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Eleanor Ormerod (1828–1901) as an economic entomologist: ‘pioneer of purity even more than of Paris Green’

  • J. F. McDiarmid Clark (a1)


In 1924, Virginia Woolf wrote a short story based upon the life of Eleanor Ormerod. A wealthy spinster, Ormerod achieved notoriety in late nineteenth-century Britain as an economic entomologist. In 1904, Nature compared her to Caroline Herschel and Mary Somerville. In terms of recent scholarship devoted to the history of women in science, Ormerod's career differed markedly from that of her two predecessors. The emotional or intellectual support of a brother, husband, father, or male family relation made no considerable contribution to her commitment to the study of entomology. Furthermore, her life as an independent spinster offered no positive proof for Francis Power Cobbe's dictum: as she aged, Eleanor Ormerod showed no tendency to become a ‘women's rights woman’. She publicly accepted or internalized the dominant, masculine ideology of science; and by contemporary standards, she achieved success.

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1 Woolf, Virginia, ‘Miss Ormerod’, The Dial (12 1924), 77, 471.

2 ‘A lady entomologist’, Nature (7 07 1904), 70, 219–20. On Somerville and Herschel, see Patterson, Elizabeth C., ‘Mary Somerville’, BJHS (1969), 4, 311–39; and Kidwell, Peggy Aldrich, ‘Women astronomers in Britain, 1780–1930’, Isis (1984), 75, 534–47.

3 See, for instance, Abir-Am, Pnina G. and Outram, Dorinda (eds.), Uneasy Careers and Intimate Lives: Women in Science 1789–1979, London, 1987. Although more in the ‘listing’ tradition, Margaret Alic, Hypatia's Heritage: A History of Women in Science from Antiquity to the late Nineteenth Century, London, 1986, tends to be a retrieval of great women behind, or beside, great men.

4 Kohlstedt, Sally Gregory, ‘Maria Mitchell and the advancement of women in science’, in Abir-Am, and Outram, (eds.), op. cit. (3), 134.

5 In this respect, Ormerod's story falls short of the goals of present-day feminism. A recent trend among overtly feminist historians of science is the search for a ‘female epistemology’. See Tomaselli, Sylvana, ‘Collecting women: the female in scientific biography’, Science as Culture (1988), 4, 95106.Keller, Evelyn Fox, ‘A world of difference’, in her Reflections on Gender and Science, London, 1985, 158–76, posits the career of geneticist Barbara McClintock as a partial example of a female epistemology of science.

6 I do not pretend to be a ‘knight errant’ rescuing Ormerod from the tower of neglect; she managed to achieve a modicum of contemporary fame. See Robert Wallace, ‘Ormerod, Eleanor Anne’, DNB, Oxford, 1912, 53–4; Neave, S. A. and Griffin, F. J., The History of the Entomological Society of London, 1833–1933, London, 1933, 155–6; Ogilvie, Marilyn Bailey, Women in Science, Antiquity through the Nineteenth Century: A Biographical Dictionary with Annotated Bibliography, London, 1986, 142–3; and Alic, , op. cit. (3), 116–17.

7 For good historiographical essays, see Tomaselli, Sylvana, ‘Reflections on the history of the science of women’, History of Science (1991), 29, 185205; Shuttleworth, Sally, ‘Patriarchal science’, Science as Culture (1991), 2, 443–57; and Outram, Dorinda, ‘Fat, gorillas and misogyny: women's history in science’, BJHS (1991), 24, 361–7.

8 Holcombe, Lee, Victorian Ladies at Work, Newton Abbot, Devon, 1973, 1011; Ormerod, Eleanor, Eleanor Ormerod, LL.D. Economic Entomologist. Autobiography and Correspondence (ed. Wallace, Robert), London, 1904, 2.

9 [Martineau, Harriet], ‘Female industry’, The Edinburgh Review (04 1859), 109, 293336, looks at the plight of women forced to earn a living because of the disproportion between the sexes.

10 See: Anderson, Michael, ‘The social position of spinsters in mid-Victorian Britain’, Journal of family History (Winter 1984), 9, 377–93, for a quantitative analysis of the 1851 census statistics as they pertain to single women.

11 As a sample of the vast literature devoted to ‘redundant women’ in Victorian England, see ibid.; Freeman, Ruth and Klaus, Patricia, ‘Blessed or not? The new spinster in England and the United States in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries’, Journal of Family History (Winter 1984), 9, 394414; Lewis, Jane, Women in England 1870–1950, Sussex, 1984, 314; and Vicinus, Martha, Independent Women, London, 1985, 145.

12 Vicinus, , op. cit. (11), 210.Davidoff, Leonore, The Best Circles, London, 1973, demonstrates how Society became a more rigid, formalized institution in response to the flux and uncertainty of the first half of the nineteenth century. Through an insightful analysis of a cluster of dichotomies, Jordanova, L. J., ‘Natural facts: a historical perspective on science and sexuality’, in Nature, Culture and Gender (ed. MacCormack, Carol P. and Strathern, Marilyn), Cambridge, 1980, 4269, looks at the role that science played in propagating an ideology bent on the creation of clear gender demarcations.

13 Ormerod, , op. cit. (8), 53.

14 Anderson, , op. cit. (10), 392.

15 Davidoff, , op cit. (12), 50–2.

16 For information on George Ormerod, see Ormerod, , op. cit. (8), 812. An excellent analysis of the Ormerod home life is given by Eleanor Ormerod's cousin, Diana Latham, in ibid., 14–19.

17 Vicinus, , op. cit. (11), 14.

18 Anderson, , op. cit. (10), 382.

19 Latham, Diana, in Ormerod, , op. cit. (8), 19; Robert Wallace, in ibid., 73.

20 See: Patterson, , op. cit. (2).

21 Ormerod, , op. cit. (8), 54–5.

22 Latham, in ibid., 16.

23 Davidoff, , op. cit. (12), 92–3.

24 Quoted in Reader, W. J., Professional Men, London, 1966, 170.Holcombe, , op. cit. (8), 22–3, discusses the Taunton Commission and women's education.

25 Ormerod, , op. cit. (8), 34.

26 MrsJameson, [Anna], Sisters of Charity and the Communion of Labour. Two Lectures on the Social Employments of Women, London, 1859. For the historical significance of these lectures, see Vicinus, , op. cit. (11), 15; and Holcombe, , op. cit. (8), 9.

27 Ormerod, to DrFletcher, J., 21 11 1892, in Ormerod, , op. cit. (8), 214.

28 Vicinus, , op. cit. (11), 33–4, discusses Florence Nightingale in the context of a ‘heroic’ generation.

29 Shteir, Ann B., ‘Botany in the breakfast room: women and early nineteenth-century British plant study’, in Abir-Am, and Outram, (eds.), op. cit. (3), 36–7, 39.

30 Hooker, Lady, quoted in Ormerod, op. cit. (8), 86.

31 Unless stated otherwise, I use the term ‘public’ to indicate a wide, popular recognition.

32 ‘At first women did not claim arenas already controlled by men…; rather, they captured unclaimed areas and pushed out from there’. Vicinus, , op. cit. (11), 15.

33 See the evidence of Müller, Albert in, Parliamentary Papers [hereafter PP], 1873, 13, Select Committee on Wild Birds Protection, 795–9. Specifically, Q. 3121; and Napier, C. O. Groom, ‘Statement as to the reproductive powers of insects. Appendix No. 3’, in ibid., 825–7.

34 The quotation comes from: ‘Insectology’, The Times, 4 10 1876, 10, col. 6. In addition, see ‘Economic entomology’, The Times, 16 09 1876, 11, col. 2.

35 Murray, Andrew, ‘On extirpation of injurious insects’, Journal of the Society of Arts, (8 06 1877), 25, 734–8. On the Royal Horticultural Society, see Fletcher, Harold R., The Story of the Royal Horticultural Society 1804–1968, London, 1969.

36 Ormerod, , op. cit. (8), 5960; Fream, W., ‘Agricultural entomology’, Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England [Hereafter JRASE], 3rd series (1892), 3, 839–43; and Ormerod, Eleanor, ‘Notes for observers’, [Reprint of ‘Notes for observations of injurious insects’, London, 1877] in her Notes of Observations of Injurious Insects. Report, 1877, London, 1878.

37 On ‘network research’ in natural history, see Allen, David Elliston, The Naturalist in Britain, London, 1976, 67; Secord, James A., ‘Darwin and the breeders: a social history’, in The Darwinian Heritage (ed. Kohn, David), Princeton, 1985, 528–33; and Lennard, Reginald, ‘English agriculture under Charles II: the evidence of the Royal Society's “Enquiries”’, The Economic History Review (1932), 6, 2345.

38 Secord, , op. cit. (37), 519–42; and idem, ‘Nature's fancy: Charles Darwin and the breeding of pigeons’, Isis (1981), 72, 163–86, explore this borderland, and examine how marginalized agriculturists used science for social mobility.

39 ‘Andrew Murray, F.L.S.’, The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine (18771878), 14, 216. For information on the Colorado Beetle Scare of 1877, see Clark, J. F. McDiarmid, ‘Beetle mania: the Colorado Beetle Scare of 1877’, History Today, 12 1992, in press.

40 Neave, and Griffin, , op. cit. (6), 139–40.

41 Ormerod, , op. cit. (8), 244.

42 MissOrmerod, Eleanor A., A Lecture on Injurious Insects Delivered at the Royal Agricultural College, Circencester… on Thursday, October 20th, 1881, Circencester, 1881.

43 Sykes, J. D., ‘Agriculture and science’, in The Victorian Countryside (ed. Mingay, G. E.), 2 vols., London, 1981, i, 260–72.

44 Spring, David, The English Landed Estate in the Nineteenth Century: Its Adminstration, Baltimore, 1963, 4558; idem, ‘Aristocracy, social structure, and religion in the early Victorian period’. Victorian Studies (03 1963), 6, 263–80; and Clark, G. Kitson, The Making of Victorian England, London, 1962, 217–18.

45 On the founding of the RASE, see Clarke, Ernest, ‘The foundation of the Royal Agricultural Society’, JRASE, 3rd series (1890) 1, 119; and Goddard, Nicholas, Harvests of Change: The Royal Agricultural Society of England 1838–1988, London, 1988, 130. On the RASE's contribution to agricultural science, see Sykes, , op. cit. (43), 261; and Goddard, Nicholas, ‘Agricultural societies’, in Mingay, (ed.), op. cit. (43), i, 246–51.

46 Berman, Morris, Social Change and Scientific Organization, London, 1978.

47 Handley, Henry, A Letter to Earl Spencer (President of the Smithfield Club) On the Formation of a National Agricultural Institution, London, 1838, 67.

48 I realize that ‘Baconian’ is a protean term. Yeo, Richard, ‘An idol of the market-place: Baconianism in nineteenth century Britain’, History of Science (1985), 23, 251–98, demonstrates that ‘Baconianism’ referred to an epistemology and methodology of science throughout the nineteenth century. I, therefore, qualify my use of Baconianism with ‘technological’ throughout this paper to distinguish it from nineteenth-century meanings and discussions of the term.

49 ‘Royal Charter, incorporating the English Agricultural Society as the Royal Agricultural Society of England. March 26, 1840’, JRASE, 2nd series (1876), 12, p. xxxvi.

50 Ordish, G., ‘Scientific pest control and the influence of John Curtis’, Journal of the Royal Society of Arts (1968), 116, 298309; idem, John Curtis and the pioneering of pest control, Reading, 1974; idem, The Constant Pest, London, 1976, 146–66; and Westwood, [J.O.], ‘Notice sur John Curtis’, Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (1863), 3, 525–40.Goddard, 's Harvests of Change, op. cit. (45), 94138, helps place Curtis and Ormerod within the RASE's expanding consultancy work.

51 ‘Obituary. James Charles Dale, M.A., F.L.S.’, The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine (1872), 8, 255–6.

52 Curtis, J. to Dale, J. C., Letter 190, 25 08 1840, Dale MSS, Hope Library, University Museum, University of Oxford.

53 For a complete list, see Westwood, , op. cit. (50), 532–4.

54 Curtis, John, ‘Observations on the natural history and economy of the different insects affecting the turnip crop’, JRASE (1841), 2, 193213.

55 Curtis, John, Farm Insects, Glasgow, 1860.

56 Dale MSS, Curtis, to Dale, , Letter 202, 22 12 1841.

57 On the uses of science for social mobility, see Thackray, Arnold, ‘Natural knowledge in cultural context: the Manchester model’, The American Historical Review (1974), 79, 672709; Berman, Morris, ‘“Hegemony” and the amateur tradition in British science’, The Journal of Social History (Winter 1975), 8, 3050; and see Inkster, Ian, ‘Introduction: aspects of the history of science and science culture in Britain, 1780–1850 and beyond’, in Metropolis and Province: Science in British culture 1780–1850 (ed. Inkster, Ian and Morrell, Jack), London, 1983, 1620, 3945.Shortt, S. E. D., ‘Physicians, science, and status: issues in the professionalization of Anglo-American medicine in the nineteenth century’, Medical History (1983), 27, 5168, applies Thackray's model of the marginalized, provincial man to a study of the process of the professionalization of medicine.

58 Heyck, T. W., The Transformation of Intellectual Life in Victorian England, London, 1982, 5659.

59 ‘Report of the Council, May 22nd, 1882’, JRASE, 2nd series (1882), 18, p. xxxii.

60 Rev. Fowler, Canon, ‘The President's Address’, The Transactions of the Entomological Society of London, pt v, 1901, p. xxxiv.

61 When it was proposed that she should receive a government pension, Ormerod proclaimed: ‘assuredly I should feel inexpressibly lowered if I accepted a pension’. See Ormerod, to Wallace, Robert, 1 04 1901, in Ormerod, , op. cit. (8), 322.

62 On veterinary science in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Britain, see Sykes, , op. cit. (43), 265–6; Reader, , op. cit. (24), 155. On the creation of the Board of Agriculture, see Orwin, Christabel and Whetham, Edith, History of British Agriculture 1846–1914, London, 1964, 202; and SirFloud, Francis L. C., The Ministry Agriculture & Fisheries, London, 1927, 120.

63 Whitehead, Charles, Retrospections, Maidstone, n.d. [1908], 75–8. Whitehead started to receive remuneration for his government work in 1888. In addition, see Ordish, , Curtis, op. cit. (50), 104–5; and Burr, Malcolm, The Insect Legion, 2nd edn, London, 1954, 300.

64 Ormerod, to DrFletcher, J., 13 02 1890, in Ormerod, , op. cit. (8), 202. In addition, see Ormerod, to Fletcher, J., 20 01 1890, in ibid., 202.

65 ‘“The diamond-back Moth Caterpillar,” Royal Agricultural Society of England, Proceedings of Council, Wednesday, July 29, 1891’, JRASE, 3rd series (1891), 2, pp. lxxxvlxxxviii.

66 ‘“Seeds and Plant Diseases,” Royal Agricultural Society of England, Proceedings of the Council, Wednesday November 4, 1891’, JRASE, 3rd series (12 1891), 2, p. clxx.

67 Ormerod, Eleanor, ‘The Diamond-Back Moth’, JRASE, 3rd series (1891), 2, 596630.

68 ‘“Seed and Plant Diseases,” Royal Agricultural Society of England, Proceedings of the Council, Wednesday, July 27, 1892’, JRASE, 3rd series (1892), 3, pp. lxxxviilxxxviii.Nature (10 09 1891), 44, 451; and ibid. (1 October 1891), 44, 528, indicated that Ormerod's resignation was not solely due to poor health.

69 Ormerod, to Wallace, Robert, 18 08 1892, in Ormerod, , op. cit. (8), 281.

70 Allen, , op. cit. (37), 111–12.

71 For a sociological analysis of science as a profession, see Ben-David, Joseph, ‘The profession of science its powers’, Minerva (07 1972), 10, 362–83. For an historical treatment of the traditional (i.e. liberal) professions, see Reader, , op. cit. (24). For a cautionary tale on professionalization and the history of science, see Cannon, Susan, Science in Culture: The Early Victorian Period, New York, 1978, 137–65.

72 Porter, Roy, ‘Gentlemen and geology: the emergence of a scientific career, 1660–1920’, The Historical Journal (1978), 21, 809–36.

73 MacLeod, Roy, ‘Introduction’, in Government and Expertise: Specialists, Administrators and Professionals, 1860–1919 (ed. MacLeod, Roy), Cambridge, 1988, 124; and idem, ‘Science and examinations in England’, in Days of Judgement: Science Examinations and the Organization of Knowledge in Late Victorian England (ed. Macleod, Roy), Cheshire, 1982, 124.

74 [Dickens, Charles], ‘Farm and college’, All the Year Round (10 10 1868), 20, 414. In addition, Boutflour, , ‘The Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester’, Agricultural Progress (1938), 15, 17.

75 For an excellent synthesis of the scattered literature, see Richards, Steward Arthur, ‘Agricultural Science in British Higher Education 1790–1914’, Unpublished M.Sc. thesis, History of Science, University of Kent at Canterbury, 1982.

76 The Local Government Act of 1888, the Technical Instruction Act of 1889, the Board of Agriculture Act of 1889, and the Local Taxation (Customs and Excise) Act of 1890. See ibid., pp. 118–19.

77 Moreton, , ‘Preface’, to Fream, W., Elements of Agriculture, London, 1892; Edmunds, Henry, ‘Eighty years of Fream's Elements of Agriculture’, JRASE (1973), 134, 6677.

78 Ormerod, Eleanor A., Report of Observations of Injurious Insects and Common Farm Pests During the Year 1890, With Methods of Prevention and Remedy. Fourteenth Report, London, 1891, p. v.

79 Ormerod, to Wallace, Robert, 19 03 1896, in Ormerod, , op. cit. (8), 282; and Ormerod, to Wallace, , 30 01 1899, in ibid., 285–6.

80 Ormerod, to DrFletcher, J., 15 05 1897, in ibid., 224–5; Watson, J. A. Scott, ‘The University of Oxford’, Agricultural Progress (1937), 14, 95100.

81 Ormerod, to DrFletcher, J., 24 12 1889, in Ormerod, , op. cit. (8), 200–1.

82 Jones, Gwyn E., ‘William Fream: agriculturist and educator’, JRASE (1983), 144, 36–7.

83 ‘“Seeds and Plant Diseases”, Royal Agricultural Society of England, Proceedings of the Council, Wednesday, March 1, 1893’, JRASE, 3rd series (1893), 4, p. xxxviii.

84 Berman, , op. cit. (46), 174, studies Humphry Davy as a ‘technological scientist’.

85 I have borrowed this metaphor from Jordanova, , op. cit. (12), 57–8.

86 Pattison, Iain, The British Veterinary Profession, 1791–1948, London, 1983; Jones, E. L., ‘The changing basis of agricultural prosperity, 1853–73’, Agricultural History Reviewsss (1962), 10, 102–19; Sykes, , op. cit. (43), 265–6; and Reader, , op. cit. (24), 155.

87 Ormerod, Eleanor, ‘Annual Report for 1889 of the Consulting Entomologist’, JRASE, 3rd series (1890), 1, 181–4.

88 Ormerod, to Medd, J. C., 14 07 1900, in Ormerod, , op. cit. (8), 272–3.

89 PP, 1888, 106, First Annual Report of the Agricultural Adviser to the Lords of the Committee of Council for Agriculture. 1887 [c-5275], 360–1.

90 Ormerod, Eleanor A., Report of Observations of Injurious Insects and Common Farm Pests During the Year 1889, With Methods of Prevention and Remedy. Thirteenth Report, London, 1890, 70–1.

91 ‘James Fletcher, LL.D. Memorial Number’, The Ottawa Naturalist (1909), 22, 189211.

92 Ormerod, to DrFletcher, J., 28 12 1889, in Ormerod, , op. cit. (8), 201.

93 Whorton, James, Before Silent Spring, Princeton, 1974, 20. Whorton gives an excellent summary of his book in his ‘Insecticide spray residues and public health: 1865–1938’, Bulletin of the History of Medicine (1971), 45, 219–41.

94 Riley, Charles V., The Colorado Beetle, London, 1877; Whorton, , Before, op. cit. (93), 1726; and Ordish, , Constant Pest, op. cit. (50), 149–56.

95 Whorton, , Before, op. cit. (93), 2469. For information on the use of Paris green in Britain, see ibid., 68–88; Ormerod, , op. cit. (90), 70–5; idem, op. cit. (78), 84–96; and idem, Paris-green (Or Emerald-green): Its Uses and Methods for its Application, as a Means of Destruction of Orchard Moth Caterpillars, London, 1891.

96 Whorton, , Before, op. cit. (93), 39.

97 On this change, and its relationship to the professionalization of American agricultural entomology, see Perkins, John H., Insects, Experts, and the Insecticide Crisis: The Quest for New Pest Management Strategies, London, 1982, 241–64.

98 Coppel, H. C. and Mertins, J. W., Biological Insect Suppression, Advanced Series in Agricultural Sciences (ed. Thomas, G. W. et al. ), Berlin, 1977, 4, 22. For the development of American economic entomology, and the increasing use of insecticides, see Sorensen, Conner, ‘The rise of government sponsored applied entomology, 1840–1870’, Agricultural History (1988), 62, 98115; Dunlap, Thomas R., ‘Farmers, Scientists, and Insects’, Agricultural History (1980), 54, 93107; and idem, ‘The triumph of chemical pesticides in insect control’, Environmental Review (1978), 5, 3847.

99 Bailyn, Bernard et al. , The Great Republic, 3rd edn, Toronto, 1981, 297–8, 577–62.Holderness, B. A., ‘Agriculture and industrialization in the Victorian economy’, in Mingay, (ed.), op. cit. (43), i, 179–99; and idem, ‘The Victorian farmer’, in ibid., 227–43.

100 In a letter to Arthur Young, George Washington noted this difference between the two countries' approaches to agricultural practice. See Kohlmeyer, Fred W. and Herum, Floyd L., ‘Science and engineering in agriculture: a historical perspective’, Technology and Culture (1961), 11, 379, n18.

101 Perry, P. J., British Farming in the Great Depression 1870–1914, Newton Abbot, Devon, 1974, 120–3.

102 Hudson, J. P., ‘Fruit crops: a rather special case’, in Pesticides and Human Welfare (ed. Gunn, D. L. and Stevens, J. G. R.), Oxford, 1976, 8191.

103 ‘The preservation of small birds, etc.’, The Gardeners' Chronicle, 3rd series (29 03 1890), 7, 386–7; ‘Editorial notices’, The Gardeners' Chronicle, 3rd series (10 05 1890), 7, 585; Ormerod, , op. cit. (87), 176–7; Ormerod, , ‘Reports of Consulting Entomologist’, JRASE, 3rd series (1890), 1, 407–12; Ormerod, to Professor Riley, 10 04 1890, in Ormerod, , op. cit. (8), 183.

104 Ormerod, to DrFletcher, J., 6 10 1890, in Ormerod, , op. cit. (8), 204.

105 Ormerod, to DrFletcher, J., 2 02 1891, in ibid., 206–7.

106 SirRussell, E. John, ‘Rothamsted Experimental Station’, Agricultural Progress (1937), 14, 13; and idem, A History of Agricultural Science in Great Britain 1620–1954, London, 1966, 88106, 143–75.

107 For an excellent survey of the different sprayers that were available, see Whitehead, Charles, ‘Methods of preventing and checking the attacks of insects and fungi’, JRASE, 3rd series (1891), 2, 217–56.

108 Ormerod, to DrFletcher, J., 23 03 1891, in Ormerod, , op. cit. (8), 208–9.

109 See: Reader, , op. cit. (24), 123–5.

110 Ormerod, Eleanor and Tegetmeier, W. B., ‘Appendix’, in Tegetmeier, W. B., The House Sparrow (The Avian Rat), London, 1899, 7390.

111 As Secord has shown, Tegetmeier was, like Ormerod, a person who operated on the borderland between natural scientists and agriculturists. Tegetmeier assisted Darwin with his work on artificial selection. See, especially, Secord, ‘Nature's fancy’, op. cit. (38), 174–6. As an eminent pigeon fancier, ornithologist and apiarist, Tegetmeier was well placed to aid Ormerod. On Tegermeier's entomological connections, see Richardson, E. W., A Veteran Naturalist Being the Life and Work of W. B. Tegetmeier, London, 1916, 4250.

112 To put the house sparrow in historical perspective, see Jones, E. L., ‘The bird pests of British agriculture in recent centuries’, Agricultural History Review (1972), 20, 107–25. In particular, see pp. 118–20, 123–4; and Dannenfeldt, Karl H., ‘The control of vertebrate pests in Renaissance agriculture’, Agricultural History (1982), 56, 553–4.

113 Summers-Smith, D., The House Sparrow, London, 1963, 217–19.

114 O'Connor, Raymond J. and Shrubb, Michael, Farming and Birds, Cambridge, 1986, 1011.

115 Ibid., 57–78, 186.

116 Caird, James, High Farming Under Liberal Covenants The Best Substitute for Protection, 3rd edn, London, 1849, is the classic nineteenth-century statement on high farming. Perry, P. J., ‘High farming in Victorian Britain: prospect and retrospect’, Agricultural History (1981), 55, 156–66, provides the best historiographical overview. Thompson, F. M. L., ‘The second agricultural revolution, 1815–80’, Economic History Review, 2nd series (1968), 21, 6277, is another important article. For an excellent recent contribution to the literature, see Holderness, B. A., ‘The origins of high farming’, in Land, Labour and Agriculture, 1700–1920: Essays for Gordon Mingay (ed. Holderness, B. A. and Turner, Michael), London, 1991, 149–64.

117 Coppock, J. T., ‘The changing face of England: 1850-circa 1900’, in A New Historical Geography of England (ed. Darby, H. C.), Cambridge, 1973, 608–14; and Perry, , op. cit. (101).

118 Summers-Smith, , op. cit. (113), 224; and O'Connor, and Shrubb, , op. cit. (114), 72.

119 Tegetmeier, W. B., op. cit. (110), 65.

120 Ibid., 66–8, reprinted the rules of the Club as a model for others to follow. Leaflet no. 84 of the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries, 1908, provided details for organizing a sparrow club. See Jones, E. L., op. cit. (112), 120.

121 Allen, , op. cit. (37), 191–9, 231–3.

122 See, for instance: MissOrmerod, E. A., ‘The house sparrow’, in Ornithology in Relation to Agriculture and Horticulture (ed. Watson, John), London, 1893, 52.

123 Doughty, Robin, The English Sparrow in the American Landscape: A Paradox in Nineteenth Century Wildlife Conservation, Oxford: School of Geography, Univ. of Oxford, Research Paper 19, 1978.

124 Cathcart, Earl, ‘Wild birds in relation to agriculture’, JRASE, 3rd series (1892), 3, 326–9; and Summers-Smith, , op. cit. (113), 175–6, 209, 218–19.

125 Carrington, Edith, ‘Miss Edith Carrington: portrait and autobiography’, The Animals' Friend[hereafter AF] (07 1894), 1, 24.

126 Elston, Mary Ann, ‘Women and anti-vivisection in Victorian England, 1870–1900’, in Vivisection in Historical Perspective (ed. Rupke, Nicolaas A.), London, 1987, 259–94.For information on nineteenth-century bird protectionism, see Phyllis Barclay-Smith, ‘The British contribution to bird protection’, The Ibis (1959), 101, 115–22; and Turner, E. S., All Heaven in a Rage, London, 1964, 172200.

127 Worster, Donald, Nature's Economy: A History of Ecological Ideas, 1977; reprinted London, 1985, 185–6.

128 Rev. Walker, J. E. to Ormerod, E. A., 13 08 1897, in ‘Spare the sparrow’, AF (10 1897), 4, 1617. In addition, see Walker, J. E. to Ormerod, E. A., 10 08 1897, in ‘God save the sparrow’, AF (09 1897), 3, 241.

129 See, for example, Carrington, Edith, The Farmer and the Birds, London, 1898, which was published for the Humanitarian League; and idem, ‘The sparrow-hawk’, AF (10 1897), 4, 46. For a useful historical overview of the philosophical underpinnings of preservationism, see Passmore, John, Man's Responsibility For Nature, London, 1974, 140.

130 Egerton, Frank, ‘Changing concepts of the balance of nature’, The Quarterly Review of Biology (06 1973), 48, 322–50.

131 Passmore, , op. cit. (129), 24.

132 Ormerod, Eleanor A., Report of Observations… During the Year 1883, With Methods of Prevention and Remedy, London, 1884, 42.

133 Ormerod, Eleanor A., Report of Observations… During the Year 1884, With Methods of Prevention and Remedy. Eighth Report, London, 1885, p. vi.

134 Tegetmeier, , op. cir. (110), 46.

135 Ormerod, Eleanor A., op. cit. (67), 627–9.

136 Murdock, G. W., ‘The English sparrow in America’, in Watson, (ed.), op, cit. (122) 186–8.

137 Ormerod, to Tegetmeier, W. B., 14 09 1898, in Ormerod, , op, cit. (8), 167–8.

138 Woolf, Virginia, Three Guineas, London, 1938, 92, quoted in Lewis, , op. cit. (11), 196.

139 Sir Ludovic Grant, quoted in Ormerod, , op. cit. (8), 95–6.

140 Merchant, Carolyn, The Death of Nature: Women, Ecology, and the Scientific Revolution, 1980; reprinted London, 1982; and Keller, Evelyn Fox, ‘Baconian science: the arts of mastery and obedience’, in her Reflections, op. cit. (5), 3342.

141 Woolf, , op. cit. (1), 474.

Editor's note. This essay was a specially commended entry in the Society's Singer Prize Competition.


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