1Albala, C, Vio, F, Kain, J, et al. (2001) Nutrition transition in Latin America: the case of Chile. Nutr Rev 59, 170–176.
2Amuna, P & Zotor, FB (2008) Epidemiological and nutrition transition in developing countries: impact on human health and development. Proc Nutr Soc 67, 82–90.
3Nagao, K & Yanagita, T (2010) Medium-chain fatty acids: functional lipids for the prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome. Pharmacol Res 61, 208–212.
4Steyn, NP, Mann, J, Bennett, PH, et al. (2004) Diet, nutrition and the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Public Health Nutr 7, 147–165.
5Lichtenstein, AH, Kennedy, E, Barrier, P, et al. (1998) Dietary fat consumption and health. Nutr Rev 56, S3–S19, .
6Aoyama, T, Nosaka, N & Kasai, M (2007) Research on the nutritional characteristics of medium-chain fatty acids. J Med Invest 54, 385–388.
7Ahrén, B (2000) Autonomic regulation of islet hormone secretion – implications for health and disease. Diabetologia 43, 393–410.
8Malaisse, WJ, Dunlop, ME, Mathias, PC, et al. (1985) Stimulation of protein kinase C and insulin release by 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-glycerol. Eur J Biochem 149, 23–27.
9Malaisse, WJ, Carpinelli, AR, Lebrun, P, et al. (1981) The stimulus-secretion coupling of amino acid-induced insulin release. IV. Ionic response to l-leucine and l-glutamine. Pflugers Arch 391, 112–118.
10MacDonald, PE, Joseph, JW & Rorsman, P (2005) Glucose-sensing mechanisms in pancreatic beta-cells. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 360, 2211–2225.
11Araujo, EP, Amaral, ME, Filiputti, E, et al. (2004) Restoration of insulin secretion in pancreatic islets of protein-deficient rats by reduced expression of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and IRS-2. J Endocrinol 181, 25–38.
12Pende, M, Kozma, SC, Jaquet, M, et al. (2000) Hypoinsulinaemia, glucose intolerance and diminished beta-cell size in S6K1-deficient mice. Nature 408, 994–997.
13Tuttle, RL, Gill, NS, Pugh, W, et al. (2001) Regulation of pancreatic beta-cell growth and survival by the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt1/PKBalpha. Nat Med 7, 1133–1137.
14Elghazi, L, Rachdi, L, Weiss, AJ, et al. (2007) Regulation of beta-cell mass and function by the Akt/protein kinase B signalling pathway. Diabetes Obes Metab 9, Suppl. 2, 147–157.
15Haber, EP, Procópio, J, Carvalho, CR, et al. (2006) New insights into fatty acid modulation of pancreatic beta-cell function. Int Rev Cytol 248, 1–41.
16Nogueira, TCA, Graciano, MF, Anhê, GF, et al. (2009) Short-term modulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase in pancreatic islets by glucose and palmitate: possible involvement of ceramide. Pancreas 38, 585–592.
17D'Aleo, V, Del Guerra, S, Martano, M, et al. (2009) The non-peptidyl low molecular weight radical scavenger IAC protects human pancreatic islets from lipotoxicity. Mol Cell Endocrinol 309, 63–66.
18Diakogiannaki, E, Dhayal, S, Childs, CE, et al. (2007) Mechanisms involved in the cytotoxic and cytoprotective actions of saturated versus monounsaturated long-chain fatty acids in pancreatic beta-cells. J Endocrinol 194, 283–291.
19Akerfeldt, MC & Laybutt, DR (2011) Inhibition of Id1 augments insulin secretion and protects against high-fat diet-induced glucose intolerance. Diabetes 60, 2506–2514.
20Nogueira, TCA, Anhê, GF, Carvalho, CR, et al. (2008) Involvement of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/AKT/PKCzeta/lambda pathway in the effect of palmitate on glucose-induced insulin secretion. Pancreas 37, 309–315.
21Haber, EP, Ximenes, HM, Procópio, J, et al. (2003) Pleiotropic effects of fatty acids on pancreatic beta-cells. J Cell Physiol 194, 1–12.
22Calder, PC, Jensen, GL, Koletzko, BV, et al. (2010) Lipid emulsions in parenteral nutrition of intensive care patients: current thinking and future directions. Intensive Care Med 36, 735–749.
23Bach, AC & BabayanV, K (1982) Medium-chain triglycerides: an update. Am J Clin Nutr 36, 950–962.
24Nebeling, LC & Lerner, E (1995) Implementing a ketogenic diet based on medium-chain triglyceride oil in pediatric patients with cancer. J Am Diet Assoc 95, 693–697.
25Diniz, YS, Faine, LA, Galhardi, CM, et al. (2005) Monosodium glutamate in standard and high-fiber diets: metabolic syndrome and oxidative stress in rats. Nutrition 21, 749–755.
26Diniz, YS, Faine, LA, Almeida, JA, et al. (2002) Toxicity of dietary restriction of fat enriched diets on cardiac tissue. Food Chem Toxicol 40, 1893–1899.
27Bordin, S, Boschero, AC, Carneiro, EM, et al. (1995) Ionic mechanisms involved in the regulation of insulin secretion by muscarinic agonists. J Membr Biol 148, 177–184.
28Marçal, AC, Grassiolli, S, da Rocha, DN, et al. (2006) The dual effect of isoproterenol on insulin release is suppressed in pancreatic islets from hypothalamic obese rats. Endocrine 29, 445–449.
29Folch, J, Lees, M & Sloane-Stanley, GH (1957) A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipides from animal tissues. J Biol Chem 226, 497–509.
30Hartman, L & Lago, RC (1973) Rapid preparation of fatty acid methyl esters from lipids. Lab Pract 22, 475–476 passim.
31Cardoso, AR, Carvalho, CR, Velloso, LA, et al. (2005) Effect of thiopental, pentobarbital and diethyl ether on early steps of insulin action in liver and muscle of the intact rat. Life Sci 76, 2287–2297.
32Lee, MY, Koh, JH, Nam, SM, et al. (2008) Short insulin tolerance test can determine the effects of thiazolidinediones treatment in type 2 diabetes. Yonsei Med J 49, 901–908.
33Crettaz, M, Prentki, M, Zaninetti, D, et al. (1980) Insulin resistance in soleus muscle from obese Zucker rats. Involvement of several defective sites. Biochem J 186, 525–534.
34Lund, S, Holman, GD, Schmitz, O, et al. (1995) Contraction stimulates translocation of glucose transporter GLUT4 in skeletal muscle through a mechanism distinct from that of insulin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92, 5817–5821.
35Hirabara, SM, Silveira, LR, Abdulkader, F, et al. (2007) Time-dependent effects of fatty acids on skeletal muscle metabolism. J Cell Physiol 210, 7–15.
36Hirabara, SM, Silveira, LR, Alberici, LC, et al. (2006) Acute effect of fatty acids on metabolism and mitochondrial coupling in skeletal muscle. Biochim Biophys Acta 1757, 57–66.
37Leighton, B, Budohoski, L, Lozeman, FJ, et al. (1985) The effect of prostaglandins E1, E2 and F2 alpha and indomethacin on the sensitivity of glycolysis and glycogen synthesis to insulin in stripped soleus muscles of the rat. Biochem J 227, 337–340.
38Lacy, PE & Kostianovsky, M (1967) Method for the isolation of intact islets of Langerhans from the rat pancreas. Diabetes 16, 35–39.
39Bradford, MM (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 72, 248–254.
40Nicoletti, I, Migliorati, G, Pagliacci, MC, et al. (1991) A rapid and simple method for measuring thymocyte apoptosis by propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. J Immunol Methods 139, 271–279.
41Ferreira, DS, Amaral, FG, Mesquita, CC, et al. (2012) Maternal melatonin programs the daily pattern of energy metabolism in adult offspring. PLoS One 7, e38795.
42Rothenberg, PL, Lane, WS, Karasik, A, et al. (1991) Purification and partial sequence analysis of pp 185, the major cellular substrate of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase. J Biol Chem 266, 8302–8311.
43Li, PM & Goldstein, BJ (1996) Cell density-dependent changes in the insulin action pathway: evidence for involvement of protein–tyrosine phosphatases. J Cell Biochem 61, 31–38.
44Kasai, M, Nosaka, N, Maki, H, et al. (2002) Comparison of diet-induced thermogenesis of foods containing medium- versus long-chain triacylglycerols. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 48, 536–540.
45Opara, EC, Garfinkel, M, Hubbard, VS, et al. (1994) Effect of fatty acids on insulin release: role of chain length and degree of unsaturation. Am J Physiol 266, E635–E639.
46Kashiwaya, Y, Pawlosky, R, Markis, W, et al. (2010) A ketone ester diet increases brain malonyl-CoA and uncoupling proteins 4 and 5 while decreasing food intake in the normal Wistar rat. J Biol Chem 285, 25950–25956.
47Iwata, K, Kinoshita, M, Yamada, S, et al. (2011) Involvement of brain ketone bodies and the noradrenergic pathway in diabetic hyperphagia in rats. J Physiol Sci 61, 103–113.
48Haas, RH, Rice, MA, Trauner, DA, et al. (1986) Therapeutic effects of a ketogenic diet in Rett syndrome. Am J Med Genet Suppl 1, 225–246.
49Trauner, DA (1985) Medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) diet in intractable seizure disorders. Neurology 35, 237–238.
50De Vogel-van den Bosch, J, van den Berg, SA, Bijland, S, et al. (2011) High-fat diets rich in medium- versus long-chain fatty acids induce distinct patterns of tissue specific insulin resistance. J Nutr Biochem 22, 366–371.
51Ahrén, B, Sauerberg, P & Thomsen, C (1999) Increased insulin secretion and normalization of glucose tolerance by cholinergic agonism in high fat-fed mice. Am J Physiol 277, E93–102.
52Chen, NG & Romsos, DR (1995) Enhanced sensitivity of pancreatic islets from preobese 2-week-old ob/ob mice to neurohormonal stimulation of insulin secretion. Endocrinology 136, 505–511.
53Ahrén, B & Lundquist, I (1982) Modulation of basal insulin secretion in the obese, hyperglycemic mouse. Metab Clin Exp 31, 172–179.
54Balbo, SL, Grassiolli, S, Ribeiro, RA, et al. (2007) Fat storage is partially dependent on vagal activity and insulin secretion of hypothalamic obese rat. Endocrine 31, 142–148.
55Del Rio, G, Procopio, M, Bondi, M, et al. (1997) Cholinergic enhancement by pyridostigmine increases the insulin response to glucose load in obese patients but not in normal subjects. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 21, 1111–1114.
56Boschero, AC, Szpak-Glasman, M, Carneiro, EM, et al. (1995) Oxotremorine-m potentiation of glucose-induced insulin release from rat islets involves M3 muscarinic receptors. Am J Physiol 268, E336–E342.
57Straub, SG & Sharp, GWG (2002) Glucose-stimulated signaling pathways in biphasic insulin secretion. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 18, 451–463.
58Yang, Y & Gillis, KD (2004) A highly Ca2+-sensitive pool of granules is regulated by glucose and protein kinases in insulin-secreting INS-1 cells. J Gen Physiol 124, 641–651.
59Stein, DT, Stevenson, BE, Chester, MW, et al. (1997) The insulinotropic potency of fatty acids is influenced profoundly by their chain length and degree of saturation. J Clin Invest 100, 398–403.
60Bach, A, Phan, T & Metais, P (1976) Effect of the fatty acid composition of ingested fats on rat liver intermediary metabolism. Horm Metab Res 8, 375–379.
61Hill, JO, Peters, JC, Swift, LL, et al. (1990) Changes in blood lipids during six days of overfeeding with medium or long chain triglycerides. J Lipid Res 31, 407–416.
62Cnop, M (2008) Fatty acids and glucolipotoxicity in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Biochem Soc Trans 36, 348–352.
63Haber, EP, Hirabara, SM, Gomes, AD, et al. (2003) Palmitate modulates the early steps of insulin signalling pathway in pancreatic islets. FEBS Lett 544, 185–188.
64Porzio, O, Federici, M, Hribal, ML, et al. (1999) The Gly972 → Arg amino acid polymorphism in IRS-1 impairs insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells. J Clin Invest 104, 357–364.
65Kulkarni, RN, Winnay, JN, Daniels, M, et al. (1999) Altered function of insulin receptor substrate-1-deficient mouse islets and cultured beta-cell lines. J Clin Invest 104, R69–R75.
66Medina, MC, Souza, LC, Caperuto, LC, et al. (2006) Dehydroepiandrosterone increases beta-cell mass and improves the glucose-induced insulin secretion by pancreatic islets from aged rats. FEBS Lett 580, 285–290.
67Briaud, I, Lingohr, MK, Dickson, LM, et al. (2003) Differential activation mechanisms of Erk-1/2 and p70(S6K) by glucose in pancreatic beta-cells. Diabetes 52, 974–983.
68Amaral, MEC, Cunha, DA, Anhê, GF, et al. (2004) Participation of prolactin receptors and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and MAP kinase pathways in the increase in pancreatic islet mass and sensitivity to glucose during pregnancy. J Endocrinol 183, 469–476.
69Boulton, TG, Nye, SH, Robbins, DJ, et al. (1991) ERKs: a family of protein-serine/threonine kinases that are activated and tyrosine phosphorylated in response to insulin and NGF. Cell 65, 663–675.
70Meloche, S & Pouysségur, J (2007) The ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway as a master regulator of the G1- to S-phase transition. Oncogene 26, 3227–3239.
71Bonner-Weir, S (2000) Life and death of the pancreatic beta cells. Trends Endocrinol Metab 11, 375–378.
72Rhodes, CJ (2005) Type 2 diabetes – a matter of beta-cell life and death? Science 307, 380–384.