1Bauer, A, Parsonage, M, Knapp, M, Iemmi, V, Adelaja, B. Costs of Perinatal Mental Health Problems. London School of Economics and Political Science, 2014.
2Biaggi, A, Conroy, S, Pawlby, S, Pariante, CM. Identifying the women at risk of antenatal anxiety and depression: a systematic review. J Affect Disord 2016; 191: 62–77.
3Howard, L, Ryan, E, Trevillion, K, Anderson, F, Bick, D, Bye, A, et al. Accuracy of the Whooley questions and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in identifying depression and other mental disorders in early pregnancy. Br J Psychiatry 2018; 212: 50–6.
4Sartorius, N, Ustun, TB, Lecrubier, Y, Wittchen, HU. Depression comorbid with anxiety: results from the WHO study on psychological disorders in primary health care. Br J Psychiatry 1996; 168 (suppl 30): 38–43.
5Heron, J, O'Connor, TG, Evans, J, Golding, J, Glover, V, Team, AS. The course of anxiety and depression through pregnancy and the postpartum in a community sample. J Affect Disord 2004; 80: 65–73.
6Pearson, RM, Melotti, R, Heron, J, Joinson, C, Stein, A, Ramchandani, PG, et al. Disruption to the development of maternal responsiveness? The impact of prenatal depression on mother-infant interactions. Infant Behav Dev 2012; 35: 613–26.
7Berkowitz, GS, Wolff, MS, Janevic, TM, Holzman, IR, Yehuda, R, Landrigan, PJ. The World Trade Center disaster and intrauterine growth restriction. JAMA 2003; 290: 595–6.
8Henrichs, J, Schenk, JJ, Roza, SJ, van den Berg, MP, Schmidt, HG, Steegers, EA, et al. Maternal psychological distress and fetal growth trajectories: the Generation R Study. Psychol Med 2010; 40: 633–43.
9Khashan, AS, McNamee, R, Abel, KM, Pedersen, MG, Webb, RT, Kenny, LC, et al. Reduced infant birthweight consequent upon maternal exposure to severe life events. Psychosom Med 2008; 70: 688–94.
10Paarlberg, KM, Vingerhoets, AJ, Passchier, J, Dekker, GA, Heinen, AG, van Geijn, HP. Psychosocial predictors of low birthweight: a prospective study. Br J Obs Gynaecol 1999; 106: 834–41.
11Pritchard, CW, Teo, PY. Preterm birth, low birthweight and the stressfulness of the household role for pregnant women. Soc Sc Med 1994; 38: 89–96.
12Steer, RA, Scholl, TO, Hediger, ML, Fischer, RL. Self-reported depression and negative pregnancy outcomes. J Clin Epidemiol 1992; 45: 1093–9.
13Uguz, F, Sahingoz, M, Sonmez, EO, Karsidag, C, Yuksel, G, Annagur, BB, et al. The effects of maternal major depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and panic disorder on birth weight and gestational age: a comparative study. J Psychosom Res 2013; 75: 87–9.
14Liu, Y, Murphy, SK, Murtha, AP, Fuemmeler, BF, Schildkraut, J, Huang, Z, et al. Depression in pregnancy, infant birth weight and DNA methylation of imprint regulatory elements. Epigenetics 2012; 7: 735–46.
15Dunkel Schetter, C, Tanner, L. Anxiety, depression and stress in pregnancy: implications for mothers, children, research, and practice. Curr Opin Psychiatry 2012; 25: 141–8.
16Raikkonen, K, Pesonen, AK, O'Reilly, JR, Tuovinen, S, Lahti, M, Kajantie, E, et al. Maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy, placental expression of genes regulating glucocorticoid and serotonin function and infant regulatory behaviors. Psychol Med 2015; 45: 3217–26.
17Lahti, M, Savolainen, K, Tuovinen, S, Pesonen, AK, Lahti, J, Heinonen, K, et al. Maternal depressive symptoms during and after pregnancy and psychiatric problems in children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017; 56: 30–9e7.
18Van den Bergh, BR, Mulder, EJ, Mennes, M, Glover, V. Antenatal maternal anxiety and stress and the neurobehavioural development of the fetus and child: links and possible mechanisms. A review. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2005; 29: 237–58.
19Talge, NM, Neal, C, Glover, V, Early Stress TR, Prevention Science Network F, Neonatal Experience on C, et al. Antenatal maternal stress and long-term effects on child neurodevelopment: how and why? J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2007; 48: 245–61.
20O'Donnell, KJ, Glover, V, Barker, ED, O'Connor, TG. The persisting effect of maternal mood in pregnancy on childhood psychopathology. Dev Psychopathol 2014; 26: 393–403.
21Cohen, L, Maroun, M, Wagner, S. Behavior: oxytocin promotes fearless motherhood. Curr Biol 2018; 28: R359–61.
22Lancaster, CA, Gold, KJ, Flynn, HA, Yoo, H, Marcus, SM, Davis, MM. Risk factors for depressive symptoms during pregnancy: a systematic review. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2010; 202: 5–14.
23Buist, AE, Austin, MP, Hayes, BA, Speelman, C, Bilszta, JL, Gemmill, AW, et al. Postnatal mental health of women giving birth in Australia 2002–2004: findings from the beyondblue National Postnatal Depression Program. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2008; 42: 66–73.
24Ban, L, Tata, LJ, West, J, Fiaschi, L, Gibson, JE. Live and non-live pregnancy outcomes among women with depression and anxiety: a population-based study. PLoS One 2012; 7: e43462.
25Raisanen, S, Lehto, SM, Nielsen, HS, Gissler, M, Kramer, MR, Heinonen, S. Risk factors for and perinatal outcomes of major depression during pregnancy: a population-based analysis during 2002–2010 in Finland. BMJ Open 2014; 4: e004883.
26Skapinakis, P, Lewis, G, Araya, R, Jones, K, Williams, G. Mental health inequalities in Wales, UK: multi-level investigation of the effect of area deprivation. Br J Psychiatry 2005; 186: 417–22.
27Field, T. Prenatal depression risk factors, developmental effects and interventions: a review. J Pregnancy Child Health 2017; Feb 27 (Epub ahead of print).
28de Tychey, C, Briancon, S, Lighezzolo, J, Spitz, E, Kabuth, B, de Luigi, V, et al. Quality of life, postnatal depression and baby gender. J Clin Nurs 2008; 17: 312–22.
29Lagerberg, D, Magnusson, M. Infant gender and postpartum sadness in the light of region of birth and some other factors: a contribution to the knowledge of postpartum depression. Arch Women's Ment Health 2012; 15: 121–30.
30Cox, JL, Chapman, G, Murray, D, Jones, P. Validation of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in non-postnatal women. J Affect Disord 1996; 39: 185–9.
31Grant, KA, McMahon, C, Austin, MP. Maternal anxiety during the transition to parenthood: a prospective study. J Affect Disord 2008; 108: 101–11.
32Meades, R, Ayers, S. Anxiety measures validated in perinatal populations: a systematic review. J Affect Disord 2011; 133: 1–15.
33Bornstein, MH, Jager, J, Putnick, DL. Sampling in developmental science: situations, shortcomings, solutions, and standards. Dev Rev 2013; 33: 357–70.
34Capron, LE, Ramchandani, PG, Glover, V. Maternal prenatal stress and placental gene expression of NR3C1 and HSD11B2: The effects of maternal ethnicity. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2018; 87: 166–72.
35Charlton, RA, Jordan, S, Pierini, A, Garne, E, Neville, AJ, Hansen, AV, et al. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor prescribing before, during and after pregnancy: a population-based study in six European regions. BJOG 2015; 122: 1010–20.
36Cox, JL, Holden, JM, Sagovsky, R. Detection of postnatal depression. Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Br J Psychiatry 1987; 150: 782–6.
37Matthey, S, Henshaw, C, Elliott, S, Barnett, B. Variability in use of cut-off scores and formats on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale: implications for clinical and research practice. Arch Women's Ment Health 2006; 9: 309–15.
38Murray, L, Carothers, AD. The validation of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale on a community sample. Br J Psychiatry 1990; 157: 288–90.
39McCabe-Beane, JE, Stasik-O'Brien, SM, Segre, LS. Anxiety screening during assessment of emotional distress in mothers of hospitalized newborns. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 2018; 47: 105–13.
40Seth, S, Lewis, AJ, Galbally, M. Perinatal maternal depression and cortisol function in pregnancy and the postpartum period: a systematic literature review. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2016; 16: 124.
41Knight, RG, Waal-Manning, HJ, Spears, GF. Some norms and reliability data for the State--Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Zung Self-Rating Depression scale. Br J Clin Psychol 1983; 22: 245–9.
42Dennis, CL, Coghlan, M, Vigod, S. Can we identify mothers at-risk for postpartum anxiety in the immediate postpartum period using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory? J Affect Disord 2013; 150: 1217–20.
43van den Heuvel, MI, van Assen, M, Glover, V, Claes, S, Van den Bergh, BRH. Associations between maternal psychological distress and salivary cortisol during pregnancy: a mixed-models approach. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2018; 96: 52–60.
44Adams, SS, Eberhard-Gran, M, Sandvik, AR, Eskild, A. Mode of delivery and postpartum emotional distress: a cohort study of 55,814 women. BJOG 2012; 119: 298–305.
45Rowlands, IJ, Redshaw, M. Mode of birth and women's psychological and physical wellbeing in the postnatal period. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2012; 12: 138.
46Muraca, GM, Joseph, KS. The association between maternal age and depression. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2014; 36: 803–10.
47Garcia-Blanco, A, Monferrer, A, Grimaldos, J, Hervas, D, Balanza-Martinez, V, Diago, V, et al. A preliminary study to assess the impact of maternal age on stress-related variables in healthy nulliparous women. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2017; 78: 97–104.
48Dennis, CL, Falah-Hassani, K, Shiri, R. Prevalence of antenatal and postnatal anxiety: systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry 2017; 210: 315–23.