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Associations of the Baltic Sea diet with cardiometabolic risk factors – a meta-analysis of three Finnish studies

  • Noora Kanerva (a1) (a2), Niina E. Kaartinen (a1), Harri Rissanen (a3), Paul Knekt (a3), Johan G. Eriksson (a1) (a4) (a5) (a6), Katri Sääksjärvi (a3), Jouko Sundvall (a1) and Satu Männistö (a1)...

Abstract

Dyslipidaemia, hypertension and low-grade inflammation increase the risk of CVD. In the present meta-analysis, we examined whether adherence to a healthy Nordic diet, also called the Baltic Sea diet, may associate with a lower risk of these cardiometabolic risk factors. In 2001–2007, three cross-sectional Finnish studies were conducted: the Dietary, Lifestyle and Genetic Determinants of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome study (n 4776); Health 2000 Survey (n 5180); Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (n 1972). The following parameters were assessed in these three studies: blood pressure, total, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, TAG and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP); a validated FFQ was used to assess the participants' dietary intakes. The Baltic Sea Diet Score (BSDS) was developed based on the healthy Nordic diet. All studies assessed confounding variables, such as physical activity and BMI, based on standardised questionnaires and measurements. The random-effects meta-analysis provided summary estimates for OR and 95 % CI by the BSDS quintiles. In the meta-analysis, the risk of elevated hs-CRP concentration was lower among men (OR 0·58, 95 % CI 0·43, 0·78) and women (OR 0·73, 95 % CI 0·58, 0·91) in the highest BSDS quintile than among those in the lowest BSDS quintile. In contrast, the risk of lowered HDL-cholesterol concentration was higher among women (OR 1·67, 95 % CI 1·12, 2·48) in the highest BSDS quintile than among those in the lowest BSDS quintile. However, no other associations were found. In conclusion, the associations between the adherence to the healthy Nordic diet and cardiometabolic risk factors are equivocal. Longitudinal studies are needed to further examine this hypothesis.

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Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: N. Kanerva, email noora.kanerva@thl.fi

References

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Associations of the Baltic Sea diet with cardiometabolic risk factors – a meta-analysis of three Finnish studies

  • Noora Kanerva (a1) (a2), Niina E. Kaartinen (a1), Harri Rissanen (a3), Paul Knekt (a3), Johan G. Eriksson (a1) (a4) (a5) (a6), Katri Sääksjärvi (a3), Jouko Sundvall (a1) and Satu Männistö (a1)...

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