1. Pagidipati, NJ & Gaziano, TA (2013) Estimating deaths from cardiovascular disease: a review of global methodologies of mortality measurement. Circulation 127, 749–756.
2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011) Prevalence of coronary heart disease–United States, 2006–2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 60, 1377–1381.
3. Guarner, V & Rubio-Ruiz, ME (2015) Low-grade systemic inflammation connects aging, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Interdiscip Top Gerontol 40, 99–106.
4. Nagasaki, K, Hara, H, Ogawa, J, et al. (1986) Relationship between hyperinsulinemia and risk factors of atherosclerosis. Jpn J Med 25, 270–277.
5. Haffner, SM, Fong, D, Hazuda, HP, et al. (1988) Hyperinsulinemia, upper body adiposity, and cardiovascular risk factors in non-diabetics. Metabolism 37, 338–345.
6. Fournier, AM, Gadia, MT, Kubrusly, DB, et al. (1986) Blood pressure, insulin, and glycemia in nondiabetic subjects. Am J Med 80, 861–864.
7. Dandona, P, Aljada, A & Bandyopadhyay, A (2004) Inflammation: the link between insulin resistance, obesity and diabetes. Trends Immunol 25, 4–7.
8. Hensrud, DD (2004) Diet and obesity. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 20, 119–124.
9. Galland, L (2010) Diet and inflammation. Nutr Clin Pract 25, 634–640.
10. Mekki, K, Bouzidi-bekada, N, Kaddous, A, et al. (2010) Mediterranean diet improves dyslipidemia and biomarkers in chronic renal failure patients. Food Funct 1, 110–115.
11. Nimptsch, K, Brand-Miller, JC, Franz, M, et al. (2011) Dietary insulin index and insulin load in relation to biomarkers of glycemic control, plasma lipids, and inflammation markers. Am J Clin Nutr 94, 182–190.
12. Setorki, M, Nazari, B, Asgary, S, et al. (2011) Anti atherosclerotic effects of verjuice on hypocholesterolemic rabbits. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol 5, 1038–1045.
13. Pereira, MA, Jacobs, DR Jr, Pins, JJ, et al. (2002) Effect of whole grains on insulin sensitivity in overweight hyperinsulinemic adults. Am J Clin Nutr 75, 848–855.
14. Pereira, MA, Jacobs, DR Jr, Van Horn, L, et al. (2002) Dairy consumption, obesity, and the insulin resistance syndrome in young adults: the CARDIA Study. JAMA 287, 2081–2089.
15. Zhang, Z-F, Lu, J, Zheng, Y-L, et al. (2013) Purple sweet potato color attenuates hepatic insulin resistance via blocking oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress in high-fat-diet-treated mice. J Nutr Biochem 24, 1008–1018.
16. Mirmiran, P, Esfandiari, S, Bahadoran, Z, et al. (2015) Dietary insulin load and insulin index are associated with the risk of insulin resistance: a prospective approach in Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. J. Diabetes Metab Disord 15, 23.
17. Holt, S, Miller, J & Petocz, P (1997) An insulin index of foods: the insulin demand generated by 1000-kJ portions of common foods. Am J Clin Nutr 66, 1264–1276.
18. Bao, J, de Jong, V, Atkinson, F, et al. (2009) Food insulin index: physiologic basis for predicting insulin demand evoked by composite meals. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 986–992.
19. Bao, Y, Nimptsch, K, Meyerhardt, J, et al. (2010) Dietary insulin load, dietary insulin index, and colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 19, 3020–3026.
20. Pyörälä, K, Savolainen, E, Kaukola, S, et al. (1985) Plasma insulin as coronary heart disease risk factor: relationship to other risk factors and predictive value during 91/2‐year follow‐up of the Helsinki policemen study population. J Intern Med 218, 38–52.
21. Joslowski, G, Goletzke, J, Cheng, G, et al. (2012) Prospective associations of dietary insulin demand, glycemic index, and glycemic load during puberty with body composition in young adulthood. Int J Obes 36, 1463–1471.
22. Weidner, G (2000) Why do men get more heart disease than women? An international perspective. J Am Coll Health 48, 291–294.
23. Maas, A & Appelman, Y (2010) Gender differences in coronary heart disease. Neth Heart J 18, 598–603.
24. Saraf-Bank, S, Haghighatdoost, F, Esmaillzadeh, A, et al. (2017) Adherence to healthy eating index-2010 is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome and its features among Iranian adult women. Eur J Clin Nutr 71, 425–430.
25. Fard, NRP, Karimi, M, Baghaei, MH, et al. (2015) Dairy consumption, cardiovascular risk factors and inflammation in elderly subjects. ARYA Atheroscler 11, 323–331.
26. Mirmiran, P, Esfahani, FH, Mehrabi, Y, et al. (2010) Reliability and relative validity of an FFQ for nutrients in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Public Health Nutr 13, 654–662.
27. Azadbakht, L, Kimiagar, M, Mehrabi, Y, et al. (2007) Dietary soya intake alters plasma antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in postmenopausal women with the metabolic syndrome. Br J Nutr 98, 807–813.
28. Esmaillzadeh, A & Azadbakht, L (2011) Different kinds of vegetable oils in relation to individual cardiovascular risk factors among Iranian women. Br J Nutr 105, 919–927.
29. Bell K (2014) Clinical Application of the Food Insulin Index to Diabetes Mellitus. PhD thesis, University of Sydney, School of Molecular and Microbial Bioscience. http://hdl.handle.net/2123/11945 (accessed February 2019).
30. Matthews, D, Hosker, J, Rudenski, A, et al. (1985) Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and β-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Diabetologia 28, 412–419.
31. Katz, A, Nambi, SS, Mather, K, et al. (2000) Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index: a simple, accurate method for assessing insulin sensitivity in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85, 2402–2410.
32. Garmaroudi, GR & Moradi, A (2010) Socio-economic status in Iran: a study of measurement index. PAYESH 9, 137–144.
33. Collier, GR, Greenberg, GR, Wolever, TM, et al. (1988) The acute effect of fat on insulin secretion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 66, 323–326.
34. Gannon, MC, Nuttall, FQ, Neil, BJ, et al. (1988) The insulin and glucose responses to meals of glucose plus various proteins in type II diabetic subjects. Metab Clin Exp 37, 1081–1088.
35. Gannon, MC, Nuttall, FQ, Westphal, SA, et al. (1993) The effect of fat and carbohydrate on plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and triglycerides in normal male subjects. J Am Coll Nutr 12, 36–41.
36. Azadbakht, L & Esmaillzadeh, A (2009) Soy-protein consumption and kidney-related biomarkers among type 2 diabetics: a crossover, randomized clinical trial. J Ren Nutr 19, 479–486.
37. Chaput, J-P, Tremblay, A, Rimm, EB, et al. (2008) A novel interaction between dietary composition and insulin secretion: effects on weight gain in the Quebec Family Study. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 303–309.
38. McKeigue, P, Shah, B & Marmot, M (1991) Relation of central obesity and insulin resistance with high diabetes prevalence and cardiovascular risk in South Asians. Lancet 337, 382–386.
39. Ludwig, DS, Majzoub, JA, Al-Zahrani, A, et al. (1999) High glycemic index foods, overeating, and obesity. Pediatrics 103, E26.
40. Reaven, GM (1988) Role of insulin resistance in human disease. Diabetes 37, 1595–1607.
41. Liu, S, Manson, JE, Stampfer, MJ, et al. (2001) Dietary glycemic load assessed by food-frequency questionnaire in relation to plasma high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting plasma triacylglycerols in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 73, 560–566.
42. Rock, CL, Flatt, SW, Thomson, CA, et al. (2004) Plasma triacylglycerol and HDL cholesterol concentrations confirm self-reported changes in carbohydrate and fat intakes in women in a diet intervention trial. J Nutr 134, 342–347.
43. De Rekeneire, N, Peila, R, Ding, J, et al. (2006) Diabetes, hyperglycemia, and inflammation in older individuals: the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. Diabetes Care 29, 1902–1908.
44. Esposito, K, Marfella, R & Giugliano, D (2003) Stress hyperglycemia, inflammation, and cardiovascular events. Diabetes Care 26, 1650–1651.
45. Steele, RM, Brage, S, Corder, K, et al. (2008) Physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and the metabolic syndrome in youth. J Appl Physiol 105, 342–351.
46. Fedewa, MV, Gist, NH, Evans, EM, et al. (2014) Exercise and insulin resistance in youth: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics 133, e163–e174.
47. Strawbridge, RJ, Dupuis, J, Prokopenko, I, et al. (2011) Genome–wide association identifies nine common variants associated with fasting proinsulin levels and provides new insights into the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 60, 2624–2634.
48. Manning, AK, Hivert, M-F, Scott, RA, et al. (2012) A genome–wide approach accounting for body mass index identifies genetic variants influencing fasting glycemic traits and insulin resistance. Nat Genet 44, 659–669.
49. Wang, J, Wu, Z, Li, D, et al. (2012) Nutrition, epigenetics, and metabolic syndrome. Antioxid Redox Signaling 17, 282–301.
50. Alnasir, FA & Masuadi, EM (2006) The effect of loss of body weight on lipid profile in overweight individuals. Saudi Med J 27, 687–692.
51. Chang, Y, Sung, E, Yun, KE, et al. (2013) Weight change as a predictor of incidence and remission of insulin resistance. PLOS ONE 8, e63690.
52. Vasunilashorn, S (2013) Retrospective reports of weight change and inflammation in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. J Obes 2013, 601534.