McLean, E, Cogswell, M, Egli, I, et al. (2009) Worldwide prevalence of anaemia, WHO Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System, 1993–2005. Public Health Nutr
Ratnayake, WMN & Galli, C (2009) Fat and fatty acid terminology, methods of analysis and fat digestion and metabolism: a background review paper. Ann Nutr Metab
Uauy, R & Dangour, AD (2009) Fat and fatty acid requirements and recommendations for infants of 0–2 years and children of 2–18 years. Ann Nutr Metab
Bryan, J, Osendarp, S, Hughes, D, et al. (2004) Nutrients for cognitive development in school-aged children. Nutr Rev
Chalon, S (2006) Omega-3 fatty acids and monoamine neurotransmission. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids
McNamara, RK & Carlson, SE (2006) Role of omega-3 fatty acids in brain development and function: potential implications for the pathogenesis and prevention of psychopathology. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids
Hibbeln, JR, Davis, JM, Steer, C, et al. (2007) Maternal seafood consumption in pregnancy and neurodevelopmental outcomes in childhood (ALSPAC study): an observational cohort study. Lancet
Daniels, JL, Longnecker, MP, Rowland, AS, et al. (2004) Fish intake during pregnancy and early cognitive development of offspring. Epidemiology
Helland, IB, Smith, L, Blomen, B, et al. (2008) Effect of supplementing pregnant and lactating mothers with n-3 very-long-chain fatty acids on children’s IQ and body mass index at 7 years of age. Pediatrics
Colombo, J, Kannass, KN, Shaddy, DJ, et al. (2004) Maternal DHA and the development of attention in infancy and toddlerhood. Child Dev
Karr, JE, Alexander, JE & Winningham, RG (2011) Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cognition throughout the lifespan: a review. Nutr Neurosci
Kim, J-L, Winkvist, A, Aberg, MAI, et al. (2010) Fish consumption and school grades in Swedish adolescents: a study of the large general population.
Acta Paediatr 1992
De Groot, RHM, Ouwehand, C & Jolles, J (2012) Eating the right amount of fish: inverted U-shape association between fish consumption and cognitive performance and academic achievement in Dutch adolescents. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids
Koletzko, B, Uauy, R, Palou, A, et al. (2010) Dietary intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in children – a workshop report. Br J Nutr
Beard, JL & Connor, JR (2003) Iron status and neural functioning. Annu Rev Nutr
Beard, JL (2008) Why iron deficiency is important in infant development. J Nutr
Benton, D (2008) Micronutrient status, cognition and behavioral problems in childhood. Eur J Nutr
47, Suppl. 3, 38–50.
Grantham-McGregor, S & Ani, C (2001) A review of studies on the effect of iron deficiency on cognitive development in children. J Nutr
131, 649S–666S; discussion 666S–668S.
Falkingham, M, Abdelhamid, A, Curtis, P, et al. (2010) The effects of oral iron supplementation on cognition in older children and adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutr J
Andersen, R, Biltoft-Jensen, A, Christensen, T, et al. (2014) Dietary effects of introducing school meals based on the New Nordic Diet – a randomised controlled trial in Danish children. The OPUS School Meal Study. Br J Nutr
Sørensen, LB, Dyssegaard, CB, Damsgaard, CT, et al. (2015) The effects of Nordic school meals on concentration and school performance in 8- to 11-year-old children in the OPUS School Meal Study: a cluster-randomised, controlled, cross-over trial. Br J Nutr
Damsgaard, CT, Dalskov, S-M, Petersen, RA, et al. (2012) Design of the OPUS School Meal Study: a randomised controlled trial assessing the impact of serving school meals based on the New Nordic Diet. Scand J Public Health
Nordic Council of Ministers (2004) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2004: NNR: Integrating Nutrition and Physical Activity, 4th ed., Copenhagen: Nordic Council of Ministers.
Mithril, C, Dragsted, LO, Meyer, C, et al. (2012) Guidelines for the New Nordic Diet. Public Health Nutr
Morris, NM & Udry, JR (1980) Validation of a self-administered instrument to assess stage of adolescent development. J Youth Adolesc
Hjorth, MF, Chaput, J-P, Michaelsen, K, et al. (2013) Seasonal variation in objectively measured physical activity, sedentary time, cardio-respiratory fitness and sleep duration among 8–11-year-old Danish children: a repeated-measures study. BMC Public Health
Biltoft-Jensen, A, Hjorth, MF, Trolle, E, et al. (2013) Comparison of estimated energy intake using Web-based Dietary Assessment Software with accelerometer-determined energy expenditure in children. Food Nutr Res
57 (epublication 17 December 2013).
Henry, CJK (2005) Basal metabolic rate studies in humans: measurement and development of new equations. Public Health Nutr
Black, AE (2000) The sensitivity and specificity of the Goldberg cut-off for EI:BMR for identifying diet reports of poor validity. Eur J Clin Nutr
Cole, TJ, Flegal, KM, Nicholls, D, et al. (2007) Body mass index cut offs to define thinness in children and adolescents: international survey. BMJ
Cole, TJ, Bellizzi, MC, Flegal, KM, et al. (2000) Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. BMJ
World Health Organization, United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund & United Nations University (2001) Iron Deficiency Anaemia: Assessment, Prevention, and Control. A Guide for Programme Managers. Geneva: WHO.
Metherel, AH, Aristizabal Henao, JJ & Stark, KD (2013) EPA and DHA levels in whole blood decrease more rapidly when stored at −20°C as compared with room temperature, 4 and −75°C. Lipids
Bates, ME & Lemay, EP Jr (2004) The d2 Test of attention: construct validity and extensions in scoring techniques. J Int Neuropsychol Soc
Brickenkamp, R & Zillmer, E (1998)
The d2 Test of Attention
. Seattle, WA: Hogrefe & Huber.
Wassenberg, R, Hendriksen, JGM, Hurks, PPM, et al. (2008) Development of inattention, impulsivity, and processing speed as measured by the d2 Test: results of a large cross-sectional study in children aged 7-13. Child Neuropsychol
Hansen, KF (2007) MG/FG3: matematik grundlæggende, færdigheder grundlæggende: vejledning (MG3/FG3 Mathematics Basic: Manual), 2nd ed. Virum, Denmark: Hogrefe Psykologisk Forlag; (in Danish).
Hansen, KF (2007) MG/FG4: matematik grundlæggende, færdigheder grundlæggende: vejledning (MG4/FG4 Mathematics Basic: Manual), 2nd ed. Virum, Denmark: Hogrefe Psykologisk Forlag; (in Danish).
Damsgaard, CT, Dalskov, S-M, Laursen, RP, et al. (2014) Provision of healthy school meals does not affect the metabolic syndrome score in 8–11-year-old children, but reduces cardiometabolic risk markers despite increasing waist circumference. Br J Nutr
Altman, D (1991) Practical Statistics for Medical Research. London: Chapman & Hall/CRC.
Laursen, RP, Dalskov, S-M, Damsgaard, CT, et al. (2014) Back-transformation of treatment differences – an approximate method. Eur J Clin Nutr
R Core Team (2012) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.
Soemantri, AG, Pollitt, E & Kim, I (1985) Iron deficiency anemia and educational achievement. Am J Clin Nutr
Pollitt, E, Hathirat, P, Kotchabhakdi, NJ, et al. (1989) Iron deficiency and educational achievement in Thailand. Am J Clin Nutr
50, 687–696 discussion 696–697.
Halterman, JS, Kaczorowski, JM, Aligne, CA, et al. (2001) Iron deficiency and cognitive achievement among school-aged children and adolescents in the United States. Pediatrics
Bruner, AB, Joffe, A, Duggan, AK, et al. (1996) Randomised study of cognitive effects of iron supplementation in non-anaemic iron-deficient adolescent girls. Lancet
Lambert, A, Knaggs, K, Scragg, R, et al. (2002) Effects of iron treatment on cognitive performance and working memory in non-anaemic, iron-deficient girls. J Psychol
Sungthong, R, Mo-suwan, L & Chongsuvivatwong, V (2002) Effects of haemoglobin and serum ferritin on cognitive function in school children. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr
Lassek, WD & Gaulin, SJC (2011) Sex differences in the relationship of dietary fatty acids to cognitive measures in American children. Front Evol Neurosci
Engel, S, Tronhjem, KMH, Hellgren, LI, et al. (2013) Docosahexaenoic acid status at 9 months is inversely associated with communicative skills in 3-year-old girls. Matern Child Nutr
Lauritzen, L, Jorgensen, MH, Olsen, SF, et al. (2005) Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation: effect on developmental outcome in breast-fed infants. Reprod Nutr Dev
Makrides, M, Gibson, RA, McPhee, AJ, et al. (2010) Effect of DHA supplementation during pregnancy on maternal depression and neurodevelopment of young children: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA
Dalton, A, Wolmarans, P, Witthuhn, RC, et al. (2009) A randomised control trial in schoolchildren showed improvement in cognitive function after consuming a bread spread, containing fish flour from a marine source. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids
Parletta, N, Cooper, P, Gent, DN, et al. (2013) Effects of fish oil supplementation on learning and behaviour of children from Australian Indigenous remote community schools: a randomised controlled trial. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids
Baumgartner, J, Smuts, CM, Malan, L, et al. (2012) Effects of iron and n-3 fatty acid supplementation, alone and in combination, on cognition in school children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention in South Africa. Am J Clin Nutr
Richardson, AJ & Montgomery, P (2005) The Oxford-Durham study: a randomized, controlled trial of dietary supplementation with fatty acids in children with developmental coordination disorder. Pediatrics
Richardson, AJ & Puri, BK (2002) A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effects of supplementation with highly unsaturated fatty acids on ADHD-related symptoms in children with specific learning difficulties. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry
Sinn, N & Bryan, J (2007) Effect of supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids and micronutrients on learning and behavior problems associated with child ADHD. J Dev Behav Pediatr
Osendarp, SJM, Baghurst, KI, Bryan, J, et al. (2007) Effect of a 12-mo micronutrient intervention on learning and memory in well-nourished and marginally nourished school-aged children: 2 parallel, randomized, placebo-controlled studies in Australia and Indonesia. Am J Clin Nutr
Kennedy, DO, Jackson, PA, Elliott, JM, et al. (2009) Cognitive and mood effects of 8 weeks’ supplementation with 400 mg or 1000 mg of the omega-3 essential fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in healthy children aged 10–12 years. Nutr Neurosci
Kirby, A, Woodward, A, Jackson, S, et al. (2010) A double-blind, placebo-controlled study investigating the effects of omega-3 supplementation in children aged 8–10 years from a mainstream school population. Res Dev Disabil
McNamara, RK, Able, J, Jandacek, R, et al. (2010) Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation increases prefrontal cortex activation during sustained attention in healthy boys: a placebo-controlled, dose-ranging, functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Am J Clin Nutr
Richardson, AJ, Burton, JR, Sewell, RP, et al. (2012) Docosahexaenoic acid for reading, cognition and behavior in children aged 7–9 years: a randomized, controlled trial (the DOLAB Study). PLOS ONE
Muthayya, S, Eilander, A, Transler, C, et al. (2009) Effect of fortification with multiple micronutrients and n-3 fatty acids on growth and cognitive performance in Indian schoolchildren: the CHAMPION (Children’s Health and Mental Performance Influenced by Optimal Nutrition) Study. Am J Clin Nutr
Jackson, PA, Reay, JL, Scholey, AB, et al. (2012) Docosahexaenoic acid-rich fish oil modulates the cerebral hemodynamic response to cognitive tasks in healthy young adults. Biol Psychol
Boucher, O, Burden, MJ, Muckle, G, et al. (2011) Neurophysiologic and neurobehavioral evidence of beneficial effects of prenatal omega-3 fatty acid intake on memory function at school age. Am J Clin Nutr
Laursen, RP, Lauritzen, L, Ritz, C, et al. (2015) Do healthy school meals affect illness, allergies and school attendance in 8- to 11-year-old children? A cluster-randomised controlled study. Eur J Clin Nutr
Eilander, A, Gera, T, Sachdev, HS, et al. (2010) Multiple micronutrient supplementation for improving cognitive performance in children: systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr