Finkelstein, J (2003) The taste of boredom: McDonaldization and Australian food culture. Am Behav Sci
Uzogara, SG (2000) The impact of genetic modification of human foods in the 21st century: a review. Biotechnol Adv
Monteiro, CA, Moubarac, JC, Cannon, G, et al. (2013) Ultra-processed products are becoming dominant in the global food system. Obes Rev
14, Suppl. 2, 21–28.
Kearney, J (2010) Food consumption trends and drivers. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci
Espinel, P & Innes-Hughes, C (2013) Apparent Consumption of Selected Foods and Household Food Expenditure: Monitoring Update. Sydney: NSW Department of Health and the Physical Activity Nutrition Obesity Research Group.
Drewnowski, A & Popkin, BM (1997) The nutrition transition: new trends in the global diet. Nutr Rev
Popkin, BM (2001) The nutrition transition and obesity in the developing world. J Nutr
Drewnowski, A & Darmon, N (2005) The economics of obesity: dietary energy density and energy cost. Am J Clin Nutr
Australian National Medical and Health Research Council (NHMRC) (2013) Eat for Health: Australian Dietary Guidelines; Providing the Scientific Evidence for Healthier Australian Diets. Canberra: Department of Health and Ageing (National Mailing and Marketing).
Australian National Medical and Health Research Council (NHMRC) (1992) Dietary Guidelines for Australians. Canberra: Department of Health and Ageing (National Mailing and Marketing).
Harris, WS, Mozaffarian, D, Rimm, E, et al. (2009) Omega-6 fatty acids and risk for cardiovascular disease: a science advisory from the American Heart Association Nutrition Subcommittee of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism; Council on Cardiovascular Nursing; and Council on Epidemiology and Prevention. Circulation
Australian National Medical and Health Research Council (NHMRC) (2013) Australian Dietary Guidelines: Summary. Canberra: Department of Health and Ageing (National Mailing and Marketing).
Mattson, FH & Grundy, SM (1985) Comparison of effects of dietary saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in man. J Lipid Res
Grande, F, Anderson, JT & Keys, A (1970) Comparison of effects of palmitic and stearic acids in the diet on serum cholesterol in man. Am J Clin Nutr
Alvheim, AR, Torstensen, BE, Lin, YH, et al. (2014) Dietary linoleic acid elevates the endocannabinoids 2-AG and anandamide and promotes weight gain in mice fed a low fat diet. Lipids
Holman, R (1977) Essential fatty acids in human nutrition. In Function and Biosynthesis of Lipids, pp. 515–534 [Bazán, N, Brenner, R, Giusto, N, editors]. New York: Springer.
Das, UN (2006) Essential fatty acids: biochemistry, physiology and pathology. Biotechnol J
Salem, N, Pawlosky, R, Wegher, B, et al. (1999)
In vivo conversion of linoleic acid to arachidonic acid in human adults. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids
Emken, EA, Adlof, RO & Gulley, RM (1994) Dietary linoleic acid influences desaturation and acylation of deuterium-labeled linoleic and linolenic acids in young adult males. Biochim Biophys Acta
Burdge, GC & Calder, PC (2005) Conversion of alpha-linolenic acid to longer-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in human adults. Reprod Nutr Dev
Holman, RT (1971) Essential fatty acid deficiency. Prog Chem Fats Other Lipids
Hansen, AE, Wiese, HF, Boelsche, AN, et al. (1963) Role of linoleic acid in infant nutrition: clinical and chemical study of 428 infants fed on milk mixtures varying in kind and amount of fat. Pediatrics
Choque, B, Catheline, D, Rioux, V, et al. (2014) Linoleic acid: between doubts and certainties. Biochimie
Turpeinen, AM, Basu, S & Mutanen, M (1998) A high linoleic acid diet increases oxidative stress in vivo and affects nitric oxide metabolism in humans. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids
James, MJ, Gibson, RA & Cleland, LG (2000) Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory mediator production. Am J Clin Nutr
Furukawa, S, Fujita, T, Shimabukuro, M, et al. (2004) Increased oxidative stress in obesity and its impact on metabolic syndrome. J Clin Invest
Naughton, SS, Mathai, ML, Hryciw, DH, et al. (2013) Fatty acid modulation of the endocannabinoid system and the effect on food intake and metabolism. Int J Endocrinol
Cota, D, Marsicano, G, Tschop, M, et al. (2003) The endogenous cannabinoid system affects energy balance via central orexigenic drive and peripheral lipogenesis. J Clin Invest
Matias, I, Gonthier, MP, Orlando, P, et al. (2006) Regulation, function, and dysregulation of endocannabinoids in models of adipose and beta-pancreatic cells and in obesity and hyperglycemia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab
Moussavi, N, Gavino, V & Receveur, O (2008) Is obesity related to the type of dietary fatty acids? An ecological study. Public Health Nutr
Massiera, F, Barbry, P, Guesnet, P, et al. (2010) A Western-like fat diet is sufficient to induce a gradual enhancement in fat mass over generations. J Lipid Res
Massiera, F, Saint-Marc, P, Seydoux, J, et al. (2003) Arachidonic acid and prostacyclin signaling promote adipose tissue development. J Lipid Res
Madigan, C, Ryan, M, Owens, D, et al. (2000) Dietary unsaturated fatty acids in type 2 diabetes: higher levels of postprandial lipoprotein on a linoleic acid-rich sunflower oil diet compared with an oleic acid-rich olive oil diet. Diabetes Care
Simopoulos, AP (1994) Is insulin resistance influenced by dietary linoleic acid and trans fatty acids?
Free Radic Biol Med
Ramsden, CE, Zamora, D, Leelarthaepin, B, et al. (2013) Use of dietary linoleic acid for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and death: evaluation of recovered data from the Sydney Diet Heart Study and updated meta-analysis. BMJ
Vandevijvere, S, Monteiro, C, Krebs-Smith, SM, et al. (2013) Monitoring and benchmarking population diet quality globally: a step-wise approach. Obes Rev
14, Suppl. 1, 135–149.
Matthews, RH, Garrison, YJ & Pecot, RK (1975). Food Yields Summarized by Different Stages of Preparation, revised ed., . Washington, DC: US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service.
Sasaki, S & Kesteloot, H (1992) Value of Food and Agriculture Organization data on food-balance sheets as a data source for dietary fat intake in epidemiologic studies. Am J Clin Nutr
Serra-Majem, L, MacLean, D, Ribas, L, et al. (2003) Comparative analysis of nutrition data from national, household, and individual levels: results from a WHO-CINDI collaborative project in Canada, Finland, Poland, and Spain. J Epidemiol Community Health
Carden, TJ & Carr, TP (2013) Food availability of glucose and fat, but not fructose, increased in the U.S. between 1970 and 2009: analysis of the USDA food availability data system. Nutr J
Sheehy, T & Sharma, S (2011) The nutrition transition in the Republic of Ireland: trends in energy and nutrient supply from 1961 to 2007 using Food and Agriculture Organization food balance sheets. Br J Nutr
Sheehy, T & Sharma, S (2010) The nutrition transition in Barbados: trends in macronutrient supply from 1961 to 2003. Br J Nutr
Guerra, F, Paccaud, F & Marques-Vidal, P (2012) Trends in food availability in Switzerland, 1961–2007. Eur J Clin Nutr
Balanza, R, García-Lorda, P, Pérez-Rodrigo, C, et al. (2007) Trends in food availability determined by the Food and Agriculture Organization's food balance sheets in Mediterranean Europe in comparison with other European areas. Public Health Nutr
Schmidhuber, J (editor) 2007. .
Blundell, JE & Macdiarmid, JI (1997) Fat as a risk factor for overconsumption: satiation, satiety, and patterns of eating. J Am Diet Assoc
Popkin, BM, Siega-Riz, AM, Haines, PS, et al. (2001) Where's the fat? Trends in U.S. diets 1965–1996. Prev Med
De Haen, H, Stamoulis, K, Shetty, P, et al. (2003) The world food economy in the twenty-first century: challenges for international co-operation. Dev Policy Rev
Silventoinen, K, Sans, S, Tolonen, H, et al. (2004) Trends in obesity and energy supply in the WHO MONICA Project. Int J Obes
Vannice, G & Rasmussen, H (2014) Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: dietary fatty acids for healthy adults. J Acad Nutr Diet
Blasbalg, TL, Hibbeln, JR, Ramsden, CE, et al. (2011) Changes in consumption of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in the United States during the 20th century. Am J Clin Nutr
Hibbeln, JR, Nieminen, LR, Blasbalg, TL, et al. (2006) Healthy intakes of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids: estimations considering worldwide diversity. Am J Clin Nutr
The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia (1999)
NHMRC (2006) Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand: Including Recommended Dietary Intakes, . Canberra: National Health and Medical Research Council.
Dubnov-Raz, G & Berry, E (2008) High ω6:ω3 fatty acid ratio. In Wild-Type Food in Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, pp. 29–34 [Meester, F and Watson, R, editors]. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
Guggenheim, K & Kaufmann, N (1976) Nutritional health in a changing society: studies from Israel. World Rev Nutr Diet
Lee, JH, Ralston, RA & Truby, H (2011) Influence of food cost on diet quality and risk factors for chronic disease: a systematic review. Nutr Diet
Adam, O (1989) Linoleic and linolenic acids intake. In Dietary ω3 and ω6 Fatty Acids, pp. 33–41 [Galli, C and Simopoulos, A, editors]. New York: Springer.
Anonymous (2010) Fats and Fatty Acids in Human Nutrition: Report of an Expert Consultation: 10–14 November 2008. Geneva, Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Morgan, N (1993) World vegetable oil consumption expands and diversifies. Food Rev
O'Keefe, SF (2000) An overview of oils and fats, with a special emphasis on olive oil. In The Cambridge World History of Food, pp. 375–397 [Kiple, KF and Ornelas, KC, editors]. vol. 1, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2012) Australia's Food & Nutrition 2012. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.
Thornton, PK (2010) Livestock production: recent trends, future prospects. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci
Weill, P, Schmitt, B, Chesneau, G, et al. (2002) Effects of introducing linseed in livestock diet on blood fatty acid composition of consumers of animal products. Ann Nutr Metab
Crawford, M, Wang, Y, Lehane, C, et al. (2010) Fatty acid ratios in free-living and domestic animals. In Modern Dietary Fat Intakes in Disease Promotion, pp. 95–108 [De Meester, F, Zibadi, S and Watson, RR, editors]. New York: Humana Press.
van Vliet, T & Katan, MB (1990) Lower ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids in cultured than in wild fish. Am J Clin Nutr
George, R & Bhopal, R (1995) Fat composition of free living and farmed sea species: implications for human diet and sea-farming techniques. Br Food J
Abbott, SK, Else, PL, Atkins, TA, et al. (2012) Fatty acid composition of membrane bilayers: importance of diet polyunsaturated fat balance. Biochim Biophys Acta
Meyer, BJ, Mann, NJ, Lewis, JL, et al. (2003) Dietary intakes and food sources of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Lipids
Kris-Etherton, PM, Taylor, DS, Yu-Poth, S, et al. (2000) Polyunsaturated fatty acids in the food chain in the United States. Am J Clin Nutr
Harris, WS & Klurfeld, DM (2011) Twentieth-century trends in essential fatty acid intakes and the predicted omega-3 index: evidence versus estimates. Am J Clin Nutr
Dobson, A, Porteous, J, McElduff, P, et al. (1997) Whose diet has changed?
Aust NZ J Public Health
Williams, P & Droulez, V (2010) Australian red meat consumption – implications of changes over 20 years on nutrient composition. Food Aust
Sanders, TA (2000) Polyunsaturated fatty acids in the food chain in Europe. Am J Clin Nutr
Worsley, A, Blasche, R, Ball, K, et al. (2003) Income differences in food consumption in the 1995 Australian National Nutrition Survey. Eur J Clin Nutr
Brimblecombe, J & O'Dea, K (2009) The role of energy cost in food choices for an Aboriginal population in northern Australia. Med J Aust
Beatriz, CB, Sherry, S & Alexandra, M (2011) ‘You get the quickest and the cheapest stuff you can’: food security issues among low-income earners living with diabetes. Australas Med J
Mann, N, Pirotta, Y, O'Connell, S, et al. (2006) Fatty acid composition of habitual omnivore and vegetarian diets. Lipids
Quested, T, Ingle, R & Parry, A (2013) Waste and Resources Action Programme (WRAP): Household Food and Drink Waste in the United Kingdom 2012. Banbury: Waste and Resources Action Programme (WRAP).