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Julian Trevelyan, Walter Maclay and Eric Guttmann: drawing the boundary between psychiatry and art at the Maudsley Hospital

  • EILÍS KEMPLEY (a1)

Abstract

In 1938, doctors Eric Guttmann and Walter Maclay, two psychiatrists based at the Maudsley Hospital in London, administered the hallucinogenic drug mescaline to a group of artists, asking the participants to record their experiences visually. These artists included the painter Julian Trevelyan, who was associated with the British surrealist movement at this time. Published as ‘Mescaline hallucinations in artists’, the research took place at a crucial time for psychiatry, as the discipline was beginning to edge its way into the scientific arena. Newly established, the Maudsley Hospital received Jewish émigrés from Germany to join its ranks. Sponsored by the Rockefeller Foundation, this group of psychiatrists brought with them an enthusiasm for psychoactive drugs and visual media in the scientific study of psychopathological states. In this case, Guttmann and Maclay enlisted the help of surrealist artists, who were harnessing hallucinogens for their own revolutionary aims. Looking behind the images, particularly how they were produced and their legacy today, tells a story of how these groups cooperated, and how their overlapping ecologies of knowledge and experience coincided in these remarkable inscriptions.

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I would like to thank the Bethlem Museum of the Mind for access to their archives. This project was started at the University of Cambridge with the guidance of Alyce Mahon and Anna Gannon. Thanks to Chiara Ambrosio at University College London for putting me touch with Alice White at the Wellcome Institute, who was instrumental in guiding my work. Many thanks for the enlightening email correspondence from Philip Trevelyan, Anthony Penrose and Stanley Roman. I would also like to thank Sam Ereira, Alice Linnane and Rose Green for their comments on this paper.

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1 Hallucinogenic drugs (also referred to as hallucinogens) are substances which act on the brain to alter perception, mood and cognitive processes, often with accompanying somatic symptoms. The term itself is a misnomer, as their defining characteristic is not ‘hallucino-genesis’. Rather, their primary action is to alter consciousness, often in the absence of hallucinations. Hallucinogens are thought to act via the serotonin (5HT subtype 2A) receptor in the central nervous system. Other drugs that also cause hallucinations (amphetamines such as MDMA), but act via different mechanisms, and lack the same perceptual effects, are not classified as hallucinogens. There are two broad subtypes: the tryptamines (DMT, LSD and psilocybin) and phenethylamines (mescaline) which are thought to act on the 5HT2A receptors via different binding mechanisms. See Nichols, D., ‘Hallucinogens’, Pharmacology & Therapeutics (2004) 101, pp. 131181.

2 Huxley, A., The Doors of Perception, London: Chatto & Windus, 1954.

3 Guttmann, E. and Maclay, W., ‘Mescaline hallucinations in artists’, Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry (1941) 45(1), pp. 130137.

4 Julian Otto Trevelyan was born in Surrey, England, in 1910. Trevelyan initially read English at Trinity College, Cambridge, but left in the summer of 1931 to pursue a career as an artist. In Paris he became a student of surrealism, attending Léger and Ozenfant's Académie moderne, then the Grande Chaumière, and studying etching and engraving at the printmaker S.W. Hayter's atelier, where he worked alongside surrealist artists such as Max Ernst, André Masson and Joan Miró. In 1934, he returned to London. Trevelyan was officially associated with the British surrealist movement from 1936 to 1938. He contributed five artworks to the International Surrealist Exhibition at the Burlington Galleries in June 1936. He also attended meetings and wrote for surrealist journals, such as Eugene Jola's Transition. He later went on to lecture at Chelsea School of Art and taught etching at the Royal College of Art. For further biography see Trevelyan, Philip, Julian Trevelyan: Picture Language, Farnham: Ashgate, 2013.

5 Jones, C. and Galison, P., Picturing Science, Producing Art, New York: Routledge, 1998.

6 Sleigh, C. and Craske, S., ‘Art and science in the UK: a brief history and critical reflection’, Interdisciplinary Science Reviews (2017) 42(4), pp. 313330.

7 Griesemer, J., ‘Sharing spaces, crossing boundaries’, in Bowker, G.C., Timmermans, S., Clarke, A.E. and Balka, E. (eds.), Boundary Objects and Beyond: Working with Leigh Star, Boston, MA: MIT Press, 2016, p. 207, original emphasis.

8 Edgar, J. and Rahman, S., ‘The Maudsley Hospital and the Rockefeller Foundation: the impact of philanthropy on research and training’, Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences (2009) 64(3), pp. 273299.

9 Allerberger, F., ‘Julius Wagner-Jauregg (1857–1940)’, Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 2002 (72), p. 105.

10 E. Guttmann used the phrase ‘ugly sister’ in his textbook Psychological Medicine, Edinburgh: E. & S. Livingstone (1946), p. 59. Efforts made to rebrand psychiatry are described in Stewart, J., ‘The scientific claims of British child guidance, 1918–45’, BJHS (2009) 42(3), pp. 407432.

11 Sargent, W., Writing Naturally: A Memoir, London: University Press of New England, 2006, p. 35.

12 Unfortunately Edgar Jones did not include Matron Walker's full name. I would like to apologize for this and would welcome any further information from readers. Jones, E., ‘Aubrey Lewis, Edward Mapother and the Maudsley’, Medical History Supplement (2003) 22(3–38), pp. 338, 2.

13 Jones, E., Rahman, S. and Woolven, R., ‘The Maudsley Hospital: design and strategic direction, 1923–1939’, Medical History (2007) 51(3), pp. 357378.

14 F. Golla, S. Mann and R. Marsh, ‘The respiratory regulation in psychotic subjects’, Journal for Mental Science (1928), pp. 443–453; and Golla, F., ‘The organic basis of the hysterical syndrome’, Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine (1923) 16, pp. 111.

15 Sargent, op. cit. (11), p. 36. Please note, ‘leucotomy’, the surgical severing of neural connections, is also known as ‘lobotomy’.

16 Mapother was critical of psychoanalytical theory and its institutions, but employed the likes of John Sutherland, later director of the Tavistock Clinic. The full relationship between psychoanalysis and psychiatry at this time is beyond the scope of this article and has been addressed in more depth elsewhere. For an exploration of the complexities of this relationship see A. White, ‘The science of selection to psychologising civvy street: the Tavistock Group, 1939–1948’, PhD thesis, University of Kent, 2016.

17 Hayward, R., ‘Germany and the making of “English” psychiatry’, in Roelcke, Volker, Weindling, Paul J. and Westwood, Louise (eds.), International Relations in Psychiatry: Britain, Germany, & the United States to World War II, Rochester, NY and Woodbridge: University of Rochester Press, 2010, pp. 6791, 81.

18 Stokes, A., ‘The teacher’, Bethlem Maudsley Hospital Gazette (1960) 3(1), p. 13, quoted in Jones, op. cit. (12), pp. 3–38, 276.

19 Jones, op. cit. (12), pp. 17, 20.

20 Edgar and Rahman, op. cit. (8), p. 278.

21 Rockefeller Foundation, appropriation RF 38061, 15 January 1934, Folder 247, Box 18, Series 401A, RF1.1, RFA, cited in Edgar and Rahman, op. cit. (8), pp. 273–299.

22 Jones, op. cit. (12), pp. 20–21.

23 Lilz, T., ‘Adolf Meyer and the development of American psychiatry’, Occupational Therapy in Mental Health (1985) 5(3), pp. 3353, 37.

24 Angel, K., ‘Defining psychiatry: Aubrey Lewis's 1938 report and the Rockefeller Foundation’, Medical History Supplement (2003) 22, pp. 3956, 50.

25 Hilton, C., ‘A Jewish contribution to British psychiatry: Edward Mapother, Aubrey Lewis and their Jewish and refugee colleagues at the Bethlem and Maudsley Hospital and Institute of Psychiatry, 1933–66’, Jewish Historical Studies (2007) 41, pp. 209229.

26 Jaspers, K., General Psychopathology, translated from German by Hoenig, J. and Hamilton, W., Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997.

27 For Konrad Zucker see Hayward, op. cit. (17), p. 78. For William Mayer-Gross see Lewis, A., ‘William Mayer-Gross: an appreciation’, Psychological Medicine (1977) 7, pp. 1118. For Eric Guttmann see anon., obituary, BMJ, 8 May 1948, p. 908. For Adolf Beck see Jones, Rahman and Woolven, op. cit. (13), p. 374. For Eric Wittkower see Hilton, op. cit. (25), p. 213.

28 Freeman, H., ‘Gross, William Mayer (1889–1961), psychiatrist’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, at https://doi.org/10.1093/ref:odnb/51731, accessed September 2019.

29 Jaspers, K., Allgemeine Psychopathologie (General Psychopathology), Berlin: Springer, 1913 (translated into English 1963).

30 Sargent, op. cit. (11), p. 36.

31 Mayer-Gross described the of use of psychotomimetic drugs by the French psychiatrist Jacques-Joseph Moreau de Tours in 1845 and emphasized the importance of Kraepelin's more recent research in the introduction to W. Mayer-Gross, ‘Experimental psychoses produced by drugs’, BMJ, 11 August 1951, pp. 317–321. For details of Beringer's sixty-patient study see Beringer, K., Der Meskalinrausch: Seine Geschichte und Erscheinungsweise, Berlin: Julius Springer, 1927.

32 R. Stuart, ‘Modern psychedelic art's origins as a product of clinical experimentation’, Entheogen Review, March 2004, pp. 12–22, 165.

33 W. Mayer-Gross, E. Slater and M. Roth, Clinical Psychiatry, 1954, p. 270.

34 Anon., ‘Reversible nightmare’, Bethlem and Maudsley Hospital Gazette (1956) 2(5), Bethlem Archives, Mescaline Experiment Files, London.

35 E. Guttmann, ‘Letter to Dr Stephen’ (31 October 1936), Bethlem Archives, Mescaline Experiment Files, London.

36 Full quote from Ronald Arthur Robinson (nickname Sam) in interview with C. Hilton: ‘Mayer-Gross was a warm ebullient pyknic with a sparkling eye. A week or two after my arrival he invited me to come to his office at nine o'clock in the morning. My colleagues warned me that this would be for my statutory dose of LSD – and so it turned out; no ifs or buts. After the colourless and tasteless drink my reactions and sensations were monitored for the next four hours by MG, Robert Klein and (I think) John Raven, Director of Psychological Research. Among the various procedures was an EEG. My peers had regaled me the previous evening with expectations of vivid visual and tactile hallucinations, pictures sliding down walls and multiple delusions. To my disappointment none of these occurred; it was for me a complete non-event’.

37 Macgregor, J., ‘Hans Prinzhorn and the German contribution’, in Mcgregor, The Discovery of the Art of the Insane, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1989, pp. 185205. See also Brand-Claussen, B., Jádi, I. and Douglas, C., Beyond Reason: Hayward Gallery Exhibition Catalogue, London: Hayward Gallery, 1995, p. 8.

38 Prinzhorn, H., Die Bildnerei der Geisteskranken, Berlin: Springer, 1922. For details of Gruhle's tour see Brand-Claussen, Jádi and Douglas, op. cit. (37), p. 15.

39 Weyglant, W., ‘Kunst und Wahnsinn’ (Art and race), Die Woche (1921) 22, pp. 483485. Quoted in Brand-Claussen, Jádi and Douglas, op. cit. (37), p. 17.

40 Brand-Claussen, Jádi and Douglas, op. cit. (37), p. 20.

41 Guttmann, E. and Maclay, W., ‘Clinical observations on schizophrenic drawings’, British Journal of Medical Psychology (1937) 16, pp. 184205, 184.

42 The Twentieth Century German Art Exhibition, catalogue and exhibition flyer, 1938, Weiner Library, London.

43 British press response to Twentieth Century German Art, newspaper and date unknown, private collection, on loan to Weiner Library, London.

44 S. Star, ‘Revisiting ecologies of knowledge: work and politics in science and technology’, in Bowker et al., op. cit. (7), pp. 13–46, 19.

45 ‘Beauty will be CONVULSIVE or not at all’ is the closing passage of A. Breton, Nadja, tr. R. Howard, St Ives: Grove Press, 1999 (first published 1928). For photography of Charcot's hysterical patients see P. Régnard, Les attitudes passionelles, 1878 (tr. as Postures of Passion), originally in Iconographie de la Salpêtrière, reproduced in the surrealist journal La révolution surrealiste (1928) 11, pp. 20–22.

46 Haan, J., Koehler, P.J. and Bogousslavsky, J., ‘Neurology and surrealism: André Breton and Joseph Babinski’, Brain (2012) 135(12), pp. 38303838.

47 Breton, A., Entretiens (1913–52), Paris: Nouvelle revue française, 1952, translated as Conversations: The Autobiography of Surrealism (1913–1952), 1993, New York: Paragon, pp. 2021.

48 Breton, A., Manifestoes of Surrealism (trans. Seaver, R. and Lane, H.), Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1969, pp. 2223.

49 Conley, K., ‘Surrealism and outsider art: from the “automatic message” to André Breton's collection’, Yale French Studies (2006) 109, pp. 129143, 132.

50 Lomas, D., The Haunted Self: Surrealism, Psychoanalysis, Subjectivity, New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press, 2000, p. 63.

51 Röske, T. (ed.), Surrealism and Madness, exhibition catalogue, Heidelberg: Prinzhorn Gallery, 2009, p. 154.

52 Macgregor, op. cit. (37), p. 281.

53 Trevelyan, J., Indigo Days, Aldershot: Scolar, 1996, p. 68.

54 Jemison, A., ‘From deserted terrains to chaotic vistas: Julian Trevelyan's representations of British interwar urban and industrial decline’, Photography and Culture (2009) 2(1), pp. 729.

55 Balakian, A., ‘Breton and drugs’, Yale French Studies (1974) 50, pp. 96107.

56 Breton, op. cit. (47) quoted in Balakian, op. cit. (55), p. 99.

57 Breton: I have personal experience of the fact that automatic writing undertaken with any enthusiasm leads directly to visual hallucinations’, in Breton, A., Eluard, P. and Soupault, P., The Automatic Message (tr. Gasgoyne, D.), London: Atlas Press, 1997 (first published 1933), p. 30.

58 Macgregor, op. cit. (37), p. 282.

59 Poling, C.V., André Masson and the Surrealist Self, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2008, p. 43.

60 Röske, op. cit. (51), p. 156.

61 For instance, Lindsey Waters, executive editor at Harvard University Press, stated, ‘we are very interested in publishing translations of [Walter] Benjamin's work, but we can not undermine Benjamin's reputation by making him appear to be a drug addict’. This is discussed in more detail in Stuart, op. cit. (32), pp. 12–22.

62 A. Penrose, personal correspondence, 2018: ‘I recall he had no interest in drugs although he tried a sniff of cocaine which he described as too much like the dentist and smoked marijuana on one occasion. I don't believe it went further and he said he did not like the feeling of being interfered with by a chemical. Whiskey and wine was all he needed. His friend Julian Huxley was I believe known to experiment with LSD and I recall mescaline being talked about but not in the context of use by Roland or others close to him.’

63 Trevelyan, op. cit. (53), p. 75.

64 E. Guttmann, ‘Subjective experiences caused by mescaline (written on Saturday March 14th 1936)’, reprinted as Guttmann, E., ‘Artificial psychoses produced by mescaline’, Journal of Mental Science (May 1936) 82(338), pp. 203221.

65 Guttmann, E. and Maclay, W., ‘Mescaline and depersonalization: therapeutic experiments’, Journal of Neurological Psychopathology (1936) 16, pp. 193212, 202.

66 Beringer, K., Der Meskalinrausch: Seine Geschichte und Erscheinungsweise, Berlin: Julius Springer, 1927, is cited in Guttmann and Maclay, op. cit. (65), p. 2. Zucker, K., ‘Versuche mit Meskalin an Halluzinanten’, Zeitschrift für die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie (1930) 127(1), pp. 108161, is cited in Guttmann and Maclay, op. cit. (65). Klüver, H., Mescal: The ‘Divine’ Plant and Its Psychological Effects, London: Kegan Paul, 1928, is cited in Guttmann and Maclay, op. cit. (3). Further of his works include Klüver, H., Mescal and Mechanisms of Hallucinations, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1966. Mayer-Gross, W. and Stein, J., ‘Psychopathologie unter Klinik der Trug-Wahrnehmungen’, in Bumke, O., Handbuch der Geisteskrankheiten, Berlin: Julius Springer, 1928, pp. 205247, which is cited in Guttmann and Maclay, op. cit. (3). See also Zador, J., ‘Dr Lachgas (NO2) Rausch in seiner Bedeutung fur Neurologie und Psychiatry’, Archiv für die gesamte Psychologie (1928) 84(1).

67 Marshall, C.R., ‘An enquiry into the causes of mescal vision’, Journal of Neurology and Psychopathology (1937) 17, pp. 289304, 289, cited in Guttmann and Maclay, op. cit. (3). See also Claude, H. and Ey, H., ‘La mescaline, substance hallucinogène’, Comptes rendus des séances et mémoires de la Société de Biologie (1934) 115, pp. 838841. Cited in Guttmann and Maclay, op. cit. (65).

68 Cesare Lombroso was the most prominent exponent of the ‘genius–insanity theory’ in the nineteenth century. See ‘Cesare Lombroso: the theory of genius and insanity’, in MacGregor, op. cit. (37), pp. 91–102. For discussion of collections that pre-date this see Röske, op. cit. (51), p. 154.

69 Library Services Institute of Psychiatry reorganization of pre-1992 book stock discussion document (September 2011), at www.kcl.ac.uk/library/transformation/IoPpre1992reorg.pdf, accessed March 2018.

70 Guttmann and Maclay, op. cit. (41). Maclay, W.S., Guttmann, E. and Mayer-Gross, W., ‘Spontaneous drawings as an approach to some problems of psychopathology’, Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine (1938) 31(11), pp. 13371350.

71 Cummings, C., ‘The science of therapeutic images: schizophrenia and postwar psychiatric art at the Maudsley and Netherne Hospitals’, History of the Human Sciences (2017) 30(2), pp. 6987.

72 Guttmann and Maclay, op. cit. (3), p. 130.

73 S. Roman, ‘Art therapy and its relationship to clinical investigations’, unpublished thesis, Goldsmiths College, 1986; along with personal communication with S. Roman.

74 Waller, D., Becoming a Profession: The History of Art Therapy in Britain 1940–82, London: Routledge, 1991, p. 28.

75 Hogan, S., Healing Arts: The History of Art Therapy, London: Jessica Kingsley, 2000, p. 166.

76 Maclay, Guttmann and Mayer-Gross, op. cit. (70), p. 1337.

77 Trevelyan, op. cit. (53), p. 74.

78 J. Trevelyan, quoted in Trevelyan, op. cit. (4), p. 44.

79 Jemison, A., ‘When will we have sleeping logicians, sleeping philosophers? Julian Trevelyan in pursuit of a super-reality’, Visual Culture in Britain (2008) 9(1), pp. 101121.

80 Trevelyan, op. cit. (4), p. 80.

81 Trevelyan, op. cit. (53), pp. 75–76.

82 Manser, José, Mary Fedden and Julian Trevelyan: Life and Art by the River Thames, London: Unicorn Press, 2012, p. 7.

83 Trevelyan Trinity College Archives, Wren Library, Cambridge.

84 Trevelyan, op. cit. (53), p. 74.

85 S. Star, ‘The structure of ill-structured solutions: boundary objects and heterogeneous distributed problem solving’, in Bowker et al., op. cit. (7), pp. 243–262, 256.

86 ‘It is probable that disturbances in cognitive processes as a result of cognitive deficits (i.e., bottom-up factors) and cognitive bias factors (top-down factors) are both responsible for hallucinations’. from Kumar, S., Subhash, S. and Suprakash, C., ‘Hallucinations: aetiology and clinical implications’, Industrial Psychiatry Journal (2009) 18(2), pp. 119125.

87 Not all their observations remain valid. One of the physiological stimuli Guttmann and Maclay describe is the visualization of one's own retinal vessels. In their paper they compare one of the artist's drawings with maps of retinal vessels. We know retinal vessels are unlikely to contribute to hallucinations, as shown by Smythies, J.R., ‘The stroboscopic patterns’, British Journal of Psychology (1960) 51(3), pp. 250251.

88 Mapother quoted in Lewis, A., The Later Papers of Sir Aubrey Lewis, 1900–1975, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979, p. 148.

89 Berge, J., ‘Breakdown or breakthrough? A history of European research into drugs and creativity’, Journal of Creative Behavior (1999) 32(4), pp. 257276.

90 Leuner, H., Die experimentelle Psychose, Berlin: Springer, 1962, cited in Hartmann, R., Malerei aus Bereichen des Unbewussten: Künstler experimentieren unter LSD, Cologne: DuMont, 1974.

91 Cummings, op. cit. (71), pp. 69–87.

92 Ffytche, D. and Howard, R., ‘The perceptual consequences of visual loss: “positive” pathologies of vision’, Brain (1999) 122(7), pp. 12471260.

93 Schott, G., ‘Exploring the visual hallucinations of migraine aura: the tacit contribution of illustration’, Brain (2007) 130(6), pp. 16901703, 1690.

94 S. Star, ‘Living grounded theory: cognitive and emotional forms of pragmatism’, in Bowker et al., op. cit. (7), pp. 121–142, 121.

95 Stahnisch, F. and Russell, G. (eds.), Forced Migration in the History of 20th Century Neuroscience and Psychiatry, Oxford: Routledge, 2017.

96 Anon., obituary, op. cit. (27). See also R. Trail, ‘Walter Symington Maclay’, Munks Roll, Royal College of Psychiatrists, at http://munksroll.rcplondon.ac.uk/Biography/Details/2879, accessed September 2019.

97 Hogan, op. cit. (75), p. 184.

98 Slater, E. in Wilkinson, G. (ed.), Talking about Psychiatry, London: Gaskell, pp. 8, 15.

99 Colin Gale (director of the Bethlem Museum of the Mind), email correspondence, November 2018.

100 Jemison, A.J., ‘Barrenness and abjection? The iconography of the wasteland in the photographs and collages of Julian Trevelyan, 1937–1938’, Visual Resources (2009) 25(3), pp. 169191. Jemison, op. cit. (54) pp. 7–29. Jemison, A.J., ‘Photographing the everyday surreal: Julian Trevelyan's portrayals of British ritualistic behaviour 1937–39’, History of Photography (2011) 35(3), pp. 296312. Jemison, op. cit. (79), pp. 101–121.

101 Dickie, G., ‘Defining art’, American Philosophical Quarterly (1969) 6(3), pp. 253256, 254.

102 Danto, A., ‘The artworld’, Journal of Philosophy (1964) 61(19), pp. 571584, 580.

103 Sheikh, S., ‘Spaces for thinking: perspectives on the art academy’, Texte zur Kunst (2006) 26, pp. 191196, quoted in Sleigh, C., ‘Contexts of encounter: how and where to criticise art and science’, Journal of Literature and Science (2017) 10(2), pp. 106112, 109.

104 S.L. Star, ‘Power, technology, and the phenomenology of conventions: on being allergic to onions’, in Bowker et al., op. cit. (7), pp. 263–290, 284.

105 Lynch, M., ‘The production of scientific images: vision and re-vision in the history, philosophy, and sociology of science’, in Pauwels, L. (ed.), Visual Cultures of Science, Hanover: Dartmouth College Press, 2006, pp. 2640, 37.

106 See Dr Leo Navratil's criteria in Cardinal, R., Outsider Art, London: Studio Vista, 1972. See also Guttmann, E. and Maclay, W., ‘Clinical observations on schizophrenic drawings’, British Journal of Medical Psychology (1937) 16, pp. 184205, for discussion of typical features of schizophrenic art.

107 Hentschel, K., Visual Cultures in Science and Technology: A Comparative History, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.

108 Lomas, D., ‘Becoming machine: surrealist automatism and some contemporary instances’, Tate Papers (2012) 18, at www.tate.org.uk/research/publications/tate-papers/18/becoming-machinesurrealist-automatism-and-some-contemporary-instances, accessed September 2019.

109 J. Snyder, ‘Visualization and visuality’ in Jones and Galison, op. cit. (5), pp. 379–397, 379.

110 Marey, E.J., La méthode graphique dans les sciences expérimentales et particulièrement en physiologie et en médecine, Paris: Masson, 1878, p. 108, quoted in Jones and Galison, op. cit. (5), p. 380.

111 Lomas, op. cit. (108).

112 Dror, O., ‘The scientific image of emotion: experience and technologies of inscription’, Configurations (1999) 7(3), pp. 355401.

113 Jemison, op. cit. (79), p. 106.

114 MacGregor, op. cit. (37), p. 290.

115 S. Star, ‘Revisiting ecologies of knowledge: work and politics in science and technology’, in Bowker et al., op. cit. (7), pp. 13–46, 18, 34, 126.

I would like to thank the Bethlem Museum of the Mind for access to their archives. This project was started at the University of Cambridge with the guidance of Alyce Mahon and Anna Gannon. Thanks to Chiara Ambrosio at University College London for putting me touch with Alice White at the Wellcome Institute, who was instrumental in guiding my work. Many thanks for the enlightening email correspondence from Philip Trevelyan, Anthony Penrose and Stanley Roman. I would also like to thank Sam Ereira, Alice Linnane and Rose Green for their comments on this paper.

Julian Trevelyan, Walter Maclay and Eric Guttmann: drawing the boundary between psychiatry and art at the Maudsley Hospital

  • EILÍS KEMPLEY (a1)

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