2.World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (2007) Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective. Washington, DC: American Institute for Cancer Research.
Vergnaud, AC, Romaguera, D, Peeters, PH, et al. (2013) Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research guidelines and risk of death in Europe: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer cohort study 1, 4. Am J Clin Nutr 97, 1107–1120.
Lohse, T, Faeh, D, Bopp, M, et al. (2016) Adherence to the cancer prevention recommendations of the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research and mortality: a census-linked cohort. Am J Clin Nutr 104, 678–685.
5.Hastert, TA, Beresford, SA, Sheppard, L, et al. (2014) Adherence to the WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations and cancer-specific mortality: results from the Vitamins and Lifestyle (VITAL) Study. Cancer Causes Control 25, 541–552.
Romaguera, D, Vergnaud, AC, Peeters, PH, et al. (2012) Is concordance with World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research guidelines for cancer prevention related to subsequent risk of cancer? Results from the EPIC study. Am J Clin Nutr 96, 150–163.
Romaguera, D, Ward, H, Wark, PA, et al. (2015) Pre-diagnostic concordance with the WCRF/AICR guidelines and survival in European colorectal cancer patients: a cohort study. BMC Med 13, 107.
8.Hastert, TA & White, E (2016) Association between meeting the WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations and colorectal cancer incidence: results from the VITAL cohort. Cancer Causes Control 27, 1347–1359.
Romaguera, D, Gracia-Lavedan, E, Molinuevo, A, et al. (2017) Adherence to nutrition-based cancer prevention guidelines and breast, prostate and colorectal cancer risk in the MCC-Spain case–control study. Int J Cancer 141, 83–93.
Turati, F, Bravi, F, Di Maso, M, et al. (2017) Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research recommendations and colorectal cancer risk. Eur J Cancer 85, 86–94.
11.Makarem, N, Lin, Y, Bandera, EV, et al. (2015) Concordance with World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) guidelines for cancer prevention and obesity-related cancer risk in the Framingham Offspring cohort (1991–2008). Cancer Causes Control 26, 277–286.
Jones, P, Cade, JE, Evans, CEL, et al. (2018) Does adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute of Cancer Research cancer prevention guidelines reduce risk of colorectal cancer in the UK Women’s Cohort Study? Br J Nutr 119, 340–348.
Gregorieff, A, Pinto, D, Begthel, H, et al. (2005) Expression pattern of Wnt signaling components in the adult intestine. Gastroenterology 129, 626–638.
White, BD, Chien, AJ & Dawson, DW (2012) Dysregulation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in gastrointestinal cancers. Gastroenterology 142, 219–232.
Klaus, A & Birchmeier, W (2008) Wnt signalling and its impact on development and cancer. Nat Rev Cancer 8, 387–398.
Qi, J, Zhu, YQ, Luo, J, et al. (2006) Hypermethylation and expression regulation of secreted frizzled-related protein genes in colorectal tumor. World J Gastroenterol 12, 7113–7117.
Falzone, L, Scola, L, Zanghi, A, et al. (2018) Integrated analysis of colorectal cancer microRNA datasets: identification of microRNAs associated with tumor development. Aging (Albany NY) 10, 1000–1014.
Diosdado, B, van de Wiel, MA, Terhaar Sive Droste, JS, et al. (2009) MiR-17-92 cluster is associated with 13q gain and c-myc expression during colorectal adenoma to adenocarcinoma progression. Br J Cancer 101, 707–714.
19.Mills, SJ, Mathers, JC, Chapman, PD, et al. (2001) Colonic crypt cell proliferation state assessed by whole crypt microdissection in sporadic neoplasia and familial adenomatous polyposis. Gut 48, 41–46.
Malcomson, FC, Willis, ND, McCallum, I, et al. (2017) Effects of supplementation with nondigestible carbohydrates on fecal calprotectin and on epigenetic regulation of SFRP1 expression in the large-bowel mucosa of healthy individuals. Am J Clin Nutr 105, 400–410.
Bingham, SA, Gill, C, Welch, A, et al. (1997) Validation of dietary assessment methods in the UK arm of EPIC using weighed records, and 24-hour urinary nitrogen and potassium and serum vitamin C and carotenoids as biomarkers. Int J Epidemiol 26, Suppl. 1, S137–S151.
22.Kroke, A, Klipstein-Grobusch, K, Voss, S, et al. (1999) Validation of a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire administered in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study: comparison of energy, protein, and macronutrient intakes estimated with the doubly labeled water, urinary nitrogen, and repeated 24-h dietary recall methods. Am J Clin Nutr 70, 439–447.
23.World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (2011) Continuous Update Project Report: Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Colorectal Cancer. Washington, DC: American Institute for Cancer Research.
Liang, PS, Chen, TY & Giovannucci, E (2009) Cigarette smoking and colorectal cancer incidence and mortality: systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Cancer 124, 2406–2415.
25.Crawley, H, Mills, A, Patel, S, et al. (2002) Food Portion Sizes, 3rd ed. London: TSO.
26.Finglas, PM, Roe, MA, Pinchen, HM, et al. (2014) McCance and Widdowson’s The Composition of Foods, 7th summary ed. Cambridge, UK: The Royal Society of Chemistry.
27.Paul, AA & Southgate, DAT (1978) McCance and Widdowson’s The Composition of Foods, 4th revised and extended edition of MRC Special Report No. 297. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.
Haggar, FA & Boushey, RP (2009) Colorectal cancer epidemiology: incidence, mortality, survival, and risk factors. Clin Colon Rectal Surg 22, 191–197.
Miller, DM, Thomas, SD, Islam, A, et al. (2012) c-Myc and cancer metabolism. Clin Cancer Res 18, 5546–5553.
Stewart, J, Evan, G, Watson, J, et al. (1986) Detection of the c-myc oncogene product in colonic polyps and carcinomas. Br J Cancer 53, 1–6.
Li, Y, Wei, J, Xu, C, et al. (2014) Prognostic significance of cyclin d1 expression in colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies. PLOS ONE 9, e94508.
Mori, H, Yao, Y, Learman, BS, et al. (2016) Induction of WNT11 by hypoxia and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha regulates cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Sci Rep 6, 21520.
Kirikoshi, H, Sekihara, H & Katoh, M (2001) Molecular cloning and characterization of human WNT11. Int J Mol Med 8, 651–656.
Nishioka, M, Ueno, K, Hazama, S, et al. (2013) Possible involvement of Wnt11 in colorectal cancer progression. Mol Carcinog 52, 207–217.
Lustig, B, Jerchow, B, Sachs, M, et al. (2002) Negative feedback loop of Wnt signaling through upregulation of conductin/axin2 in colorectal and liver tumors. Mol Cell Biol 22, 1184–1193.
Yan, D, Wiesmann, M, Rohan, M, et al. (2001) Elevated expression of axin2 and hnkd mRNA provides evidence that Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is activated in human colon tumors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98, 14973–14978.
Shakoori, A, Ougolkov, A, Yu, ZW, et al. (2005) Deregulated GSK3beta activity in colorectal cancer: its association with tumor cell survival and proliferation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 334, 1365–1373.
Aune, D, Chan, DS, Lau, R, et al. (2011) Dietary fibre, whole grains, and risk of colorectal cancer: systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of prospective studies. BMJ 343, d6617.
Wong, NA & Pignatelli, M (2002) Beta-catenin--a linchpin in colorectal carcinogenesis? Am J Pathol 160, 389–401.
Dronamraju, SS, Coxhead, JM, Kelly, SB, et al. (2009) Cell kinetics and gene expression changes in colorectal cancer patients given resistant starch: a randomised controlled trial. Gut 58, 413–420.
Roncucci, L, Scalmati, A & Ponz de Leon, M (1991) Pattern of cell kinetics in colorectal mucosa of patients with different types of adenomatous polyps of the large bowel. Cancer 68, 873–878.
Anti, M, Marra, G, Armelao, F, et al. (1993) Rectal epithelial cell proliferation patterns as predictors of adenomatous colorectal polyp recurrence. Gut 34, 525–530.
Humphreys, KJ, Conlon, MA, Young, GP, et al. (2014) Dietary manipulation of oncogenic microRNA expression in human rectal mucosa: a randomized trial. Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 7, 786–795.
44.IJssennagger, N, Rijnierse, A, de Wit, N, et al. (2012) Dietary haem stimulates epithelial cell turnover by downregulating feedback inhibitors of proliferation in murine colon. Gut 61, 1041–1049.
Tapp, HS, Commane, DM, Bradburn, DM, et al. (2013) Nutritional factors and gender influence age-related DNA methylation in the human rectal mucosa. Aging Cell 12, 148–155.