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Associations of serum carotenoid concentrations with the metabolic syndrome: interaction with smoking

  • Minoru Sugiura (a1), Mieko Nakamura (a2), Kazunori Ogawa (a1), Yoshinori Ikoma (a1), Hikaru Matsumoto (a1), Fujiko Ando (a2), Hiroshi Shimokata (a2) and Masamichi Yano (a1)...

Abstract

Recent epidemiological studies show the associations of serum antioxidant status with the metabolic syndrome. Oxidative stress may play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes and CVD. Actually, smoking is a potent oxidative stressor in man, but little is known about the interaction of serum carotenoids and the metabolic syndrome with smoking status. In this study, the associations of the serum carotenoids with the metabolic syndrome stratified by smoking habit were evaluated cross-sectionally. A total of 1073 subjects (357 male and 716 female) who had received health examinations in the town of Mikkabi, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan, participated in the study. Among total subjects, the OR for the metabolic syndrome in the highest tertile of serum β-carotene was 0·41 (95 % CI 0·18, 0·92) after adjusting confounders. In current smokers, significantly lower OR were observed in the middle (OR 0·10; 95 % CI 0·01, 0·72) and highest (OR 0·06; 95 % CI 0·01, 0·73) tertiles of serum β-carotene. Furthermore, lower OR were observed in accordance with tertiles of serum α-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin in current smokers (P for trend 0·042 and 0·036, respectively). In contrast, in non-smokers, a significantly lower OR was observed in the highest tertile of serum β-carotene (OR 0·30; 95 % CI 0·10, 0·89) after multiple adjustment. Inverse associations of serum carotenoids with the metabolic syndrome were more evident among current smokers than non-smokers. These results support that antioxidant carotenoids may have a protective effect against development of the metabolic syndrome, especially in current smokers who are exposed to a potent oxidative stress.

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Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Dr Minoru Sugiura, fax +81 543 69 2115, email msugiura@affrc.go.jp

References

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