Skip to main content Accessibility help

Dietary starch types affect liver nutrient metabolism of finishing pigs

  • Chen Xie (a1), Yanjiao Li (a1), Jiaolong Li (a1), Lin Zhang (a1), Guanghong Zhou (a1) and Feng Gao (a1)...


This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different starch types on liver nutrient metabolism of finishing pigs. In all ninety barrows were randomly allocated to three diets with five replicates of six pigs, containing purified waxy maize starch (WMS), non-waxy maize starch (NMS) and pea starch (PS) (the amylose to amylopectin ratios were 0·07, 0·19 and 0·28, respectively). After 28 d of treatments, two per pen (close to the average body weight of the pen) were weighed individually, slaughtered and liver samples were collected. Compared with the WMS diet, the PS diet decreased the activities of glycogen phosphorylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 in liver (P<0·05). Moreover, the lipid contents, the concentrations of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthetase and the expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c in liver of PS and NMS diets were lower than those of WMS diet (P<0·05). However, no effect was observed in the activity of hepatic lipase, the expressions of carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein, liver X receptor and PPARα (P>0·05). Compared with the WMS diet, the PS diet reduced the expressions of glutamate dehydrogenase and carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 in liver (P<0·05). PS diet decreased the expression of the insulin receptor, and increased the expressions of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 and ribosomal protein S6 kinase β-1 in liver compared with the WMS diet (P<0·05). These findings indicated that the diet with higher amylose content could down-regulate gluconeogenesis, and cause less fat deposition and more protein deposition by affecting the insulin/PI3K/protein kinase B signalling pathway in liver of finishing pigs.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Dietary starch types affect liver nutrient metabolism of finishing pigs
      Available formats

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Dietary starch types affect liver nutrient metabolism of finishing pigs
      Available formats

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Dietary starch types affect liver nutrient metabolism of finishing pigs
      Available formats


Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: F. Gao, fax +86 25 8439 5314, email


Hide All
1. Yin, YL, Deng, ZY, Huang, HL, et al. (2004) Nutritional and health functions of carbohydrate for pigs. J Anim Feed Sci 13, 523538.
2. Regmi, PR, van Kempen, TA, Matte, JJ, et al. (2011) Starch with high amylose and low in vitro digestibility increases short-chain fatty acid absorption, reduces peak insulin secretion, and modulates incretin secretion in pigs. J Nutr 141, 398.
3. Wiseman, J (2006) Variations in starch digestibility in non-ruminants. Anim Feed Sci Tech 130, 6677.
4. Englyst, HN, Kingman, SM & Cummings, JH (1992) Classification and measurement of nutritionally important starch fractions. Eur J Clin Nutr 46, Suppl. 2, S33S50.
5. Stevnebø, A, Sahlströ, MS & Svihus, B (2006) Starch structure and degree of starch hydrolysis of small and large starch granules from barley varieties with varying amylose content. Anim Feed Sci Tech 130, 2338.
6. Englyst, HN, Veenstra, J & Hudson, GJ (1996) Measurement of rapidly available glucose (RAG) in plant foods: a potential in vitro predictor of the glycaemic response. Br J Nutr 75, 327337.
7. Deng, J, Wu, X, Bin, S, et al. (2010) Dietary amylose and amylopectin ratio and resistant starch content affects plasma glucose, lactic acid, hormone levels and protein synthesis in splanchnic tissues. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 94, 220226.
8. Yin, F, Yin, Y, Zhang, Z, et al. (2011) Digestion rate of dietary starch affects the systemic circulation of lipid profiles and lipid metabolism-related gene expression in weaned pigs. Br J Nutr 106, 369377.
9. Foufelle, F, Gouhot, B, Pégorier, JP, et al. (1992) Glucose stimulation of lipogenic enzyme gene expression in cultured white adipose tissue. A role for glucose 6-phosphate. J Biol Chem 267, 2054320546.
10. Fukuda, H, Katsurada, A & Iritani, N (1992) Nutritional and hormonal regulation of mRNA levels of lipogenic enzymes in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. J Biochem 111, 2530.
11. He, J, Chen, D, Zhang, K, et al. (2011) A high-amylopectin diet caused hepatic steatosis associated with more lipogenic enzymes and increased serum insulin concentration. Br J Nutr 106, 14701475.
12. Bird, AR, Brown, IL & Topping, DL (2000) Starches, resistant starches, the gut microflora and human health. Curr Issues Intest Microbiol 1, 2537.
13. He, J, Chen, D & Yu, B (2010) Metabolic and transcriptomic responses of weaned pigs induced by different dietary amylose and amylopectin ratio. PLoS ONE 5, e15110.
14. Li, TJ, Huang, RL, Wu, GY, et al. (2007) Growth performance and nitrogen metabolism in weaned pigs fed diets containing different sources of starch. Livest Sci 109, 7376.
15. Li, TJ, Dai, QZ, Yin, YL, et al. (2008) Dietary starch sources affect net portal appearance of amino acids and glucose in growing pigs. Animal 2, 723729.
16. Yin, FG, Zhang, ZZ, Huang, J, et al. (2010) Digestion rate of dietary starch affects systemic circulation of amino acids in weaned pigs. Br J Nutr 103, 14041412.
17. Li, YJ, Li, JL, Zhang, L, et al. (2017) Effects of dietary starch types on growth performance, meat quality and myofibre type of finishing pigs. Meat Sci 131, 6070.
18. National Research Council (2012) Nutrient Requirements of Swine, 10th ed. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
19. Xiong, B, Pang, Z & Luo, Q (2012) Tables of feed composition and nutritive values in China. China Feed 21, 3344 (in Chinese).
20. Livak, KJ & Schmittgen, TD (2001) Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) Method. Methods 25, 402408.
21. Ells, LJ, Seal, CB, Bal, W, et al. (2005) Postprandial glycaemic, lipaemic and haemostatic responses to ingestion of rapidly and slowly digested starches in healthy young women. Br J Nutr 94, 948955.
22. Liu, Q, Donner, E, Yin, Y, et al. (2006) The physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of selected cereals, tubers and legumes grown in China. Food Chem 99, 470477.
23. Birt, DF, Boylston, T, Hendrich, S, et al. (2013) Resistant starch: promise for improving human health. Adv Nutr 4, 587601.
24. Berg, JM, Tymoczko, JL & Stryer, L (2002) Biochemistry, 5th ed. New York: National Center for Biotechnology Informationõs Bookshelf.
25. Valera, A, Pujol, A, Pelegrin, M, et al. (1994) Transgenic mice overexpressing phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase develop non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91, 91519154.
26. Hakimi, P, Johnson, MT, Yang, J, et al. (2005) Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and the critical role of cataplerosis in the control of hepatic metabolism. Nutr Metab 2, 33.
27. Nakae, J, Biggs, WH, Kitamura, T, et al. (2002) Regulation of insulin action and pancreatic |[beta]|-cell function by mutated alleles of the gene encoding forkhead transcription factor Foxo1. Nat Genet 32, 245253.
28. Uyeda, K & Repa, JJ (2006) Carbohydrate response element binding protein, ChREBP, a transcription factor coupling hepatic glucose utilization and lipid synthesis. Cell Metab 4, 107110.
29. Ferré, P & Foufelle, F (2007) SREBP-1c transcription factor and lipid homeostasis: clinical perspective. Hormone Res 68, 7282.
30. Tong, L (2005) Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase: crucial metabolic enzyme and attractive target for drug discovery. Cell Mol Life Sci 62, 17841803.
31. Smith, S, Witkowski, A & Joshi, AK (2003) Structural and functional organization of the animal fatty acid synthase. Prog Lipid Res 42, 289317.
32. Foufelle, F & Ferré, P (2002) New perspectives in the regulation of hepatic glycolytic and lipogenic genes by insulin and glucose: a role for the transcription factor sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c. Biochem J 366, 377391.
33. Janowski, BA, Grogan, MJ, Jones, SA, et al. (1999) Structural requirements of ligands for the oxysterol liver X receptors LXRα and LXRβ. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96, 266271.
34. Uyeda, K, Yamashita, H & Kawaguchi, T (2002) Carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP): a key regulator of glucose metabolism and fat storage. Biochem Pharmacol 63, 20752080.
35. Fleischmann, M & Iynedjian, PB (2000) Regulation of sterol regulatory-element binding protein 1 gene expression in liver: role of insulin and protein kinase B/cAkt. Biochem J 349, 1317.
36. Holden, HM, Thoden, JB & Raushel, FM (1999) Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase: an amazing biochemical odyssey from substrate to product. Cell Mol Life Sci 56, 507522.
37. Asnaghi, L, Bruno, P, Priulla, M, et al. (2004) mTOR: a protein kinase switching between life and death. Pharmacol Res 50, 545549.
38. Yang, X, Yang, C, Farberman, A, et al. (2008) The mammalian target of rapamycin-signaling pathway in regulating metabolism and growth. J Anim Sci 86, E36E50.



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed