Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Does adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute of Cancer Research cancer prevention guidelines reduce risk of colorectal cancer in the UK Women’s Cohort Study?

  • Petra Jones (a1) (a2), Janet E. Cade (a1), Charlotte E. L. Evans (a1), Neil Hancock (a1) and Darren C. Greenwood (a1) (a3)...

Abstract

Evidence on adherence to diet-related cancer prevention guidelines and associations with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk is limited and conflicting. The aim of this cohort analysis is to evaluate associations between adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute of Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) 2007 recommendations and incident CRC. The UK Women’s Cohort Study comprises over 35 372 women who filled in a FFQ at baseline in 1995. They were followed up for CRC incidence for a median of 17·4 years, an individual score linking adherence to eight of the WCRF/AICR recommendations was constructed. Cox proportional hazards regression provided hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI for the estimation of CRC risk, adjusting for confounders. Following exclusions, 444 CRC cases were identified. In the multivariate-adjusted model, women within the second and third (highest) categories of the WRCF/AICR score had HR of 0·79 (95 % CI 0·62, 1·00) and 0·73 (95 % CI 0·48, 1·10), respectively, for CRC compared with those in the lowest, reference category. The overall linear trend across the categories was not significant (P=0·17). No significant associations were observed between the WCRF/AICR score and proximal colon, distal colon and rectal cancers separately. Of the individual score components, a BMI within the normal weight range was borderline significantly protective only for rectal cancer in the fully adjusted model. In view of the likely different causes of CRC subtypes, further research is needed to identify the optimal dietary patterns associated with reducing colon and rectal cancer risk, respectively.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Does adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute of Cancer Research cancer prevention guidelines reduce risk of colorectal cancer in the UK Women’s Cohort Study?
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Does adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute of Cancer Research cancer prevention guidelines reduce risk of colorectal cancer in the UK Women’s Cohort Study?
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Does adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute of Cancer Research cancer prevention guidelines reduce risk of colorectal cancer in the UK Women’s Cohort Study?
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: P. Jones, email petra.jones@um.edu.mt

References

Hide All
1. Ferlay, J, Soerjomataram, I, Ervik, M, et al. (2012) Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN. Int J Cancer 2013 136, E359E386.
2. Center, MM, Jemal, A, Smith, RA, et al. (2009) Worldwide variations in colorectal cancer. CA Cancer J Clin 59, 366378.
3. Ocké, MC (2013) Evaluation of methodologies for assessing the overall diet: dietary quality scores and dietary pattern analysis. Proc Nutr Soc 72, 191199.
4. Kushi, LH, Byers, T, Doyle, C, et al. (2006) American Cancer Society Guidelines on Nutrition and Physical Activity for cancer prevention: reducing the risk of cancer with healthy food choices and physical activity. CA Cancer J Clin 56, 254281.
5. World Cancer Research Fund & American Institute for Cancer Research (2007) Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective. Washington, DC: World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research.
6. Cerhan, JR, Potter, JD, Gilmore, JM, et al. (2004) Adherence to the AICR cancer prevention recommendations and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the Iowa Women’s Health Study cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13, 11141120.
7. Inoue-Choi, M, Lazovich, D, Prizment, AE, et al. (2013) Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research recommendations for cancer prevention is associated with better health-related quality of life among elderly female cancer survivors. J Clin Oncol 31, 17581766.
8. Vergnaud, AC, Romaguera, D, Peeters, PH, et al. (2013) Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research guidelines and risk of death in Europe: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr 97, 11071120.
9. Thomson, CA, McCullough, ML, Wertheim, BC, et al. (2014) Nutrition and physical activity cancer prevention guidelines, cancer risk, and mortality in the Women’s Health Initiative. Cancer Prev Res 7, 4253.
10. Kabat, GC, Matthews, CE, Kamensky, V, et al. (2015) Adherence to cancer prevention guidelines and cancer incidence, cancer mortality, and total mortality: a prospective cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr (Epublication ahead of print version 7 January 2015).
11. Harnack, L, Nicodemus, K, Jacobs, DR, et al. (2002) An evaluation of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans in relation to cancer occurrence. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 889896.
12. Makarem, N, Lin, Y, Bandera, EV, et al. (2015) Concordance with World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) guidelines for cancer prevention and obesity-related cancer risk in the Framingham Offspring cohort (1991–2008). Cancer Causes Control 26, 277286.
13. Romaguera, D, Vergnaud, AC, Peeters, PH, et al. (2012) Is concordance with World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research guidelines for cancer prevention related to subsequent risk of cancer? Results from the EPIC study. Am J Clin Nutr 96, 150163.
14. Hastert, TA & White, E (2016) Association between meeting the WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations and colorectal cancer incidence: results from the VITAL cohort. Cancer Causes Control 27, 13471359.
15. Nomura, SJ, Dash, C, Rosenberg, L, et al. (2016) Is adherence to diet, physical activity, and body weight cancer prevention recommendations associated with colorectal cancer incidence in African American women? Cancer Causes Control 27, 869879.
16. World Cancer Research Fund & American Institute for Cancer Research (2017) Continuous update project report: diet, nutrition, physical activity, and colorectal cancer. wcrf.org/colorectal-cancer-2017 (accessed November 2017).
17. Cade, JE, Burley, VJ & Greenwood, DC (2004) The UK Women’s Cohort Study: comparison of vegetarians, fish-eaters and meat-eaters. Public Health Nutr 7, 871878.
18. Cade, JE, Burley, VJ, Alwan, NA, et al. (2015) Cohort profile: the UK Women’s Cohort Study (UKWCS). Int J Epidemiol 46, E11.
19. Rose, D, Pevalin, DJ & O’Reilly, K (2005) The National Statistics Socio-economic Classification: Origins, Development and Use. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
20. Riboli, E & Kaaks, R (1997) The EPIC Project: rationale and study design. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Int J Epidemiol 26, Suppl. 1, S6.
21. Holland, B, Welch, AA, Unwin, ID, et al. (1991) McCance and Widdowson’s The Composition of Foods. Cambridge: Royal Chemistry Society and Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food.
22. American Medical Association (2004) International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification: Physician ICD-9-CM, 2005: Volumes 1 and 2, Color-Coded, Illustrated . Chicago, IL: American Medical Association.
23. World Health Organization (2008) International statistical classification of diseases and health related problems (The) ICD-10. Doctoral dissertation, World Health Organization.
24. Kapiteijn, E, Liefers, GJ, Los, LC, et al. (2001) Mechanisms of oncogenesis in colon versus rectal cancer. J Pathol 195, 171178.
25. Greenwood, DC, Gilthorpe, MS, Golding, C, et al. (2003) Stability over time of dietary patterns in the UK Women’s Cohort Study. Proc Nutr Soc 62, 89A.
26. Larsson, SC & Wolk, A (2007) Obesity and colon and rectal cancer risk: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Am J Clin Nutr 86, 556565.
27. Gao, RN, Neutel, CI & Wai, E (2008) Gender differences in colorectal cancer incidence, mortality, hospitalizations and surgical procedures in Canada. J Public Health 30, 194201.
28. Ma, Y, Yang, Y, Wang, F, et al. (2013) Obesity and risk of colorectal cancer: a systematic review of prospective studies. PLOS ONE 8, E53916.
29. Song, M, Garrett, WS & Chan, AT (2015) Nutrients, foods, and colorectal cancer prevention. Gastroenterology 148, 12441260.

Keywords

Does adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute of Cancer Research cancer prevention guidelines reduce risk of colorectal cancer in the UK Women’s Cohort Study?

  • Petra Jones (a1) (a2), Janet E. Cade (a1), Charlotte E. L. Evans (a1), Neil Hancock (a1) and Darren C. Greenwood (a1) (a3)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed