Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Dietary n-3 PUFA content as a modulator of the femur properties in growing pigs

  • Monika Sobol (a1), Grzegorz Skiba (a1) and Stanisława Raj (a1)

Abstract

The relationships between both dietary and empty body fatty acid composition and the morphometry, densitometry, geometry and biomechanical properties of the femur of growing pigs were analysed. A total of thirty-two pigs aged 115 d were divided into four groups (n 8 per group). The pigs were fed either a control diet (group C) or a diet supplemented with linseed oil (rich in α-linolenic acid (C18 : 3n-3), group L), fish oil (rich in EPA (C20 : 5n-3) and DHA (C22 : 6n-3), group F) and beef tallow (rich in SFA, group T). The diets differed in n-3 PUFA contents (0·63–18·52 g/kg) and n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios (0·91–14·51). At 165 d of age, the pigs were slaughtered and the fatty acids in the empty body were determined. Moreover, the left femur was dissected. The cortical wall thickness, cross-sectional area, cortical index, bone mineral content, bone mineral density, maximum elastic strength and maximum strength were lower (P<0·05) in the femurs of pigs from groups C and T than in those from groups F and L. Significant positive correlations were found between the densitometry, geometry and biomechanical properties of the femur and both dietary and empty body n-3 PUFA content, whereas significant negative correlations were observed between the same properties and both dietary and empty body n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio. The results of the present study suggest that in growing pigs α-linolenic acid has a similar positive effect on bone health to that of EPA and DHA.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Dr M. Sobol, email m.sobol@ifzz.pl

