic Press.
National Research Council (1984). Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences.
Nienaber, J.A. & Maddy, A.C. (1985). Temperature-controlled multiple-chamber indirect-calorimetry. Design and operation. Transactions of the ASAE 28, 555–562.
Reynolds, C.K., Huntington, G.B., Tyrrell, H.F. & Reynolds, P.J. (1986). Splanchnic tissue and whole animal oxygen consumption by lactating Holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science 69, Suppl. 1, 193.
Reynolds, C.K. & Tyrrell, H.F. (1987). Effect of diet intake on net visceral tissue metabolism in growing beef heifers. Journal of Animal Science 65, Suppl. 1, 477.
Richardson, P.D.I. & Withrington, P.G. (1982). Physiological regulation of the hepatic circulation. Annual Review of Physiology 44, 57–69.
SAS (1982). SAS User's Guide: Statistics. Cary, NC: Statistical Analysis System Institute Inc.
Schaefer, A.L. & Krishnamurti, C.R. (1984). Whole body and tissue fractional protein synthesis in the ovine fetus in utero. British Journal of Nutrition 52, 359–369.
Sellers, A.F., Stevens, C.E., Dobson, A. & McLeod, F.D. (1964). Arterial blood flow to the ruminant stomach. American Journal of Physiology 207, 371–377.
Shepherd, A.P. (1982). Local control of intestinal oxygenation and blood flow. Annual Review of Physiology 44, 13–27.
Smith, N.E. & Baldwin, R.L. (1974). Effects of breed, pregnancy and lactation on weight of organs and tissues in dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 57, 1055–1060.
Steel, R.G.D. & Torrie, J.H. (1980). Principles and Procedures of Statistics. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
Ushioda, E., Nuwayhid, B., Tabsh, K., Erkkola, R., Brinkman, R. III & Assali, N.S. (1982). Mixing problems in using indicators for measuring regional blood flow. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 142, 74–86.
Vatner, S.F., Franklin, D. & Van Cilters, R.L. (1970). Mesenteric vasoactivity associated with eating and digestion in the conscious dog. American Journal of Physiology 219, 170–174.
Webster, A.J.F. (1981). The energetic efficiency of metabolism. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 40, 121–128.
Webster, A.J.F., Osuji, P.O., White, F. & Ingram, J.F. (1975). The influence of food intake on portal blood flow and heat production in the digestive tract of sheep. British Journal of Nutrition 34, 125–139.
Wieghart, M., Slepetis, R., Elliot, J.M. & Smith, D.F. (1986). Glucose absorption and hepatic gluconeogenesis in dairy cows fed diets varying in forage content. Journal of Nutrition 116, 839–850.