1Roberfroid, M, Gibson, GR, Hoyles, L, et al. (2010) Prebiotic effects: metabolic and health benefits. Br J Nutr 104, Suppl. 2, S1–S63.
2Guigoz, Y, Rochat, F, Perruisseau-Carrier, G, et al. (2002) Effects of oligosaccharide on the faecal flora and non-specific immune system in elderly people. Nutr Res 22, 13–25.
3Fuller, Z, Louis, P, Mihajlovski, A, et al. (2007) Influence of cabbage processing methods and prebiotic manipulation of colonic microflora on glucosinolate breakdown in man. Br J Nutr 98, 364–372.
4Kolida, S, Meyer, D & Gibson, GR (2007) A double-blind placebo-controlled study to establish the bifidogenic dose of inulin in healthy humans. Eur J Clin Nutr 61, 1189–1195.
5Ramnani, P, Gaudier, E, Bingham, M, et al. (2010) Prebiotic effect of fruit and vegetable shots containing Jerusalem artichoke inulin: a human intervention study. Br J Nutr 104, 233–240.
6Kleessen, B, Schwarz, S, Boehm, A, et al. (2007) Jerusalem artichoke and chicory inulin in bakery products affect faecal microbiota of healthy volunteers. Br J Nutr 98, 540–549.
7Tuohy, KM, Kolida, S, Lustenberger, AM, et al. (2001) The prebiotic effects of biscuits containing partially hydrolysed guar gum and fructo-oligosaccharides – a human volunteer study. Br J Nutr 86, 341–348.
8Ramirez-Farias, C, Slezak, K, Fuller, Z, et al. (2009) Effect of inulin on the human gut microbiota: stimulation of Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Br J Nutr 101, 541–550.
9Louis, P, Young, P, Holtrop, G, et al. (2010) Diversity of human colonic butyrate-producing bacteria revealed by analysis of the butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase gene. Environ Microbiol 12, 304–314.
10Firmansyah, A, Pramita, G, Carrie-Fassler, A, et al. (2001) Improved humoral immune response to measles vaccine in infants receiving infant cereal with fructooligosaccharides. JPGN 31, A521.
11Bakker-Zierikzee, AM, Tol, EA, Kroes, H, et al. (2006) Faecal SIgA secretion in infants fed on pre- or probiotic infant formula. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 17, 134–140.
12Moro, G, Arslanoglu, S, Stahl, B, et al. (2006) A mixture of prebiotic oligosaccharids reduces the incidence of atopic dermatitis during the first six months of age. Arch Dis Child 91, 814–819.
13Scholtens, PAMJ, Alliet, P, Raes, M, et al. (2008) Faecal secretory immunoglobulin A is increased in healthy infants who receive a formula with short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides. J Nutr 138, 1141–1147.
14Seidel, C, Boehm, V, Vogelsang, H, et al. (2007) Influence of prebiotics and antioxidants in bread on the immune system, antioxidative status and antioxidative capacity in male smokers and non-smokers. Br J Nut 97, 349–356.
15Bunout, D, Hirsch, S, Pia de la Maza, M, et al. (2002) Effects of prebiotics on the immune response to vaccination in the elderly. JPEN 26, 372–376.
16Schiffrin, EJ, Thomas, DR, Kumar, VB, et al. (2007) Systemic inflammatory markers in older persons: the effect of oral nutritional supplementation with prebiotics. J Nutr Health Aging 11, 475–479.
17Langkamp-Henken, B, Bender, BS, Gardner, EM, et al. (2004) Nutritional formula enhanced immune function and reduced days of symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection in seniors. J Am Geriatr Soc 52, 3–12.
18Langkamp-Henken, B, Wood, SM, Herrlinger-Garcia, KA, et al. (2006) Nutritional formula improved immune profiles of seniors living in nursing homes. J Am Geriatr Soc 54, 1861–1870.
19Bunout, D, Barrera, G, Hirsch, S, et al. (2004) Effects of a nutritional supplement on the immune response and cytokine production in free-living Chilean elderly. JPEN 28, 348–354.
20Rafter, J, Bennett, M, Caderni, G, et al. (2007) Dietary synbiotics reduce cancer risk factors in polypectomized and colon cancer patients. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 488–496.
21Roller, M, Clune, Y, Collins, K, et al. (2007) Consumption of prebiotic inulin enriched with oligofructose in combination with the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium lactis has minor effects on selected immune parameters in polpectomised and colon cancer patients. Br J Nutr 97, 676–684.
22Furrie, E, Macfarlane, S, Kennedy, A, et al. (2005) Synbiotic therapy (Bifidobacterium longum/Synergy1) initiates resolution of inflammation in patients with active ulcerative colitis: a randomised controlled pilot trial. Gut 54, 242–249.
23Kotzampassi, K, Giamarellos-Bourboulis, EJ, Voudouris, A, et al. (2006) Benefits of a synbiotic formula (Synbiotic 2000Forte) in critically Ill trauma patients: early results of a randomized controlled trial. World J Surg 30, 1848–1855.
24Lomax, AR & Calder, PC (2009) Prebiotics, immune function, infection and inflammation: a review of the evidence. Br J Nutr 101, 633–658.
25Cummings, JH, Antoine, JM, Azpiroz, F, et al. (2004) PASSCLAIM – gut health and immunity. Eur J Nutr 43, Suppl. 2, II118–III73.
26Van Loo, J, Cummings, J, Delzenne, N, et al. (1999) Functional food properties of non-digestible oligosaccharides: a consensus report from the ENDO project (DGXII AIRII-CT94-1095). Br J Nutr 81, 121–132.
27EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (2011) Guidance on the scientific requirements for health claims related to gut and immune function. EFSA J 9, 1984.
28Meyer, D & Stasse-Wolthuis, M (2009) The bifidogenic effect of inulin and oligofructose and its consequences for gut health. Eur J Clin Nutr 63, 1277–1289.
29Menne, E, Guggenbuhl, N & Roberfroid, M (2000) Fn-type chicory inulin hydrolysate has a prebiotic effect in humans. J Nutr 130, 1197–1199.
30De Preter, V, Vanhoutte, T, Huys, G, et al. (2007) Effects of Lactobacillus casei Shirota, Bifidobacterium breve, and oligofructose-enriched inulin on colonic nitrogen-protein metabolism in healthy humans. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 292, G358–G368.
31Albers, R, Antoine, JM, Bourdet-Sicard, R, et al. (2005) Markers to measure immunomodulation in human nutrition intervention studies. Br J Nutr 94, 452–481.
32Flint, HJ (2011) Obesity and the gut microbiota. J Clin Gastroenterol 45, S128–S132.
33Tilg, H & Kaser, A (2011) Gut microbiome, obesity, and metabolic dysfunction. J Clin Invest 121, 2126–2132.
34Calder, PC, Ahluwalia, N, Brouns, F, et al. (2011) Dietary factors and low-grade inflammation in relation to overweight and obesity. Br J Nutr .
35Delzenne, NM, Neyrinck, AM & Cani, PD (2011) Modulation of the gut microbiota by nutrients with prebiotic properties: consequences for host health in the context of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Microb Cell Fact 10, Suppl. 1, S10.