References

Hide All
1. Gutzwiller, A, Hess, HD, Adam, A, et al. (2011) Effect of a reduced calcium, phosphorus and protein intake and of benzoic acid on calcium and phosphorus metabolism of growing pigs. Anim Feed Sci Technol 168, 113121.
2. Varley, PF, Callan, JJ & O’Doherty, JV (2011) Effect of dietary phosphorus and calcium level and phytase addition on performance, bone parameters, apparent nutrient digestibility, mineral and nitrogen utilization of weaner pigs and the subsequent effect of finisher pig bone parameters. Anim Feed Sci Technol 165, 201209.
3. Weremko, D, Skiba, G, Raj, S, et al. (2013) The effects of feed and protein restriction between 90 and 118 days of age on performance, bone growth and mineralisation of pigs reared to 168 days of age. Anim Feed Sci Technol 182, 5360.
4. Skiba, G, Sobol, M & Raj, S (2017) Femur morphometry, densitometry, geometry and mechanical properties in young pigs fed a diet free of inorganic phosphorus and supplemented with phytase. Arch Anim Nutr 71, 8192.
5. Zernicke, RF, Salem, GJ, Barnard, RJ, et al. (1995) Long-term, high-fat-sucrose diet alters rat femoral neck and vertebral morphology, bone mineral content, and mechanical properties. Bone 16, 2531.
6. Liu, D, Veit, HP, Wilson, JH, et al. (2003) Long-term supplementation of various dietary lipids alters bone mineral content, mechanical properties and histological characteristics of Japanese quail. Poult Sci 82, 831839.
7. Lau, BY, Cohen, DJA, Ward, WE, et al. (2013) Investigating the role of polyunsaturated fatty acid in bone development using animal models. Molecules 18, 1420314227.
8. Parks, CA (2016) The relationships between long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status and bone health in young children. PhD Thesis. McGill University of Montreal.
9. Sun, D, Krishnan, A, Zaman, K, et al. (2003) Dietary n-3 fatty acids decrease osteoclastogenesis and loss of bone mass in ovariectomized mice. J Bone Miner Res 18, 12061216.
10. Bhattacharya, A, Rahman, M, Sun, D, et al. (2007) Effect of fish oil on bone mineral density in aging C57BL/6 female mice. J Nutr Biochem 18, 372379.
11. Lau, BY, Fajardo, VA, McMeekin, L, et al. (2010) Influence of high-fat diet from differential dietary sources on bone mineral density, bone strength, and bone fatty acid composition in rats. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 35, 598606.
12. Li, Y, Seifert, MF, Lim, SY, et al. (2010) Bone mineral content is positively correlated to n-3 fatty acids in the femur of growing rats. Br J Nutr 104, 674685.
13. Bonnet, N & Ferrari, SL (2011) Effects of long-term supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids on longitudinal changes in bone mass and microstructure in mice. J Nutr Biochem 22, 665672.
14. Fallon, EM, Nazarian, A, Nehra, D, et al. (2014) The effect of docosahexaenoic acid on bone microstructure in young mice and bone fracture in neonates. J Surg Res 191, 148155.
15. Liu, D, Veit, HP & Denbow, DM (2004) Effects of long-term dietary lipids on mature bone mineral content, collagen, crosslinks, and prostaglandin E2 production in Japanese quail. Poult Sci 83, 18761883.
16. Weiler, HA & Fitzpatrick-Wong, SC (2002) Modulation of essential (n-6):(n-3) fatty acid ratios alters fatty acid status but not bone mass in piglets. J Nutr 132, 26672672.
17. Mollard, RC, Kovacs, HR, Fitzpatrick-Wong, SC, et al. (2005) Low levels of dietary arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids improve bone mass in neonatal piglets, but higher levels provide no benefit. J Nutr 135, 505512.
18. Judex, S, Wohl, G, Wolff, R, et al. (2000) Dietary fish oil supplementation adversely affects cortical bone morphology and biomechanics in growing rabbits. Calcif Tissue Int 66, 443448.
19. Weiler, HA, Kovacs, H, Nitschmann, E, et al. (2007) Feeding flaxseed oil but not secoisolariciresinol diglucoside results in higher bone mass in healthy rats and rats with kidney disease. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 76, 269275.
20. Baird, HT, Eggett, DL & Fullmer, S (2008) Varying ratios of omega-6:omega-3 fatty acids on the pre and postmortem bone mineral density, bone ash, and bone breaking strength of laying chickens. Poult Sci 87, 323328.
21. Ratnayake, WM & Galli, C (2009) Fat and fatty acid terminology, methods of analysis and fat digestion and metabolism: a background review paper. Ann Nutr Metab 55, 843.
22. Kalish, BT, Fallon, EM & Puder, M (2012) A tutorial on fatty acid biology. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 36, 380388.
23. National Research Council (2012) Nutrient Requirements of Swine, 11th rev. ed. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
24. Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to the list of nutrition claims.
25. Ferretti, JL, Capozza, RF, Mondelo, N, et al. (1993) Interrelationships between densitometric, geometric and mechanical properties of rat femora: inferences concerning mechanical regulation of bone modelling. J Bone Miner Res 8, 13891396.
26. Horwitz W & Latimer GW (editors) (2011) Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International, current through revision 4, 18th ed. Gaithersburg, MD: AOAC International.
27. Kratz R (2003) Effect of source of fat in the diet on the fatty acid profile and quality of the meat of pigs genetically differed in protein and lipid deposition. PhD Dissertation, Gieβen, Germany (in German).
28. Lorincz, C, Reimer, RA, Boyd, SK, et al. (2010) High-fat, sucrose diet impairs geometrical and mechanical properties of cortical bone in mice. Br J Nutr 103, 13021308.
29. Macri, EV, Gonzales Chaves, MM, Rodriguez, PN, et al. (2012) High-fat diets affect energy and bone metabolism in growing rats. Eur J Nutr 51, 399406.
30. Kouba, M, Enser, M, Whittington, FM, et al. (2003) Effect of a high-linolenic acid diet on lipogenic enzyme activities, fatty acid composition, and meat quality in the growing pig. J Anim Sci 81, 19671979.
31. Olivares, A, Daza, A, Rey, AI, et al. (2010) Effect of diet saturation on growth performance, carcass characteristics and fat quality of heavy pigs. Food Sci Technol Int 16, 321327.
32. Matsuo, T, Takeuchi, H, Suzuki, H, et al. (2002) Body fat accumulation is greater in rats fed a beef tallow diet than in rats fed a safflower or soybean oil diet. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 11, 302308.
33. Crespo, N & Esteve-Garcia, E (2002) Dietary linseed oil produces lower abdominal fat deposition but higher de novo fatty acid synthesis in broiler chickens. Poult Sci 81, 15551562.
34. Smink, W, Gerrits, WJJ, Hovenier, R, et al. (2010) Effect of dietary fat sources on fatty acid deposition and lipid metabolism in broiler chickens. Poult Sci 89, 24322440.
35. Poureslami, R, Turchini, GM, Raes, K, et al. (2010) Effect of diet, sex and age on fatty acid metabolism in broiler chickens: n-3 and n-6 PUFA. Br J Nutr 104, 204213.
36. Skiba, G, Poławska, E, Sobol, M, et al. (2015) Omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids metabolism pathways in the body of pigs fed diets with different sources of fatty acids. Arch Anim Nutr 69, 116.
37. Watkins, B, Shen, C, Allen, K, et al. (1996) Dietary (n-3) and polyunsaturates and acetylsalicylic acid alter ex vivo PGE2 biosynthesis, tissue IGF-1 levels, and bone morphometry in chicks. J Bone Miner Res 11, 13211332.
38. Watkins, BA, Li, Y, Allen, KG, et al. (2000) Dietary ratio of (n-6)/(n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids alters the fatty acid composition of bone compartments and biomarkers of bone formation in rats. J Nutr 130, 22742284.
39. Weiss, LA, Barrett-Connor, E & von Mühlen, D (2005) Ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids and bone mineral density in older adults: the Rancho Bernardo Study. Am J Clin Nutr 81, 934938.
40. Pearce, AI, Richards, RG, Milz, S, et al. (2007) Animal models for implant biomaterial research in bone: a review. Eur Cell Mater 13, 110.
41. Reinwald, S & Burr, D (2008) Review of nonprimate, large animal models for osteoporosis research. J Bone Miner Res 23, 13531368.
42. Aigner, B, Renner, S, Kessler, B, et al. (2010) Transgenic pigs as models for translational biomedical research. J Mol Med 88, 653664.
43. Reinwald, S, Li, Y, Moriguchi, T, et al. (2004) Repletion with (n-3) fatty acids reverses bone structural deficits in (n-3)-deficient rats. J Nutr 134, 388394.
44. Rousseau, JH, Kleppinger, A & Kenny, AM (2009) Self-reported dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids and association with bone and lower extremity function. J Am Geriatr Soc 57, 17811788.
45. Heaney, RP, Abrams, S, Dawson-Hughes, B, et al. (2000) Peak bone mass. Osteoporos Int 11, 9851009.
46. Turchini, GM & Francis, DS (2009) Fatty acid metabolism (desaturation, elongation and b-oxidation) in rainbow trout fed fish oil- or linseed oil-based diets. Br J Nutr 102, 6981.
47. Burdge, GC & Calder, PC (2005) Conversion of alpha linolenic acid to longer-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in human adults. Reprod Nutr Dev 45, 581597.
48. Kloareg, M, Noblet, J & Van Milgen, J (2007) Deposition of dietary fatty acids, de novo synthesis and anatomical partitioning of fatty acids in finishing pigs. Br J Nutr 97, 3544.
49. Liu, XH, Kirschenbaum, A, Yao, S, et al. (2006) Interactive effect of interleukin-6 and prostaglandin E2 on osteoclastogenesis via the OPG/RANKL/RANK system. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1068, 225233.
50. Das, UN (2000) Essential fatty acids and osteoporosis. Nutrition 16, 386390.
51. Poulsen, RC, Gotlinger, K, Serhan, CN, et al. (2008) Identification of inflammatory and proresolving lipid mediators in bone marrow and theirlipidomic profiles with ovariectomy and omega 3 intake. Am J Hematol 83, 437445.
52. Classen, N, Coetzer, H, Steinmann, CM, et al. (1995) The effect of different n-6/n-3 essential fatty acid ratios on calcium balance and bone in rats. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 53, 1319.
53. Heaney, RP, Carey, R & Harkness, L (2005) Roles of vitamin D, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, and soy isoflavones in bone health. J Am Diet Assoc 105, 17001702.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed