Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Changes in milk composition in obese rats consuming a high-fat diet

  • C. J. Bautista (a1), S. Montaño (a2), V. Ramirez (a3), A. Morales (a1), P. W. Nathanielsz (a4), N. A. Bobadilla (a3) (a5) and E. Zambrano (a1)...

Abstract

Maternal obesity programmes offspring development. We addressed maternal obesity effects induced by high-fat diets on maternal mammary gland (MG) structure and function and offspring brain, liver and fat outcomes. Mothers were fed control (C, n 5) or obesogenic (MO, n 5) diet from the time they were weaned through pregnancy beginning at 120 d, through lactation. At offspring postnatal day (PND) 20, milk leptin and nutrients were determined. At the end of lactation, maternal liver and MG fatty acid profile were measured. Desaturase (Δ6D and Δ5D) and elongase (ELOVL 5 and ELOVL 2) protein was measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting (WB) in the liver and WB in the MG. In mothers, liver, MG and milk fat content were higher in MO than in C. Liver arachidonic acid (AA) and EPA and MG EPA were lower in MO than in C. Liver desaturases were higher in MO. The MG was heavier in MO than in C, with decreased Δ5D expression in MO. Desaturases and elongases were immunolocalised in parenchymal cells of both groups. Milk yield, water, carbohydrate content, EPA and DHA were lower, whereas milk leptin and AA were higher in MO than in C. At PND 21 and 36, brain weight was less and fat depots were greater in MO offspring than in C. MO decreased male absolute brain weight but not female absolute brain weight. In conclusion, maternal obesity induced by an obesogenic diet negatively affects maternal liver and MG function with the production of significant changes in milk composition. Maternal obesity adversely affects offspring metabolism and development.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Changes in milk composition in obese rats consuming a high-fat diet
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Changes in milk composition in obese rats consuming a high-fat diet
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Changes in milk composition in obese rats consuming a high-fat diet
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: E. Zambrano, email zamgon@unam.mx

References

Hide All
1. Zambrano, E & Nathanielsz, PW (2013) Mechanisms by which maternal obesity programs offspring for obesity: evidence from animal studies. Nutr Rev 71, Suppl 1, S42S54.
2. Waterland, RA & Garza, C (1999) Potential mechanisms of metabolic imprinting that lead to chronic disease. Am J Clin Nutr 69, 179197.
3. Vega, CC, Reyes-Castro, LA, Bautista, CJ, et al. (2013) Exercise in obese female rats has beneficial effects on maternal and male and female offspring metabolism. Int J Obes (Lond) 39, 712719.
4. Ke, DS (2006) Using “number needed to treat” to interpret treatment effect. Acta Neurol Taiwan 15, 120126.
5. Zhou, H, Kong, DH, Ma, R, et al. (2006) Store-operated Ca2+ channels in rat colonic smooth muscle cells. Chin J Appl Physiol 22, 220224.
6. Kong, DH, Zhou, H, Song, J, et al. (2006) Capacitative Ca2+ entry is involved in ACh-induced distal colon smooth muscle contraction in rats. Acta Physiol Sin 58, 149156.
7. Gocheva, V, Zeng, W, Ke, D, et al. (2006) Distinct roles for cysteine cathepsin genes in multistage tumorigenesis. Genes Dev 20, 543556.
8. Hall, B (1975) Changing composition of human milk and early development of an appetite control. Lancet i, 779781.
9. Grove, KL, Allen, S, Grayson, BE, et al. (2003) Postnatal development of the hypothalamic neuropeptide Y system. Neuroscience 116, 393406.
10. Knight, CH, Alamer, MA, Sorensen, A, et al. (2004) Metabolic safety-margins do not differ between cows of high and low genetic merit for milk production. J Dairy Res 71, 141153.
11. Bautista, CJ, Boeck, L, Larrea, F, et al. (2008) Effects of a maternal low protein isocaloric diet on milk leptin and progeny serum leptin concentration and appetitive behavior in the first 21 days of neonatal life in the rat. Pediatr Res 63, 358363.
12. Keen, CL, Lonnerdal, B, Clegg, M, et al. (1981) Developmental changes in composition of rat milk: trace elements, minerals, protein, carbohydrate and fat. J Nutr 111, 226236.
13. Rodriguez-Cruz, M, Tovar, AR, Palacios-Gonzalez, B, et al. (2006) Synthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in lactating mammary gland: role of Delta5 and Delta6 desaturases, SREBP-1, PPARalpha, and PGC-1. J Lipid Res 47, 553560.
14. Heird, WC & Lapillonne, A (2005) The role of essential fatty acids in development. Annu Rev Nutr 25, 549571.
15. Lauritzen, L, Hansen, HS, Jorgensen, MH, et al. (2001) The essentiality of long chain n-3 fatty acids in relation to development and function of the brain and retina. Prog Lipid Res 40, 194.
16. Diau, GY, Hsieh, AT, Sarkadi-Nagy, EA, et al. (2005) The influence of long chain polyunsaturate supplementation on docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid in baboon neonate central nervous system. BMC Med 3, 11.
17. Vernon, RG (2005) Lipid metabolism during lactation: a review of adipose tissue-liver interactions and the development of fatty liver. J Dairy Res 72, 460469.
18. Ganapathy, S (2009) Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and immunity in infants. Indian Pediatr 46, 785790.
19. Bell, AW (1995) Regulation of organic nutrient metabolism during transition from late pregnancy to early lactation. J Anim Sci 73, 28042819.
20. Koletzko, B, Agostoni, C, Carlson, SE, et al. (2001) Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) and perinatal development. Acta Paediatr 90, 460464.
21. Rodriguez-Cruz, M, Sanchez, R, Sanchez, AM, et al. (2011) Participation of mammary gland in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis during pregnancy and lactation in rats. Biochim Biophys Acta 1811, 284293.
22. Rodriguez, JS, Rodriguez-Gonzalez, GL, Reyes-Castro, LA, et al. (2012) Maternal obesity in the rat programs male offspring exploratory, learning and motivation behavior: prevention by dietary intervention pre-gestation or in gestation. Int J Dev Neurosci 30, 7581.
23. Torres, N, Bautista, CJ, Tovar, AR, et al. (2010) Protein restriction during pregnancy affects maternal liver lipid metabolism and fetal brain lipid composition in the rat. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 298, E270E277.
24. Bautista, CJ, Rodriguez-Gonzalez, GL, Torres, N, et al. (2013) Protein restriction in the rat negatively impacts long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid composition and mammary gland development at the end of gestation. Arch Med Res 44, 429436.
25. Turcksin, R, Bel, S, Galjaard, S, et al. (2014) Maternal obesity and breastfeeding intention, initiation, intensity and duration: a systematic review. Matern Child Nutr 10, 166183.
26. Amir, LH & Donath, S (2007) A systematic review of maternal obesity and breastfeeding intention, initiation and duration. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 7, 9.
27. Jevitt, C, Hernandez, I & Groer, M (2007) Lactation complicated by overweight and obesity: supporting the mother and newborn. J Midwifery Womens Health 52, 606613.
28. Bertics, SJ, Grummer, RR, Cadorniga-Valino, C, et al. (1992) Effect of prepartum dry matter intake on liver triglyceride concentration and early lactation. J Dairy Sci 75, 19141922.
29. Bell, AW & Bauman, DE (1997) Adaptations of glucose metabolism during pregnancy and lactation. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 2, 265278.
30. Kuhla, B, Kucia, M, Gors, S, et al. (2010) Effect of a high-protein diet on food intake and liver metabolism during pregnancy, lactation and after weaning in mice. Proteomics 10, 25732588.
31. Niculescu, MD, Lupu, DS & Craciunescu, CN (2013) Perinatal manipulation of alpha-linolenic acid intake induces epigenetic changes in maternal and offspring livers. FASEB J 27, 350358.
32. Rodriguez-Cruz, M, Sanchez, R, Bernabe-Garcia, M, et al. (2009) Effect of dietary levels of corn oil on maternal arachidonic acid synthesis and fatty acid composition in lactating rats. Nutrition 25, 209215.
33. Igal, RA, Mandon, EC & de Gomez Dumm, IN (1991) Abnormal metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids in adrenal glands of diabetic rats. Mol Cell Endocrinol 77, 217227.
34. Nakamura, MT & Nara, TY (2002) Gene regulation of mammalian desaturases. Biochem Soc Trans 30, 10761079.
35. López-Vicario, C, Rius, B, Morán-Salvador, E, et al. (2014) Molecular interplay between Δ5/Δ6 desaturases and long-chain fatty acids in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Gut 63, 344355.
36. Saben, JL, Bales, ES, Jackman, MR, et al. (2014) Maternal obesity reduces milk lipid production in lactating mice by inhibiting acetyl-CoA carboxylase and impairing fatty acid synthesis. PLOS ONE 9, e98066.
37. Anderson, SM, Rudolph, MC, McManaman, JL, et al. (2007) Key stages in mammary gland development. Secretory activation in the mammary gland: it’s not just about milk protein synthesis!. Breast Cancer Res 9, 204.
38. Varvikko, T, Vanhatalo, A, Jalava, T, et al. (1999) Lactation and metabolic responses to graded abomasal doses of methionine and lysine in cows fed grass silage diets. J Dairy Sci 82, 26592673.
39. Wattez, JS, Delmont, A, Bouvet, M, et al. (2015) Maternal perinatal undernutrition modifies lactose and serotranferrin in milk: relevance to the programming of metabolic diseases? Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 308, E393E401.
40. Houseknecht, KL, McGuire, MK, Portocarrero, CP, et al. (1997) Leptin is present in human milk and is related to maternal plasma leptin concentration and adiposity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 240, 742747.
41. Casabiell, X, Pineiro, V, Tome, MA, et al. (1997) Presence of leptin in colostrum and/or breast milk from lactating mothers: a potential role in the regulation of neonatal food intake. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82, 42704273.
42. Zambrano, E, Martinez-Samayoa, PM, Rodriguez-Gonzalez, GL, et al. (2010) Dietary intervention prior to pregnancy reverses metabolic programming in male offspring of obese rats. J Physiol 588, 17911799.
43. Reyes Castro, LA, Rodrigues Gonzalez, GL, Larrea, F, et al. (2014) Maternal resveratrol before and in pregnancy decreases hippocampal reactive oxygen stress and improves associative learning in male rat offspring of mothers fed an obesogenic diet. SGI 21, 365A (S-094).
44. Innis, SM (2004) Polyunsaturated fatty acids in human milk: an essential role in infant development. Adv Exp Med Biol 554, 2743.
45. Cetin, I & Koletzko, B (2008) Long-chain omega-3 fatty acid supply in pregnancy and lactation. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 11, 297302.

Keywords

Changes in milk composition in obese rats consuming a high-fat diet

  • C. J. Bautista (a1), S. Montaño (a2), V. Ramirez (a3), A. Morales (a1), P. W. Nathanielsz (a4), N. A. Bobadilla (a3) (a5) and E. Zambrano (a1)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed