1Department of Health (1991) Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the United Kingdom. Report on Health and Social Subjects no. 41. London: HMSO.
2Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung, Österreichische Gesellschaft für Ernährung, Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Ernährungsforschung, Schweizerische Vereinigung für Ernährung (German Society for Nutrition, Austrian Society for Nutrition, Swiss Society for Nutrition Research, Swiss Association for Nutrition) (2000) . In Referenzwerte für die Nährstoffzufuhr (Reference Values for Nutrient Intakes). Frankfurt/Main: Umschau Braus Verlag.
3Thane, CW, Bolton-Smith, C & Coward, WA (2006) Comparative dietary intake and sources of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) among British adults in 1986–7 and 2000–1. Br J Nutr 96, 1105–1115.
4Binkley, NC, Krueger, DC, Engelke, JA, et al. (2000) Vitamin K supplementation reduces serum concentrations of under-gamma-carboxylated osteocalcin in healthy young and elderly adults. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 1523–1528.
5Bügel, S, Sørenson, AD, Hels, O, et al. (2007) Effect of phylloquinone supplementation on biochemical markers of vitamin K status and bone turnover in postmenopausal women. Br J Nutr 97, 373–380.
6Cranenburg, ECM, Schurgers, LJ & Vermeer, C (2007) Vitamin K: the coagulation vitamin that became omnipotent. Thrombo Haemost 98, 120–125.
7Booth, SL, Broe, KE, Gagnon, DR, et al. (2003) Vitamin K intake and bone mineral density in women and men. Am J Clin Nutr 77, 512–516.
8Feskanich, D, Weber, P, Willett, WC, et al. (1999) Vitamin K intake and hip fractures in women: a prospective study. Am J Clin Nutr 69, 74–79.
9Booth, SL, Tucker, KL, Chen, H, et al. (2000) Dietary vitamin K intakes are associated with hip fracture but not with bone mineral density in elderly men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 1201–1208.
10Binkley, N, Harke, J, Krueger, D, et al. (2008) Vitamin K treatment reduces undercarboxylated osteocalcin but does not alter bone turnover, density or geometry in healthy postmenopausal North American women. J Bone Miner Res .
11Booth, SL, Dallal, G, Shea, MK, et al. (2008) Effect of vitamin K supplementation on bone loss in elderly men and women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93, 1217–1223.
12Cheung, AM, Tile, L, Lee, Y, et al. (2008) Vitamin K supplementation in postmenopausal women with osteopenia (ECKO trial): a randomized controlled trial. PLoS Medicine 5, e196.
13Thane, CW, Wang, LY & Coward, WA (2006) Plasma phylloquinone (vitamin K1) concentration and its relationship to intake in British adults aged 19–64 years. Br J Nutr 96, 1116–1124.
14Khan, T, Wynne, H, Wood, P, et al. (2004) Dietary vitamin K influences intra-individual variability in anticoagulant response to warfarin. Br J Haematol 124, 348–354.
15Couris, R, Tataronis, G, McCloskey, W, et al. (2006) Dietary vitamin K variability affects international normalized ratio (INR) coagulation indices. Int J Vit Nutr Res 76, 65–74.
16Custódio das Dôres, SM, Booth, SL, Aújo Martini, L, et al. (2007) Relationship between diet and anticoagulant response to warfarin: a factor analysis. Eur J Nutr 46, 147–154.
17Duggan, P, Cashman, KD, Flynn, A, et al. (2004) Phylloquinone (vitamin K1) intakes and food sources in 18–64-year-old Irish adults. Br J Nutr 92, 151–158.
18Bolton-Smith, C, Price, RJ, Fenton, ST, et al. (2000) Compilation of a provisional UK database for the phylloquinone (vitamin K1) content of foods. Br J Nutr 83, 389–399.
19Gijsbers, BL, Jie, KS & Vermeer, C (1996) Effect of food composition on vitamin K absorption in human volunteers. Br J Nutr 76, 223–229.
