Qin, S, Tian, G, Zhang, KY, et al. (2017) Influence of dietary rapeseed meal levels on growth performance, organ health and standardized ileal amino acid digestibility in meat ducks from 15 to 35 days of age. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 101, 1297–1306.
Park, SO & Kim, WK (2017) Effects of betaine on biological functions in meat-type ducks exposed to heat stress. Poult Sci 96, 1212–1218.
Bi, Y, Nan, XM, Zheng, SS, et al. (2018) Effects of dietary threonine and immune stress on growth performance, carcass trait, serum immune parameters, and intestinal muc2 and NF-κb gene expression in Pekin ducks from hatch to 21 days. Poult Sci 97, 177–187.
He, J, Zhang, K, Chen, D, et al. (2013) Effects of maize naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B1 on growth performance, blood profiles and hepatic histopathology in ducks. Livest Sci 152, 192–199.
Bai, WQ, Zhang, KY, Ding, X, et al. (2019) High dietary energy content increases inflammatory markers after lipopolysaccharide challenge in meat ducks. Poult Sci 98, 164–171.
Ducatelle, R, Goossens, E, De Meyer, F, et al. (2018) Biomarkers for monitoring intestinal health in poultry: present status and future perspectives. Vet Res 49, 43.
De Medina, FS, Romerocalvo, I, Mascaraque, C, et al. (2014) Intestinal inflammation and mucosal barrier function. Inflamm Bowel Dis 20, 2394–2404.
Anderson, RC, Dalziel, JE, Gopal, PK, et al. (2012) The Role of Intestinal Barrier Function in Early Life in the Development of Colitis. Rijeka, Croatia: InTech.
Neish, AS (2009) Microbes in gastrointestinal health and disease. Gastroenterology 136, 65–80.
Trachsel, J, Briggs, C, Gabler, NK, et al. (2018) Resistant potato starch fuels beneficial host–microbe interactions in the gut. bioRxiv, 389007.
Leonel, AJ & Alvarezleite, JI (2012) Butyrate: implications for intestinal function. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 15, 474–479.
Groschwitz, K & Hogan, SP (2009) Intestinal barrier function: molecular regulation and disease pathogenesis. J Allergy Clin Immun 124, 3–20.
Keenan, MJ, Zhou, J, Hegsted, M, et al. (2015) Role of resistant starch in improving gut health, adiposity, and insulin resistance. Adv Nutr 6, 198–205.
Sajilata, MG, Singhal, RS & Kulkarni, PR (2006) Resistant starch – a review. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 5, 1–17.
Nofrarías, M, Martínez-Puig, D, Pujols, J, et al. (2007) Long-term intake of resistant starch improves colonic mucosal integrity and reduces gut apoptosis and blood immune cells. Nutrition 23, 861–870.
Fuentes-Zaragoza, E, Riquelme-Navarrete, MJ, Sánchez-Zapata, E, et al. (2010) Resistant starch as functional ingredient: a review. Food Res Int 43, 931–942.
Jiminez, JA, Uwiera, TC, Abbott, DW, et al. (2016) Impacts of resistant starch and wheat bran consumption on enteric inflammation in relation to colonic bacterial community structures and short-chain fatty acid concentrations in mice. Gut Pathog 8, 67.
Keenan, MJ, Zhou, J, Mccutcheon, KL, et al. (2006) Effects of resistant starch, a non-digestible fermentable fiber, on reducing body fat. Obesity 14, 1523–1534.
Zhou, J, Hegsted, M, Mccutcheon, KL, et al. (2006) Peptide YY and proglucagon mRNA expression patterns and regulation in the gut. Obesity 14, 683–689.
National Research Council (1994) Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, 9th rev. ed. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Nabuurs, MJA, Hoogendoorn, A, Der Molen, EJV, et al. (1993) Villus height and crypt depth in weaned and unweaned pigs, reared under various circumstances in The Netherlands. Res Vet Sci 55, 78–84.
Ki, Y, Kim, W, Cho, H, et al. (2014) The effect of probiotics for preventing radiation-induced morphological changes in intestinal mucosa of rats. J Korean Med Sci 29, 1372–1378.
Vandesompele, J, De Preter, K, Pattyn, F, et al. (2002) Accurate normalization of real-time quantitative RT-PCR data by geometric averaging of multiple internal control genes. Genome Biol 3, RESEARCH0034.
Caporaso, JG, Kuczynski, J, Stombaugh, J, et al. (2010) QIIME allows analysis of high-throughput community sequencing data. Nat Methods 7, 335–336.
Magoč, T & Salzberg, SL (2011) FLASH: fast length adjustment of short reads to improve genome assemblies. Bioinformatics 27, 2957–2963.
Edgar, RC, Haas, BJ, Clemente, JC, et al. (2011) UCHIME improves sensitivity and speed of chimera detection. Bioinformatics 27, 2194–2200.
Edgar, RC (2013) UPARSE: highly accurate OTU sequences from microbial amplicon reads. Nat Methods 10, 996–998.
Quast, C, Pruesse, E, Yilmaz, P, et al. (2013) The SILVA ribosomal RNA gene database project: improved data processing and web-based tools. Nucleic Acids Res 41, D590–D596.
Caporaso, JG, Bittinger, K, Bushman, FD, et al. (2010) PyNAST: a flexible tool for aligning sequences to a template alignment. Bioinformatics 26, 266–267.
Price, MN, Dehal, PS & Arkin, AP (2010) FastTree 2-approximately maximum-likelihood trees for large alignments. PLoS ONE 5, e9490.
Whiteley, LO, Higgins, JM, Purdon, MP, et al. (1996) Evaluation in rats of the dose–response relationship among colonic mucosal growth, colonic fermentation, and dietary fiber. Dig Dis Sci 41, 1458–1467.
Fang, L, Jiang, X, Su, Y, et al. (2014) Long-term intake of raw potato starch decreases back fat thickness and dressing percentage but has no effect on the longissimus muscle quality of growing-finishing pigs. Livest Sci 170, 116–123.
Wang, JF, Zhu, YH, Li, DF, et al. (2004)
In vitro fermentation of various fiber and starch sources by pig fecal inocula. J Anim Sci 82, 2615–2622.
Metzler-Zebeli, BU, Canibe, N, Montagne, L, et al. (2018) Resistant starch reduces large intestinal pH and promotes fecal lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in pigs. Animal 13, 64–73.
Pourabedin, M & Zhao, X (2015) Prebiotics and gut microbiota in chickens. FEMS Microbiol Lett 362, fnv122.
Vasaï, F, Brugirard Ricaud, K, Bernadet, MD, et al. (2014) Overfeeding and genetics affect the composition of intestinal microbiota in Anas platyrhynchos (Pekin) and Cairina moschata (Muscovy) ducks. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 87, 204–216.
Xiao, Y, Xiang, Y, Zhou, W, et al. (2017) Microbial community mapping in intestinal tract of broiler chicken. Poult Sci 96, 1387–1393.
Yacoubi, N, Saulnier, L, Bonnin, E, et al. (2018) Short-chain arabinoxylans prepared from enzymatically treated wheat grain exert prebiotic effects during the broiler starter period. Poult Sci 97, 412–424.
Molist, F, Manzanilla, EG, Pérez, JF, et al. (2011) Coarse, but not finely ground, dietary fibre increases intestinal Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio and reduces diarrhoea induced by experimental infection in piglets. Br J Nutr 108, 9–15.
Mulder, IE, Schmidt, B, Stokes, CR, et al. (2009) Environmentally-acquired bacteria influence microbial diversity and natural innate immune responses at gut surfaces. BMC Biol 7, 79.
Biddle, AS, Stewart, LC, Blanchard, JL, et al. (2013) Untangling the genetic basis of fibrolytic specialization by Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae in diverse gut communities. Diversity 5, 627–640.
Zeng, H, Huang, C, Lin, S, et al. (2017) Lotus seed resistant starch regulates gut microbiota and increases SCFAs production and mineral absorption in mice. J Agric Food Chem 65, 9217–9225.
Zhang, H, Dibaise, JK, Zuccolo, A, et al. (2009) Human gut microbiota in obesity and after gastric bypass. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106, 2365–2370.
Zhang, J, Guo, Z, Xue, Z, et al. (2015) A phylo-functional core of gut microbiota in healthy young Chinese cohorts across lifestyles, geography and ethnicities. ISME J 9, 1979–1990.
Sun, Y, Su, Y & Zhu, W (2016) Microbiome-metabolome responses in the cecum and colon of pig to a high resistant starch diet. Front Microbiol 7, 779.
Martinez, I, Kim, J, Duffy, PR, et al. (2010) Resistant starches types 2 and 4 have differential effects on the composition of the fecal microbiota in human subjects. PLoS ONE 5, e15046.
Walker, AW, Ince, J, Duncan, SH, et al. (2011) Dominant and diet-responsive groups of bacteria within the human colonic microbiota. ISME J 5, 220–230.
Duncan, SH, Louis, P & Flint, HJ (2004) Lactate-utilizing bacteria, isolated from human feces, that produce butyrate as a major fermentation product. Appl Environ Microbiol 70, 5810–5817.
Gophna, U, Konikoff, T & Nielsen, HB (2017)
Oscillospira and related bacteria – from metagenomics species to metabolic features. Environ Microbiol 19, 835–841.
Zhang, L, Wu, W, Lee, YK, et al. (2018) Spatial heterogeneity and co-occurrence of mucosal and luminal microbiome across swine intestinal tract. Front Microbiol 9, 48.
Peng, L, Li, Z, Green, RS, et al. (2009) Butyrate enhances the intestinal barrier by facilitating tight junction assembly via activation of amp-activated protein kinase in caco-2 cell monolayers. J Nutr 139, 1619–1625.
Vieira, EL, Leonel, AJ, Sad, AP, et al. (2012) Oral administration of sodium butyrate attenuates inflammation and mucosal lesion in experimental acute ulcerative colitis. J Nutr Biochem 23, 430–436.
Johansson, ME (2014) Mucus layers in inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis 20, 2124–2131.
Turner, JR (2009) Intestinal mucosal barrier function in health and disease. Nat Rev Immunol 9, 799–809.
Wang, HB, Wang, PY, Xin, W, et al. (2012) Butyrate enhances intestinal epithelial barrier function via up-regulation of tight junction protein claudin-1 transcription. Dig Dis Sci 57, 3126–3135.
Drucker, DJ & Yusta, B (2014) Physiology and pharmacology of the enteroendocrine hormone glucagon-like peptide-2. Annu Rev Physiol 76, 561–583.
Tappenden, KA, Albin, DM, Bartholome, AL, et al. (2003) Glucagon-like peptide-2 and short-chain fatty acids: a new twist to an old story. J Nutr 133, 3717.
Hu, XF, Guo, YM, Huang, BY, et al. (2010) The effect of glucagon-like peptide 2 injection on performance, small intestinal morphology, and nutrient transporter expression of stressed broiler chickens. Poult Sci 89, 1967–1974.
Gil-Cardoso, K, Comitato, R, Gines, I, et al. (2019) Protective effect of proanthocyanidins in a rat model of mild intestinal inflammation and impaired intestinal permeability induced by LPS. Mol Nutr Food Res 63, e1800720.
Amasheh, M, Fromm, A, Krug, SM, et al. (2010) TNFα-induced and berberine-antagonized tight junction barrier impairment via tyrosine kinase, Akt and NFκB signaling. J Cell Sci 123, 4145–4155.
Nathalie, F, Cécile, L, Pascale, H, et al. (2014) Interleukin-6 receptor shedding is enhanced by interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha and is partially mediated by tumor necrosis factor alpha-converting enzyme in osteoblast-like cells. Arthritis Rheum 52, 84–93.
Qian, Y, Zhao, X, Song, JL, et al. (2013) Inhibitory effects of resistant starch (RS3) as a carrier for stachyose on dextran sulfate sodiuminduced ulcerative colitis in C57BL/6 mice. Exp Ther Med 6, 1312–1316.
Zhou, ZY, Packialakshmi, B, Makkar, SK, et al. (2014) Effect of butyrate on immune response of a chicken macrophage cell line. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 162, 24–32.
Toden, S, Bird, AR, Topping, DL, et al. (2007) Dose-dependent reduction of dietary protein-induced colonocyte DNA damage by resistant starch in rats correlates more highly with caecal butyrate than with other short chain fatty acids. Cancer Biol Ther 6, 253–258.