1. Ng, M, Fleming, T, Robinson, M, et al. (2014) Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet 384, 766–781.
2. Johnson, BJ, Bell, LK, Zarnowiecki, D, et al. (2017) Contribution of discretionary foods and drinks to Australian children’s intake of energy, saturated fat, added sugars and salt. Children (Basel) 4, E104.
3. Sim, LA, Lebow, J, Wang, Z, et al. (2016) Brief primary care obesity interventions: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics 138, e20160149.
4. Wake, M (2018) The failure of anti-obesity programmes in schools. BMJ 360, k507.
5. Jacquier, M, Soula, HA & Crauste, F (2015) A mathematical model of leptin resistance. Math Biosci 267, 10–23.
6. Friedman, J (2014) 20 years of leptin: leptin at 20: an overview. J Endocrinol 223, T1–T8.
7. Santos, S, Severo, M, Lopes, C, et al. (2018) Anthropometric indices based on waist circumference as measures of adiposity in children. Obesity (Silver Spring) 26, 810–813.
8. Malik, VS, Pan, A, Willett, WC, et al. (2013) Sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain in children and adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 98, 1084–1102.
9. Gasser, CE, Mensah, FK, Russell, M, et al. (2016) Confectionery consumption and overweight, obesity, and related outcomes in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 103, 1344–1356.
10. Michels, KB & Schulze, MB (2005) Can dietary patterns help us detect diet–disease associations? Nutr Res Rev 18, 241–248.
11. Okubo, H, Crozier, SR, Harvey, NC, et al. (2015) Diet quality across early childhood and adiposity at 6 years: the Southampton Women’s Survey. Int J Obes (Lond) 39, 1456–1462.
12. Meyerkort, CE, Oddy, WH, O’Sullivan, TA, et al. (2012) Early diet quality in a longitudinal study of Australian children: associations with nutrition and body mass index later in childhood and adolescence. J Dev Orig Health Dis 3, 21–31.
13. Appannah, G, Pot, GK, Huang, RC, et al. (2015) Identification of a dietary pattern associated with greater cardiometabolic risk in adolescence. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 25, 643–650.
14. Durão, C, Severo, M, Oliveira, A, et al. (2017) Association between dietary patterns and adiposity from 4 to 7 years of age. Public Health Nutr 20, 1973–1982.
15. Durão, C, Severo, M, Oliveira, A, et al. (2015) Evaluating the effect of energy-dense foods consumption on preschool children’s body mass index: a prospective analysis from 2 to 4 years of age. Eur J Nutr 54, 835–843.
16. National Health and Medical Research Council (2013) Australian Dietary Guidelines. Canberra: National Health and Medical Research Council.
17. Norton, A & Monahan, K (2015) Wave 6 Weighting and Non-response, LSAC Technical Paper no. 15. Greenway: Australian Government Department of Social Services.
19. Soloff, C, Lawrence, D & Johnstone, R (2005) Sample Design, LSAC Technical Paper no. 1. Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies.
22. Australian Institute of Family Studies (2015) Longitudinal Study of Australian Children Data User Guide – November 2015. Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies.
23. Gasser, CE, Kerr, JA, Mensah, FK, et al. (2017) Stability and change in dietary scores and patterns across six waves of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Br J Nutr 117, 1137–1150.
25. Costello, AB & Osborne, JW (2005) Best practices in exploratory factor analysis: four recommendations for getting the most from your analysis. Pract Assess Res Eval 10, 1–9. http://pareonline.net/pdf/v10n7.pdf (accessed December 2017).
26. Kuczmarski, RJ, Ogden, CL, Guo, SS, et al. (2002) 2000 CDC growth charts for the United States: methods and development. Vital Health Stat 11, number 246, 1–190.
27. Blakemore, T, Strazdins, L & Gibbings, J (2009) Measuring family socioeconomic position. Aust Soc Pol 8, 121–168.
28. Renzaho, AM, Oldroyd, J, Burns, C, et al. (2009) Over and undernutrition in the children of Australian immigrants: assessing the influence of birthplace of primary carer and English language use at home on the nutritional status of 4–5-year-olds. Int J Pediatr Obes 4, 73–80.
29. Carskadon, MA & Acebo, C (1993) A self-administered rating scale for pubertal development. J Adolesc Health 14, 190–195.
30. WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group (2006) WHO Child Growth Standards: Length/Height-for-age, Weight-for-age, Weight-for-length, Weight-for-height and Body Mass Index-for-age: Methods and Development. Geneva: World Health Organization.
31. Australian Bureau of Statistics (2008) Information Paper: An Introduction to Socio-economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA), 2006, ABS Catalogue no. 2039.0. Belconnen: Australian Bureau of Statistics.
32. Gasser, CE, Mensah, FK, Kerr, JA, et al. (2017) Early life socioeconomic determinants of dietary score and pattern trajectories across six waves of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. J Epidemiol Community Health 71, 1152–1160.
33. Johnson, L, Mander, AP, Jones, LR, et al. (2008) Energy-dense, low-fiber, high-fat dietary pattern is associated with increased fatness in childhood. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 846–854.
34. Cutler, GJ, Flood, A, Hannan, PJ, et al. (2012) Association between major patterns of dietary intake and weight status in adolescents. Br J Nutr 108, 349–356.
35. Alsharairi, NA & Somerset, SM (2016) Skipping breakfast in early childhood and its associations with maternal and child BMI: a study of 2–5-year-old Australian children. Eur J Clin Nutr 70, 450–455.
36. Perry, CP, Keane, E, Layte, R, et al. (2015) The use of a dietary quality score as a predictor of childhood overweight and obesity. BMC Public Health 15, 581.
37. Ritchie, LD, Spector, P, Stevens, MJ, et al. (2007) Dietary patterns in adolescence are related to adiposity in young adulthood in black and white females. J Nutr 137, 399–406.
38. Golley, RK, Hendrie, GA & McNaughton, SA (2011) Scores on the dietary guideline index for children and adolescents are associated with nutrient intake and socio-economic position but not adiposity. J Nutr 141, 1340–1347.
39. Golley, RK, Smithers, LG, Mittinty, MN, et al. (2013) Diet quality of U.K. infants is associated with dietary, adiposity, cardiovascular, and cognitive outcomes measured at 7–8 years of age. J Nutr 143, 1611–1617.
40. Sanson, A, Nicholson, J, Ungerer, J, et al. (2002) Introducing the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC), Discussion Paper no. 1. Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies.
41. Dwyer, JT & Coleman, KA (1997) Insights into dietary recall from a longitudinal study: accuracy over four decades. Am J Clin Nutr 65, Suppl. 4, S1153–S1158.
42. Garaulet, M, Martínez, A, Victoria, F, et al. (2000) Difference in dietary intake and activity level between normal-weight and overweight or obese adolescents. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 30, 253–258.
43. Gasser, CE, Mensah, FK, Clifford, SA, et al. (2018) Parental health behaviour predictors of childhood and adolescent dietary trajectories. Public Health Nutr 21, 1874–1885.
44. Yoo, EG (2016) Waist-to-height ratio as a screening tool for obesity and cardiometabolic risk. Korean J Pediatr 59, 425–431.
45. Foster, E, Hawkins, A, Delve, J, et al. (2014) Reducing the cost of dietary assessment: self-completed recall and analysis of nutrition for use with children (SCRAN24). J Hum Nutr Diet 27, Suppl. 1, 26–35.
46. Bejar, LM, Sharp, BN & García-Perea, MD (2016) The e-EPIDEMIOLOGY mobile phone app for dietary intake assessment: comparison with a food frequency questionnaire. JMIR Res Protoc 5, e208.