1 Zutshi, RK, Singh, R, Zutshi, U, et al. (1985) Influence of piperine on rifampicin blood levels in patients of pulmonary tuberculosis. J Assoc Physicians India 33, 223–224.
2 Bano, G, Raina, RK, Zutshi, U, et al. (1991) The effect of piperine on bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of propanolol and theophylline in healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 41, 615–618.
3 Khajuria, A, Zutshi, U & Bedi, KL (1998) Permeability characteristics of piperine on oral absorption – an active alkaloid from peppers and a bioavailability enhancer. Indian J Exp Biol 36, 46–50.
4 Johri, RK, Thusu, N, Khajuria, A, et al. (1992) Piperine-mediated changes in the permeability of rat intestinal epithelial cells: status of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase activity, uptake of amino acids and lipid peroxidation. Biochem Pharmacol 43, 1401–1407.
5 Khajuria, A, Thusu, N & Zutshi, U (2002) Piperine modulates permeability characteristics of intestine by inducing alterations in membrane dynamics: influence on brush border membrane fluidity, ultra structure and enzyme kinetics. Phytomedicine 9, 224–231.
6 Lee, HJ, Larve, NJ & Wilson, BI (1971) A simple spectrophotometric assay for amino acyl arylamindases (naphthylamidases), aminopeptidases. Anal Biochem 41, 397–401.
7 Josefsson, L & Lindberg, T (1965) Intestinal dipeptides. Spectrophotometric determination and characterization of dipeptidase activity in pig intestinal mucosa. Biochim Biophys Acta 105, 149–161.
8 Indrani, N & Hill, PG (1977) Partial purification and some properties of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase from human bile. Biochim Biophys Acta 483, 57–62.
9 Vajreshwari, A, Srinivasa Rao, P, Kaplay, SS, et al. (1983) Erythrocyte membrane in rats fed high erucic acid containing mustard oil: osmotic fragility and lipid composition and Na+,K+-and Ca++,Mg++-ATPases. Biochem Med 29, 74–84.
10 Taussky, HH & Shorr, E (1953) A microcolorimetric method for the determination of inorganic phosphorus. J Biol Chem 202, 675–685.
11 Hubscher, C & West, GR (1965) Specific assays of some phosphatases in subcellular fractions of small intestinal mucosa. Nature 205, 799–800.
12 Lowry, OH, Rosebrough, NJ, Farr, AL, et al. (1951) Protein measurements with Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193, 265–275.
13 Kessler, M, Acuto, O, Storelli, C, et al. (1978) A modified procedure for the rapid precipitation of efficiency transporting vesicles from small intestine brush border membrane. Biochim Biophys Acta 506, 136–154.
14 Livshin, L, Mokady, S & Cogan, U (1987) Protein malnutrition and the function and fluidity of the intestinal microvillus membrane in growing rats. J Nutr 117, 684–688.
15 Folch, J, Lees, M & Sloane Stanley, GH (1957) A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipides from animal tissues. J Biol Chem 226, 497–509.
16 Searcy, RL & Bergquist, LM (1960) A new color reaction for the quantitation of serum cholesterol. Clin Chim Acta 5, 192–197.
17 Stewart, CJM (1980) Colorimetric determination of phospholipids with ammonium ferrothiocyanate. Anal Biochem 104, 10–14.
18 Daddow, LY (1983) A double lead stain method for enhancing contrast of ultra thin sections in electron microscopy, a modified multiple staining technique. J Microscopy 129, 147–153.
19 Dowdy, S & Weardew, S (1983) Statistics for Research. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
20 Goldstein, DB (1984) The effect of drugs on membrane fluidity. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 24, 43–64.
21 Esposito, G (1984) . In Pharmacology of Intestinal Permeation, pp. 283–308 [Csaky, TZ, editor]. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
22 Le Grimellec, C, Friedlander, G, Yanddouziel, HE, et al. (1991) Membrane fluidity and transport properties in epithelia. Kidney Int 42, 825–836.
23 Schachter, D (1985) . In Progress in Lipid–Protein Interactions, pp. 231–258 [Watts, A and De Point, JJHHM, editors]. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
24 McDonald, JK & Barrette, AJ (1986) . In Mammalian Proteinases. A Glossary and Bibliography, pp. 23–100 [McDonald, JK and Barrette, AJ, editors]. London: Academic Press.
25 Desnuelle, P (1979) Intestinal and renal aminopeptidase: a model of a transmembrane protein. Eur J Biochem 101, 1–11.
26 Ugolev, AM, Mityushova, NM, Egorova, VV, et al. (1979) Catalytic and regulatory properties of the triton and trypsin forms of brush border hydrolases. Gut 20, 737–742.
27 Shinitzy, M (1984) . In Physiology of Membrane Fluidity, vol. 1, pp. 1–51 [Shinitzky, M, editor]. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
28 Proulx, P (1991) Structure–function relationships in intestinal brush border membranes. Biochim Biophys Acta 1071, 255–271.
29 Singer, SJ (1992) The structure and function of membranes – personal memoir. J Membr Biol 129, 3–12.
30 Gupta, PD & Waheed, AA (1992) Effect of starvation on glucose transport and membrane fluidity in rat intestinal epithelial cells. FEBS Lett 300, 263–267.
31 Kaji, H, Horie, T, Hayashi, M, et al. (1985) Fluorescence study on the interaction of salicylate with rat small intestinal epithelial cells: possible mechanism for the promoting effect of salicylate on drug absorption in vivo. Life Sci 37, 523–530.
32 Pacilio, C, Florio, S, Pagnini, U, et al. (1998) Modification of membrane fluidity and depolarization by some anthracyclines in different cell lines. Anticancer Res 18, 4027–4034.
33 Shinitzky, M & Barenholz, Y (1978) Fluidity parameters of lipid regions determined by fluorescent polarization. Biochim Biophys Acta 515, 367–394.
34 Van Blitterswijk, WJ, Van Hoeven, RP & Van der Meer, BW (1981) Lipid structural order parameters (reciprocal of fluidity) in biomembranes derived from steady-state fluorescence polarization measurements. Biochim Biophys Acta 644, 323–332.
35 Van Blitterswijk, WJ, Van der Meer, BW & Hilkmann, H (1987) Quantitative contributions of cholesterol and the individual classes of phospholipids and their degree of fatty acyl unsaturation to membrane fluidity measured by fluorescence polarization. Biochemistry 26, 1746–1756.
36 Sawyer, WH (1988) . In Advances in Membrane Fluidity, pp. 161–191 [Aloia, AC, Curtain, CC and Gordon, LM, editors]. New York: Alan Liss.
37 Jain, MK & Wagner, RC (1980) . In Introduction to Biological Membranes, pp. 117–142 [Jain, MK and Wagner, RC, editors]. New York: John Wiley.
38 Carruthers, A & Melchior, DL (1983) Studies of the relationship between bilayer water permeability and bilayer physical state. Biochemistry 22, 5797–5807.
39 Wilson, ML & Dahlquist, FW (1985) Membrane protein conformational change dependent on the hydrophobic environment. Biochemistry 24, 1920–1928.
40 Brasitus, TA & Dudeja, PK (1985) Correlation of abnormal lipid fluidity and composition on rat ileal microvillus membranes in chronic streptozotocin induced diabetes by insulin therapy. J Biol Chem 260, 12405–12409.
41 Grisham, CM & Barnett, RE (1973) The role of lipid-phase transitions in the regulation of Na+,K+-ATPase. Biochemistry 12, 2635–2637.
42 Anner, BM (1985) Interaction of Na+,K+-ATPase with artificial membranes. Biochim Biophys Acta 822, 319–334.
43 Tanaka, R & Teruya, A (1973) Lipid dependence of activity–temperature relationship of (Na+,K+)-activated ATPase. Biochim Biophys Acta 323, 584–591.
44 Fortes, PAG (1991) . In International Symposium on Innovative Fluorescence Methodologies in Biochemistry and Medicine, September 23–26 p. 4. Rome.
45 Meddings, JB, Desouza, D, Goel, M, et al. (1990) Glucose transport and microvillus membrane physical properties along the crypt–villus axis of the rabbit. J Clin Invest 85, 1099–1107.
46 Yeagle, PL, Young, J & Rice, D (1988) Effects of cholesterol on Na+,K+-ATPase and ATP hydrolyzing activity in bovine kidney. Biochemistry 27, 6449–6452.
47 Mooseker, MS (1985) Organization, chemistry and assembly of cytoskeletal apparatus of the intestinal brush border. Annu Rev Cell Biol 1, 209–241.
48 Le Count, TS & Grey, RD (1972) Transient shortening of microvilli induced by cyclohexamide in the duodenal epithelium of chicken. J Cell Biol 53, 601–605.
49 Buschman, RJ (1983) Morphometry of the small intestinal enterocytes of the fasted rats and the effect of colchicines. Cell Tissue Res 231, 298–299.
50 Williamson, RCN (1978) Intestinal adaptation structural, functional and cytokinetic changes. N Engl J Med 298, 1393–1402.