(2002) The effect of five-year zinc supplementation on serum zinc, serum cholesterol and hematocrit in persons randomly assigned to treatment group in the age-related eye disease study: AREDS report no. 7. J Nutr 132, 697–702.
Andriollo-Sanchez, M, Hininger-Favier, I, Meunier, N, et al. (2005) Zinc intake and status in middle-aged and older European subjects: the Zenith Study. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, S37–S41.
Arnaud, J, Bellanger, J, Bienvenu, F, Chappuis, P & Favier, A (1986) Recommended method for assaying serum zinc with flame atomic absorption. Ann Biol Clin 44, 77–87.
Artacho, R, Ruiz-Lopez, MD, Gamez, C, Puerta, A & Lopez, MC (1997) Serum concentration and dietary intake on Zn in healthy institutionalized elderly subjects. Sci Total Environ 205, 159–165.
Black, MR, Medeiros, DM, Brunett, E & Welke, R (1988) Zinc supplements and serum lipids in young adult white males. Am J Clin Nutr 47, 970–975.
Bogden, JD, Oleske, JM, Lavenhar, MA, et al. (1988) Zinc and immunocompetence in elderly people: effects of zinc supplementation for 3 months. Am J Clin Nutr 48, 655–663.
Bonham, M, O'Connor, JM, McAnena, LB, Walsh, PM, Downes, CS, Hannigan, BM & Strain, JJ (2003) Zinc supplementation has no effect on lipoprotein metabolism, hemostasis, and putative indices of copper status in healthy males. Biol Trace Elem Res 93, 75–86.
Brown, KH (1998) Effect of infections on plasma zinc concentration and implications for zinc status assessment in low-income countries. Am J Clin Nutr 68, 425S–429S.
Brown, KH, Wuehler, SE & Peerson, J (2001) The importance of zinc in human nutrition and estimation of the global prevalence of zinc deficiency. Food Nutr Bull 22, 113–125.
Cashman, K & Flynn, TU (1998) Trace elements and bone metabolism. Bibl Nutr Dieta 54, 150–164.
Chandra, RK (1984) Excessive intake of zinc impairs immune responses. JAMA 252, 1443–1446.
Chevalier, CA, Liepa, G, Murphy, MD, Suneson, J, Vanbeber, AD, Gorman, MA & Cochran, C (2002) The effects of zinc supplementation on serum zinc and cholesterol concentrations in hemodialysis patients. J Ren Nutr 12, 183–189.
(1993) Reports of the Scientific Committee for Food (thirty-first series): Nutrient and Energy Intakes for the European Community. Luxembourg: Commission of the European Communities.
Coudray, C, Richard, MJ, Laporte, F, Faure, P, Roussel, AM & Favier, A (1992) Superoxide dismutase activity and zinc status: a study in animals and man. J Nutr Med 3, 13–26.
Crouse, SF, Hooper, PL, Atterbom, HA & Papenfuss, RL (1984) Zinc ingestion and lipoprotein values in sedentary and endurance trained men. JAMA 252, 785–787.
Dardenne, M (2003) Zinc and immune function. Eur J Clin Nutr 56, Suppl. 3, S20–S23.
(1999) Indagine Alimentare con Fotografie. Florence, Italy: Tierre Editions.
Disilvestro, R & Cousins, R (1983) Physiological ligands for copper and zinc. Ann Rev Nutr 3, 261–288.
Ekmekcioglu, C (2001) The role of trace elements for health of elderly individuals. Nahrung 45, 309–316.
(1984) Assessment of the Zinc Nutritional Status of the US Population Based on Data Collected in the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1976–1980. Bethesda, MD: Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology.
Folstein, MF, Folstein, SE & McHugh, PR (1975) Mini Mental State: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res 12, 189–198.
Fortes, C, Forastiere, F, Agabiti, N, et al. (1998) The effect of zinc and vitamin A supplementation on immune response in an older population. J Am Geriatr Soc 46, 19–26.
Fosmire, GJ (1990) Zinc toxicity. Am J Clin Nutr 51, 225–227.
Freeland-Graves, JH, Friedman, BJ, Han, WH, Shorev, RL & Young, R (1982) Effect of zinc supplementation on plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and zinc. Am J Clin Nutr 35, 992–998.
Girodon, F, Blache, D, Monget, AL, Lombart, M, Brunet-Lecompte, P, Arnaud, J, Richard, MJ & Galan, P (1997) Effect of a two-year supplementation with low doses of antioxidant vitamins and/or minerals in elderly subjects on levels of nutrients and antioxidant defense parameters. J Am Coll Nutr 16, 357–365.
Girodon, F, Galan, P, Monget, AL, Boutron-Ruault, MC, Brunet-Lecomte, P, Preziosi, P, Arnaud, J, Manuguerra, JC & Herchberg, S (1999) Impact of trace elements and vitamin supplementation on immunity and infections in institutionalized elderly patients: a randomized controlled trial. MIN. VIT. AOX. geriatric network. Arch Intern Med 159, 748–754.
Grzegorzewska, AE & Mariak, I (2001) Zinc as a marker of nutrition in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. Adv Perit Dial 17, 223–229.
Hart, EB, Steenbock, H, Waddell, J & Elvehjem, CA (2002) Iron in nutrition. VII. Copper as a supplement to iron for hemoglobin building in the rat. 1928. J Biol Chem 23, 277.
He, JA, Tell, GS, Tang, YC, Mo, PS & He, GQ (1992) Relation of serum zinc and copper to lipids and lipoproteins: the Yi People Study. J Am Coll Nutr 11, 74–78.
Hercberg, S, Bertais, S & Czernichow, S (2005) Alterations of the lipid profile after 7·5 years of low-dose antioxidant supplementation in the SU.VI.MAX Study. Lipids 40, 335–342.
Hiller, R, Seigel, D & Sperduto, D (1995) Serum zinc and serum lipid profile in 778 adults. AEP 6, 490–496.
Hooper, P, Visconti, L, Garry, P & Johnson, GE (1980) Zinc lowers high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. JAMA 244, 1960–1964.
Hyun, TH, Barrett-Connor, E & Milne, DB (2004) Zinc intakes and plasma concentrations in men with osteoporosis: the Rancho study. Am J Clin Nutr 80, 715–721.
James, WPT (2001) European diet and public health: the continuing challenge. Public Health Nutr 4, 275–292.
Junqueira, VB, Barros, SB, Chan, SS, Rodrigues, L, Giavarotti, L, Abud, RL & Deucher, GP (2004) Aging and oxidative stress. Mol Aspects Med 25, 5–16.
Le Moullec, N, Deheeger, M, Preziosi, P, et al. (1996) Validation of the photo manual used for the collection of dietary data in the SU.VI.MAX Study (article in French). Cah Nutr Diet 31, 158–164.
Lonnerdal, B (2000) Dietary factors influencing zinc absorption. J Nutr 130, 1378S–1383S.
McCord, JM & Fridovich, I (1969) Superoxide dismutase. An enzymatic function for erythrocuprein (hemocuprein). J Biol Chem 244, 6049–6055.
Maret, W & Sandstead, HH (2006) Zinc requirements and the risks and benefits of zinc supplementation. J Trace Elem Med Biol 20, 3–18.
Meunier, N, O'Connor, JM, Maiani, G, Cashman, KD, Secker, DL, Ferry, M, Roussel, AM & Coudray, C (2005) Importance of zinc in the elderly: the Zenith study. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, S1–S24.
Mocchegiani, E, Muzzioli, M & Giacconi, R (2000) Zinc and immunoresistance to infection in aging: new biological tools. Trends Pharmacol Sci 21, 205–208.
Moroni, F, Di Paolo, ML, Rigo, A, Cipriano, C, Giacconi, R, Recchioni, R, Marcheselli, F, Malavolta, M & Mocchegiani, E (2005) Interrelationship among neutrophil efficiency, inflammation, antioxidant activity and zinc pool in very old age. Biogerontology 6, 271–281.
O'Brien, KO, Zavaleta, N, Caulfield, LE, Wen, J & Abrams, SA (2000) Prenatal iron supplements impair zinc absorption in pregnant Peruvian women. J Nutr 130, 2251–2255.
Paik, H, Joung, H, Lee, JY, Lee, HK, King, JC & Keen, CL (1999) Serum extracellular superoxide dismutase activity as an indicator of zinc status in humans. Bio Trace Elem Res 69, 45–57.
Patterson, WP, Winkelmann, M & Perry, MC (1985) Zinc-induced copper deficiency: megamineral sideroblastic anemia. Ann Intern Med 103, 385–386.
Penny, ME, Marin, RM, Duran, A, Peerson, JM, Lanata, CF, Lonnerdal, B, Black, RE & Brown, KH (2004) Randomized controlled trial of the effect of daily supplementation with zinc or multiple micronutrients on the morbidity, growth, and micronutrient status of Peruvian children. Am J Clin Nutr 79, 457–465.
Peretz, A, Neve, J, Jeghers, O & Pelen, F (1993) Zinc distribution in blood components, inflammatory status, and clinical indexes of disease activity during zinc supplementation in inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Am J Clin Nutr 57, 690–694.
Polito, A, Intorre, F, Andriollo-Sanchez, M, et al. (2005 a) Estimation of intake and status of vitamin A, vitamin E and folate in older European adults: the Zenith study. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, S42–S47.
Polito, A, Meunier, N, Andriollo-Sanchez, M, et al. (2005 b) Screening and recruitment procedure of late-middle aged and older subjects: the Zenith study. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, S8–S12.
Rükgauer, M, Klein, J & Kruse-Jarres, JD (1997) Reference values for the trace elements copper, manganese, selenium and zinc in the serum/plasma of children, adolescents and adults. J Trace Elements Med Biol 11, 92–98.
Samman, S & Roberts, DC (1987) The effect of zinc supplements on plasma zinc and copper levels and the reported symptoms in healthy volunteers. Med J Aust 146, 246–249.
Samman, S & Roberts, DC (1988) The effect of zinc supplements on lipoproteins and copper status. Atherosclerosis 70, 247–252.
Sandstead, HH, Henriksen, LK, Greger, JL, Prasad, AS & Good, RA (1982) Zinc nutriture in the elderly in relation to taste acuity, immune response, and wound healing. Am J Clin Nutr 36, 1046–1059.
Sandstrom, B (2001) Micronutrient interactions: effects on absorption and bioavailability. Br J Nutr 85, Suppl. 2, S181–S185.
Savarino, L, Granchi, D, Ciapetti, G, Cenni, E, Ravaglia, G, Forti, P, Maioli, F & Mattioli, R (2001) Serum concentrations of zinc and selenium in elderly people: results in healthy nonagerians/centenarians. Exp Gerontol 36, 327–339.
Schmuck, A, Roussel, AM, Arnaud, J, Ducros, V, Favier, A & Franco, A (1996) Analyzed dietary intakes, plasma concentration of zinc, copper, and selenium and related antioxidant enzyme activities in hospitalized elderly women. J Am Coll Nutr 15, 462–468.
Singh, RB, Niaz, MA, Rastogi, SS, Bajaj, S, Gaoli, Z & Shoumin, Z (1998) Current zinc intake and risk of diabetes and coronary artery disease and factors associated with insulin resistance in rural and urban populations of North India. J Am Coll Nutr 17, 564–570.
Smith, JC, Makdani, D, Hegar, A, Rao, D & Douglass, LW (1999) Vitamin A and zinc supplementation with zinc of preschool children. J Am Coll Nutr 18, 213–222.
Solomons, NW (1986) Competitive interaction of iron and zinc in the diet: consequences for human nutrition. J Nutr 116, 927–935.
Spiemann, M, Spank, S, Kluge, A, Schappach, A & Kirch, W (2005) The pharmacokinetics of zinc from zinc gluconate: a comparison with zinc oxide in healthy men. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 43, 562–565.
Strain, JJ (1991) Disturbances of micronutrient and antioxidant status in diabetes. Proc Nutr Soc 50, 591–604.
(1994) Portions Alimentaires. Manuel Photo pour L'estimation des Quantités. Paris: Polytechnica Editions.
van Kampen, EJ & Ziljstra, WG (1961) Standardization of hemoglobinometry. II. The hemoglobincyanide method. Clin Chim Acta 6, 538–544.
Walker, CF, Kordas, K & Stoltzfus, RJ (2005) Interactive effects of iron and zinc on biochemical and functional outcomes in supplementation trials. Am J Clin Nutr 82, 5–12.
(1996) Trace Elements in Human Nutrition and Health. Geneva: World Health Organization.
(1998) Guidelines for Controlling and Monitoring the Tobacco Epidemic. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Yadrick, MK, Kenney, MA & Winterfeldt, EA (1989) Iron, copper, and zinc status: response to supplementation with zinc or zinc and iron in adult females. Am J Clin Nutr 49, 145–150.
Yesavage, JA, Brink, TL, Rose, TL, Lum, O, Huang, V, Adey, M & Leirer, VO (1983) Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: a preliminary report. J Psychiatr Res 17, 37–49.