20Garber, AK, Binkley, NC, Krueger, DC, et al. (1999) Comparison of phylloquinone bioavailability from food sources or a supplement in human subjects. J Nutr 129, 1201–1203.
21Schurgers, LJ & Vermeer, C (2000) Determination of phylloquinone and menaquinones in food. Effect of food matrix on circulating vitamin K concentrations. Haemostasis 30, 298–307.
22Booth, SL, O'Brien-Morse, ME, Dallal, GE, et al. (1999) Response of vitamin K status to different intakes and sources of phylloquinone-rich foods: comparison of younger and older adults. Am J Clin Nutr 70, 368–377.
23Booth, SL, Lichtenstein, AH & Dallal, GE (2002) Phylloquinone absorption from phylloquinone-fortified oil is greater than from a vegetable in younger and older men and women. J Nutr 132, 2609–2612.
24Yeum, K-J & Russell, RM (2002) Carotenoid bioavailability and bioconversion. Ann Rev Nutr 22, 483–504.
25Bates, CJ, Jones, KS & Bluck, LJ (2004) Stable isotope-labelled vitamin C as a probe for vitamin C absorption by human subjects. Br J Nutr 91, 699–705.
26Jeanes, YM, Hall, WL, Ellard, S, et al. (2004) The absorption of vitamin E is influenced by the amount of fat in a meal and the food matrix. Br J Nutr 92, 575–579.
27Erkkilä, AT, Lichtenstein, AH, Dolnikowski, GG, et al. (2004) Plasma transport of vitamin K in men using deuterium-labeled collard greens. Metabolism 53, 215–221.
28Dolnikowski, GG, Sun, Z, Grusak, MA, et al. (2002) HPLC and GC/MS determination of deuterated vitamin K (phylloquinone) in human serum after ingestion of deuterium-labeled broccoli. J Nutr Biochem 13, 168–174.
29Kurilich, AC, Britz, SJ, Clevidence, BA, et al. (2003) Isotopic labeling and LC–APCI–MS quantification for investigating absorption of carotenoids and phylloquinone from kale (Brassica oleracea). J Agric Food Chem 51, 4877–4883.
30Jones, KS, Bluck, LJC & Coward, WA (2006) Analysis of isotope ratios in vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) from human plasma by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 20, 1894–1898.
31Jones, KS, Bluck, LJC, Wang, LY, et al. (2007) A dual stable isotope approach for the simultaneous measurement of vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) kinetics and absorption. Eur J Clin Nutr 62, 1273–1281.
32Fahey, MT, Thane, CW, Bramwell, GD, et al. (2007) Conditional Gaussian mixture modelling for dietary pattern analysis. J R Stat Soc Ser A Stat Soc 170, 1–18.
33Paul, AA & Southgate, DAT (1978) McCance and Widdowson's The Composition of Foods, 4th ed.London: HMSO.
34Holland, B, Unwin, ID & Buss, DH (1988) Cereals and Cereal Products: Third Supplement to McCance & Widdowson's The Composition of Foods, 4th ed.Nottingham: Royal Society of Chemistry Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food.
35Holland, B, Unwin, ID & Buss, DH (1989) Milk Products and Eggs: Fourth Supplement to McCance & Widdowson's The Composition of Foods, 4th ed.Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food.
36Food Standards Agency (2002) McCance and Widdowson's The Composition of Foods, 6th ed.Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.
37Booth, SL, Davidson, KW & Sadowski, JA (1994) Evaluation of an HPLC method for the determination of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) in various food matrices. J Agric Food Chem 42, 295–300.
38Wang, LY, Bates, CJ, Yan, L, et al. (2004) Determination of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) in plasma and serum by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Clin Chim Acta 347, 199–207.
39Bluck, LJC & Coward, WA (1997) Peak measurement in gas chromatographic mass spectrometric isotope studies. J Mass Spectrom 32, 1212–1218.
40Low, AG (1990) Nutritional regulation of gastric secretion, digestion and emptying. Nutr Res Rev 3, 229–252.
41Borel, P, Pasquier, B, Armand, M, et al. (2001) Processing of vitamin A and E in the human gastrointestinal tract. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 280, G95–G103.
42Shearer, MJ, McBurney, A & Barkhan, P (1974) Studies on the absorption and metabolism of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) in man. Vitam Horm 32, 513–542.
43Lamon-Fava, S, Sadowski, JA, Davidson, KW, et al. (1998) Plasma lipoproteins as carriers of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 67, 1226–1231.
44Niemeier, A, Kassem, M, Toedter, K, et al. (2005) Expression of LRP1 by human osteoblasts: a mechanism for the delivery of lipoproteins and vitamin K1 to bone. J Bone Miner Res 20, 283–293.
45Hollander, D & Rim, E (1976) Factors affecting the absorption of vitamin K-1 in vitro. Gut 17, 450–455.
46Hollander, D, Rim, E & Muralidhara, KS (1977) Vitamin K1 intestinal absorption in vivo: influence of luminal contents on transport. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 232, E69–E74.
47Schurgers, LJ, Shearer, MJ, Soute, BA, et al. (2002) Novel effects of diets enriched with corn oil or with an olive oil/sunflower oil mixture on vitamin K metabolism and vitamin K-dependent proteins in young men. J Lipid Res 43, 878–884.
48Alexander, GD & Suttie, JW (1999) The effect of vitamin E on vitamin K activity. FASEB J 40, 430–431.
49Mitchell, GV, Cook, KK, Jenkins, MY, et al. (2001) Supplementation of rats with a lutein mixture preserved with vitamin E reduces tissue phylloquinone and menaquinone-4. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 71, 30–35.
50Tovar, A, Ameho, CK, Blumberg, JB, et al. (2006) Extrahepatic tissue concentrations of vitamin K are lower in rats fed a high vitamin E diet. Nutr Metab 3, 29.
51Booth, SL, Golly, I, Sacheck, JM, et al. (2004) Effect of vitamin E supplementation on vitamin K status in adults with normal coagulation status. Am J Clin Nutr 80, 143–148.
52Traber, MG (2008) Vitamin E and K interactions – a 50-year-old problem. Nutr Rev 66, 624–629.
53Faulks, RM & Southon, S (2005) Challenges to understanding and measuring carotenoid bioavailability. Biochim Biophys Acta 1740, 95–100.
54Schurgers, LJ, Teunissen, KJF, Hamulyak, K, et al. (2007) Vitamin K-containing dietary supplements: comparison of synthetic vitamin K1 and natto-derived menaquinone-7. Blood 109, 3279–3283.
55Dueker, SR, Lin, Y, Buchholz, BA, et al. (2000) Long-term kinetic study of beta-carotene, using accelerator mass spectrometry in an adult volunteer. J Lipid Res 41, 1790–1800.
56Fielding, B, Callow, J, Owen, R, et al. (1996) Postprandial lipemia: the origin of an early peak studied by specific dietary fatty acid intake during sequential meals. Am J Clin Nutr 63, 36–41.
57Maillot, F, Garrigue, MA, Pinault, M, et al. (2005) Changes in plasma triacylglycerol concentrations after sequential lunch and dinner in healthy subjects. Diabetes Metab 31, 69–77.
58Schurgers, LJ & Vermeer, C (2002) Differential lipoprotein transport pathways of K-vitamins in healthy subjects. Biochim Biophys Acta 1570, 27–32.
59Parker, RS, Swanson, JE, You, CS, et al. (1999) Bioavailability of carotenoids in human subjects. Proc Nutr Soc 58, 155–162.
60Ferland, G & Sadowski, JA (1992) Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) content of edible oils: effects of heating and light exposure. J Agric Food Chem 40, 1869–1873.
61McKeown, NM, Rasmussen, HM, Charnley, JM, et al. (2000) Accuracy of phylloquinone (vitamin K-1) data in 2 nutrient databases as determined by direct laboratory analysis of diets. J Am Diet Assoc 100, 1201–1204.