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The Effect of the Roman Occupation on the Environment of Hadrian's Wall: A Pollen Diagram from Fozy Moss, Northumbria.

  • Lisa Dumayne (a1)

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21 K.J. Edwards, ‘Using space in cultural palynology: The value of the off-site pollen record’, in D.R. Harris and K.D. Thomas (eds), Modelling Ecological Change: Perspectives from Neoecology and Archaeology (1991), 61-74.

22 Turner, J., Journ. Arch. Science vi (1979), 285–90; Davies, C. and Turner, J., New Phytologist lxxxii (1979), 783804; K.E. Barber, Peat Stratigraphy and Climatic Change: A Palaeoecological Test of the Theory of Cyclic Peat Bog Regeneration (1981).

23 N. Higham, The Northern Counties to A.D. 1000 (1986); D.J. Breeze and B. Dobson, Hadrian's Wall, (1987); S. Johnson, Hadrian's Wall (1989).

24 Edwards, K.J., Journ. Arch. Science vi (1979), 255–70.

25 Behre, K..E., Pollen et Spores xxiii (1981), 225–45.

26 Stuiver, M. and Reimer, P., Radiocarbon 28b (1986), 10221030.

27 P.A.G. Clack and P.F. Gosling, Archaeology in the North: Report of the Northern Archaeological Survey (1976); C. Burgess, ‘The prehistoric settlement of Northumberland: A speculative survey’, in R. Miket and C. Burgess (eds), Between and Beyond the Walls (1984); Higham op. cit. (note 23).

28 Higham, op. cit. (note 23), 152-8.

29 G.B.D. Jones, ‘The emergence of the Tyne-Solway frontier’, in V.A. Maxfield and M.J. Dobson (eds), Roman Frontier Studies 1989: Proceedings of the 15th International Congress of Roman Frontier Studies (1991), 98-108.

30 S.S. Frere, Britannia: A History of Roman Britain (1987), 110-25.

31 P.S. Austen, ‘How big was the second largest fort on Hadrian's Wall at Bowness-on-Solway’, in Maxfield and Dobson, op. cit. (note 29), 6-9.

32 Mann, J.C., PSAS cxviii (1988), 131–7.

33 Dumayne, L., Late Holocene Palaeoecology and Human Impact on the Environment of Northern Britain, Ph.D. Thesis, Southampton (1992).

34 Ordnance Survey, Historical Map and Guide: Roman Britain (1991).

35 P. Salway, ‘The vici: urbanisation in the north’, in K. Branigan (ed.), Rome and the Brigantes: the Impact of Rome on Northern Britain (1980), 7-8.

36 Higham, op. cit. (note 23), 235-41.

37 Jones, G.B.D., ‘Becoming different without knowing it: the role and development of the vici’, in Blagg, T.F.C. and King, A.C. (eds), Military and Civilian in Roman Britain: Cultural Relationships in a Frontier Province, BAR 136 (1984), 7591; M. Millett, The Romanization of Britain: An Essay in Archaeological Interpretation (1990).

38 Clack, P.A.G., ‘The northern frontier: farmers in the military zone’, in Miles, D. (ed.). The Romano-British Countryside: Studies in Rural Settlement and Economy, BAR 103 (1982), 377403.

39 Millett, op. cit. (note 37).

40 A.L.F. Rivet, Town and Country in Roman Britain, (1964), 99-130.

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42 Tacitus, Agricola 25.1.

43 Johnson, op. cit. (note 23).

44 Woolliscroft, D., Arch. Ael.5 xvii (1989), 519.

45 L. Keppie, Scotland's Roman Remains (1986), 67.

46 Richmond, I.A. and Mclntyre, J., PSAS lxxiii (1939), 110–54.

47 Hanson, W.S., Britannia ix (1975), 293305.

48 Bewley, R.H., Prehistoric and Roman Settlement in the Solway Plain, Cumbria, Ph.D. Thesis, Cambridge (1984).

49 I. Hodder and M. Millett, ‘The human geography of Roman Britain’, in R.A. Dodgson and R.A. Butlin, (eds), An Historical Geography of England and Wales, (1990), 25-41.

50 Clack and Gosling, op. cit. (note 27).

51 K. Greene, The Archaeology of the Roman Economy (1986).

52 Bennett, J., ‘The end of Roman settlement in northern England’, in Snape, J.C. and Mytum, H.C. (eds), Settlement in Northern Britain 1000 B.C. to A.D. 1000, BAR 118 (1983), 205–99.

53 I.A. Morrison, ‘Prehistoric Scotland’, in I. Whyte and G. Whittington (eds), A Historical Geography of Scotland (1983), 1-23.

54 G. Ritchie and A. Ritchie, Scotland: Archaeology and Early History (1981); Jones, op. cit. (note 37).

55 Crow, J.G., Britannia xxii (1991), 5195 but doubt has recently been shed on this.

56 Swan, V.G., The Pottery Kilns of Roman Britain, RCHM Suppl. Series 5 (1884), Fiche 1.243.

57 D.J. Breeze and B. Dobson, Hadrian's Wall (1987).

58 Ordnance Survey, Agricultural Land Classification for England and Wales (1965).

59 This work was undertaken as part of a SERC (SBAC) funded Ph.D. studentship at the Department of Geography, University of Southampton. Dr Keith Barber supervised the work and I would like to thank him for his advice and encouragement. Thanks are also due to the landowners for allowing access to the site; to Rob Stoneman for assistance with fieldwork and Dr D. Harkness at the NERC Radiocarbon laboratory in East Kilbride for analysis of material submitted for radiocarbon dating.

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The Effect of the Roman Occupation on the Environment of Hadrian's Wall: A Pollen Diagram from Fozy Moss, Northumbria.

  • Lisa Dumayne (a1)

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